This vegetable, which until recently was a real exotic for us, is advised to be consumed by many nutritionists. And for good reason. Broccoli is just a storehouse of vitamins, sugars, micro and macro elements. Its active substances help with kidney diseases and atherosclerosis, remove toxins and heavy metals, and also strengthen the body's ability to resist the development of malignant neoplasms.
Is it possible not to be interested in this culture? Let's take a closer look at agricultural techniques and the most important rules for growing this cabbage.
In appearance, broccoli resembles cauliflower, only of a grayish-green hue. Also, like a relative, a dense head is eaten, which consists of unopened flower buds.
It is interesting to know that broccoli as an agricultural crop is grown in two types:
As a rule, broccoli is grown by seedlings, however, its sowing time is quite possible not to suffer with boxes at home, and in the last days of April or the first of May to sow seeds for seedlings in a greenhouse. When the young plants release the fifth and sixth true leaves, the broccoli can be transferred to open soil.
To harvest cabbage later than usual, some of the seeds are laid directly in the ground in the first days of May.
Broccoli loves loose, rich soils where the pH is slightly alkaline or neutral. Try not to plant the vegetable where cruciferous crops were grown last summer: radishes, turnips, cabbage. It is best to plant our beauty after potatoes, legumes or carrots.
Some of the summer residents prepare the soil for broccoli in advance in the fall: they bring in potassium and phosphorus - with the help of superphosphate, manure, potassium nitrate, do liming (it is good to use powdered egg shells).
Those who do not carry out the autumn preparation can make up for the lack of nutrition with the help of dressings.
When the time comes to designate broccoli permanently, do so in the afternoon or cloudy weather. Planting scheme: the distance between the holes is 40 cm, the row spacing is 50-60 cm.
You need to dig deep holes. If the soil has not been fertilized in advance, a composition of compost, dolomite flour and ash is placed in the holes. Each seedling is sprinkled with soil a little (2-3 centimeters above the root collar), trying to keep the main part of the stem in the hole. As the seedlings grow, soil should be poured into the grooves before they are compared with the general level of the garden.
To protect newly planted young stock from cruciferous flea beetles, it is advised to cover the seedlings with a light non-woven cloth. When folk methods cannot calm the unbelted pest, the plants can be sprayed with Iskra. However, the procedure must be carried out no later than three weeks before the appearance of the inflorescences. Further, flea beetles are fought by dusting with a mixture of crushed tobacco and ash, or spraying with ash infusion.
After young broccoli plants take root in a new place, caring for them is expressed in systematic weeding, timely feeding and watering, as well as in fluffing the soil after these procedures.
You need to water the cabbage every other day (in the heat - up to 2 times a day) in the evening. For broccoli to grow and develop well, the soil must be 12-15 cm moist.
The vegetable loves additional nutrition, therefore, even if you have added enough manure or other fertilizers to the soil, broccoli is still pampered with top dressing.
After rooting in a new place and the beginning of active growth, the plants are fed with an infusion of chicken droppings (one in twenty) or an infusion of mullein (one in ten). After 2 weeks, the procedure is repeated.
The third feeding is carried out during the formation of the first inflorescences. Here you can use organic matter with potassium humate or mineral fertilizers in solution: superphosphate is taken for 10 liters of water - 40 g, ammonium nitrate - 20 g, potassium sulfate - 10 g.
Subsequent feeding is done after cutting the central head of cabbage in order to stimulate the growth of lateral stems. For the same amount of water, 30 grams of potassium sulfate, 20 superphosphate, 10 grams of nitrate are used.
In addition, broccoli has a positive attitude towards watering with nettle or comfrey infusion and the introduction of ash into the soil (one glass per one square meter).
The heads of this cabbage do not need to be re-grown - they are harvested green, before the buds open and bloom with small yellow flowers. An overripe vegetable in dishes is not tasty at all.
The central shoot is cut first (after it reaches ten centimeters in length), then they wait for the harvest from the side stems. They use not only inflorescences, but also the shoot itself, since its top is as juicy and tasty as the buds.
It is better to harvest early in the morning so that the broccoli heads do not have time to plant under the hot rays. Cabbage harvested in early summer does not lie for a long time - it can be stored in a cool place for about a week or two. It is better to cook the vegetable right away or freeze it. But late broccoli, ripe in October, is perfectly stored in the refrigerator or basement at a temperature of 0 ° C.
