Darlingtonia


Darlingtonia (Darlingtonia) is a carnivorous insectivorous plant from the Sarracenia family. The homeland of this perennial is the border zone of the US states of California and Oregon. It is found in mountain forests and meadows, but certainly near cold running water: a river or stream. A rare species is under state protection.

Californian Darlingtonia (Darlingtonia californica) is the only and unique representative of its kind. This carnivorous flower is also often called "cobra": its long leaves have an unusual shape, reminiscent of a snake's hood. The similarity is complemented by the leafy appendages of a reddish or yellow color that are visible from them, similar to a forked tongue. But this unusual snake is not at all miniature. In nature, darlingtonia leaves can be up to 1 meter in height.

The so-called flower hood is intended for catching insects. In its structure, it resembles a jug with slippery walls. If a fly gets inside it, then it cannot find a way out back - the surface of the sheet is filled with spots with transparent blende windows. Insects are attracted by the aromatic nectar secreted by the glands on the leaf plate. But such prey is not the only way to feed Darlingtonia. She still receives most of the substances necessary for growth from the soil.

In spring or early summer, noticeable yellowish-purple flowers up to 6 cm in diameter appear on Darlingtonia. They are located on single high stems. Who pollinates the peduncles of the green predator remains a mystery to botanists to this day.

Darlingtonia care at home

Lovers of unusual plants will not be intimidated by their exotic appearance and diet. But it is rather difficult to recreate the natural environment of this flower at home or garden. The most important requirement for caring for darlingtonia is to keep the roots of the plant in cold and damp soil at all times. In a suitable home, the size of the flower can be up to 45 cm.

Location and lighting

Darlingtonia can be grown both in a pot and outdoors. In the garden, she will most of all like the area located near the reservoir. Optimal lighting: diffused light or partial shade. In this case, the sun's rays can affect the intensity of the color of the leaves. Red and green-red varieties of the plant acquire this color only in sufficient light. There are also types of pure green color.

At home, when looking for a place for darlingtonia, you should focus on the humidity of the air. If it is low, partial shade should be preferred. A warm and humid area allows for a moderately sunny area.

Suitable temperature

Unlike many predatory plants, Darlingtonia does not need tropical heat. In summer, she will be comfortable at 18-20 degrees. In winter, the flower goes into a state of dormancy and requires lower temperatures - from 10 to 18. A similar regime should be observed when changing day and night. During the day, the plant prefers warmth, and starting in the evening - coolness. It is convenient to use a greenhouse box for its content.

Watering rules

For watering darlingtonia, cold, but always soft, settled water is suitable. In a hot period, you should not save on it. To avoid overheating the roots, which should always be kept cold, the pot can be placed in a container with moist peat. Otherwise, the flower may die. During periods of extreme heat, you can put a few ice cubes on the ground in a pot. Some growers allow spraying the plant, but this is not necessary. With the onset of cold weather, when the flower goes to rest, spraying is completely stopped, and the watering rate is reduced.

The soil

When creating an earthy mixture for growing Darlingtonia, you should focus on its natural habitats. It is best to choose a wide pot for a flower. Its bottom is 3-5 cm filled with drainage: perlite or expanded clay. This layer is covered with a centimeter pillow of sphagnum moss, and only then the soil is poured. Its composition in equal proportions should include sand without lime impurities, perlite and peat. You can do without perlite by taking only white sand and peat.

From above, the finished soil is covered with another layer of moss. This will help keep the soil moist and cool. Darlingtonia will not need feeding or pruning, but it should be transplanted every few years.

Dormant period

Darlingtonia's rest period can last up to 5 months. At this time, the container with the plant is taken to a dark cool corner and no manipulations are carried out with it. Moving the pot from place to place is also not worth it. Closer to spring "cobra" throws out stems with peduncles. A few weeks after flowering, it grows new jug leaves.

Darlingtonia breeding methods

An unusual flower can be grown from seeds that form after flowering. The main difficulty is caring for small sprouts. They will need bright light, temperatures up to 29 degrees and high humidity. After the formation of the first true leaves, the temperature of the content is recommended to be reduced.

In order not to waste time on germination, the plant is most often propagated by dividing the bush. Due to the large width of the pot, Darlingtonia produces many underground shoots. Carefully separating part of them and transplanting into a new container, you can get another copy of the flower. But this should be done only after the shoots have their roots. The best time to divide is spring.

Diseases and pests

Even a predatory flower is not always able to resist insect pests. But it is better to replace chemical means to combat them with organic broths. In case of emergency, you can try an ordinary insecticide, but significantly reduce its dose.

Darlingtonia california - carnivorous plant predator


The most dangerous killer plants

Carnivorous plants have long been considered a miracle created by nature. These living organisms catch insects, arthropods. How do they eat them? Due to the release of digestive juice, the victim dissolves, and the plant receives a large amount of nutrients necessary for life.