There is another interesting feature to keep in mind when removing broccoli. After pulling the plants out of the ground, do not immediately transfer them to the compost pit - let them just lie in the open ground for a month. Broccoli tolerates light frosts well, so even plants dug from the soil will try not to miss the scanty chances to tie small inflorescences. And you will harvest another late, almost winter, harvest!
Broccoli is a subspecies of cauliflower from the cabbage family and is one of the oldest vegetable crops. Even ancient Rome, about two thousand years ago, knew how to properly grow broccoli. From this state, it was brought to Byzantium, after which it ended up in other countries. It is now a widespread vegetable all over the world. Many gardeners would like to get an answer to the question of how to grow broccoli in the garden.
The sowing date of broccoli directly depends on the chosen growing method. Sowing for seedlings is started in late March - early April, and in early May, mature seedlings are transferred to a prepared bed. In addition, it is possible to sow seeds directly into the ground, in this case, work is carried out from mid-May to early June. For true lovers of the "cabbage queen", in order to obtain an uninterrupted harvest, conveyor sowing can be carried out - in several approaches until mid-June with an interval of 12-15 days.
Broccoli can be grown in central Russia. The culture well tolerates low temperatures down to -5 0 С, as well as high temperatures up to 24 0 С. However, the optimal temperature for plant growth is + 15-17 0 С.
The plant has no special requirements for the soil. The culture grows well not even on fertile soils. However, to obtain a rich harvest, it is recommended to plant broccoli in soil enriched with humus and calcium. To do this, you need to timely fertilize the soil before planting the plant.
To get a good harvest, you need to plant broccoli after the following types of crops:
It is not recommended to shrink the plant after such crops:
Before planting broccoli cabbage in open ground, you need to decide on the type of vegetable. This plant can be varietal (suitable for removing seeds, tastier, ripening longer) or hybrid (seeds need to be purchased, is highly resistant to diseases and pests, early maturing, long-lasting).
When choosing a variety of asparagus, you should pay attention to the following criteria:
In addition, the types of broccoli differ from each other in the harvest season, cultivation technologies, and resistance to various climatic conditions.
It is impossible to choose the best variety of asparagus because different criteria are important for different gardeners. However, before choosing a variety for planting in open ground, you should pay attention to the most popular ones.
Among early maturing species, the following crops are in greatest demand:
You should pay attention to the following types of plants with an average ripening period:
Good late-ripening varieties include:
The climate near Moscow is so well suited for growing broccoli that almost any variety can be planted here, both early ripening and with longer growing seasons. However, the possibility of May and even June cold snaps somewhat narrows the choice of the variety.
Broccoli of the Tonus variety is disease resistant
Head weight of broccoli variety Curly head reaches 600 g
Cabbage variety Vitamin - early ripening, no more than 2.5 months pass from emergence to ripening
Broccoli variety Monterey F1 produces very large fruits weighing up to 2 kg
Medium-sized Gnome broccoli head - up to 400 g
Cabbage stalks can be eaten
You can determine a ripe head of cabbage by its size. The diameter of the ripe head varies from 10 to 20 cm. The collection of the central heads begins before the flower buds open. If even a few buds bloom and you do not have time to harvest, the stumps will be tough and tasteless. In addition, the side shoots simply stop growing. The harvesting period is not long, since the ripe heads of cabbage begin to quickly decay and crumble.
Harvesting is recommended during the cool part of the day. The heads are cut off along with the stems up to fifteen centimeters long. The stems are also edible.
The heads are cut at the summer cottage before the onset of the first frosts; in greenhouse conditions, ripening lasts longer, and harvesting lasts until the end of November.
The shelf life of the harvested crop is short. At room temperature, heads of cabbage remain juicy and fresh for no more than two days, after which they turn yellow and become lethargic. Cabbage is stored in the refrigerator for about seven days. The best way to preserve broccoli is to freeze it.
Broccoli has long been a favorite of many gardeners. Not demanding in care and maintenance, resistant to disease and cold, the crop has good yield and repair ability.
Consider the most popular varieties of different ripening periods.
The ripening period of stalks in these varieties varies from seventy 2.5 to 3 months. Ripe heads of cabbage are used for cooking both fresh and processed.
Other types of early ripening have also proven themselves well: Vyarus, Corvette, Fiesta, Tribute, Comanche, Laser.