About 600 species of carnivorous representatives of the flora are now known. These killer plants have special adaptations that make it easier for them to find their prey. They help them attract and retain insects. What unites them with each other? The first common feature is the poverty of the soil on which they grow. The second is the brightness of the color. It attracts insects. The latter, due to the different shades, have an association with the presence of nectar.

The article presents 10 of the most dangerous killer plants that live with us on the same planet.


Darlingtonia

Darlingtonia. Rare plants. Predators.

Sarracinia family - Sarraceniaceae.
A very rare houseplant. Requires a lot of experience and care from the grower. This is the only species in the genus, called the Californian Darlingtonia - Darlingtonia californica, grows in the swamps of North America from California to Oregon.

Darlingtonia leaves transformed into traps resemble a cobra with a swollen neck preparing to attack. It catches its victims, attracting them with its emitted smell. On the inner surface of the leaf there are glands that secrete nectar that attracts insects.

The walls of the trap leaves are covered with hairs that allow the movement of insects only inward. Insects fall into storage traps, from which they can no longer get out. They dissolve in the digestive juices, and the plant receives the necessary nutrients.

But this is like an additional dish, the main nutrients come through the root system.

Very beautiful yellowish-orange or red-brown flowers on long stems appear in mid-June, like water lilies with bowed heads. It is very difficult to adapt Darlingtonia to indoor conditions. Best of all, it takes root in special greenhouse boxes, protected from low temperatures by moss or leaves. Staying in the dark during the dormant period does not harm them. Because the plant is a marsh, the best substrate for them will be ordinary peat, which can be mixed with sand and coniferous soil.

The location in the room is from bright to sunny. in summer it must be protected from direct sunlight. In winter, they are kept at low temperatures no higher than + 10 ° C, but not in frost, although it can withstand short-term frosts down to -4 ° C (under a layer of snow).

Lighting - prefers bright light, dimming is needed during the rest period.

The air humidity is moderate; it is advisable to ventilate the plant often.

Watering is special: since this plant is a marsh plant, it must be watered very abundantly, and it is best to dig the pot into wet peat, hydrogel, or put it on a stand in a bowl of water and water it often. use only settled, soft water. During the dormant period, almost no watering.

Propagated by seeds (which is very difficult at home) or by division. It is better to divide the plant in the spring, before the start of growth:
1. Remove the plant from the pot and divide carefully.
2. Plant each piece in a separate pot filled with damp earth.
3. Cover each planted plant with a transparent bag and place in a bright, warm place.


Family Sarraceniaceae

Undoubtedly, the most interesting thing is to observe how these predatory plants catch various insects: sarracenia seize cockroaches and flies, venus flycatchers prefer flies and mosquitoes, and small midges and ants adhere to the sticky leaves of fatworms and sundews.

The Sarracenia family includes three genera: Sarracenia - 10 species, Darlingtonia - 1 species and Heliamphora - 6 species, common in southern North America and northeastern South America in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. All members of the family are marsh plants, and to a large extent their "carnivorousness" is due to a lack of nutrients in the soil.

Sarracenia have been introduced into the culture for a long time. In Western Europe, they are grown outdoors, and sarracenia purpurea has even naturalized in the swamps of Ireland and southern England. There are garden forms, hybrids and varieties of sarracenia, differing in leaf shape, color and size of flowers.

Sarracenia culture is specific, but simple. They grow beautifully in a room without much maintenance. For planting, it is better to take a pot with a planter or insert one pot into another with a sphagnum lining, which will allow it to retain moisture in the soil mixture for longer, although sarracenia often suffer from waterlogging, especially with poor drainage. For the drainage device, you can use shards of pots or pieces of foam. The soil mixture should be loose and non-nutritious: washed quartz sand, chopped sphagnum and high moor peat (1: 2: 3) with the addition of pieces of charcoal.

It should be watered with distilled or pure snow (rain) water. The best place for them in the apartment is a window sill, best of all under a window that is constantly ajar; in winter, the temperature can drop to 10-15C.

For sarracenia, it is useful to build a cold winter greenhouse, fencing off the window sill from the side of the room with glass. For the summer, plant pots can be taken out onto the balcony. First, they need to be shaded from direct sunlight, but then shading is not needed. All year round, sarracenia should not be kept in a damp, backlit greenhouse. In this case, the plants seem to lose their rhythm, and although at first they develop well, then they quickly grow old and eventually die.

In Russia, sarracenia have been known for a long time. E. Regel in his book about houseplants mentions 5 species of these amazing "green predators". After the revolution, large private collections perished and members of the genus survived only in the botanical gardens. In Moscow, the famous florist Nikolai Evgenievich Metlov devoted a lot of time and effort to insectivorous plants, including sarraceae. Nowadays, the opportunity has again appeared to acquire insectivorous plants, to work with them, selecting new forms, and to introduce these exquisite rarities into culture.

Location: sunlit or ventilated. A plant overwintering at a temperature of about 0 degrees can stand in a dark place, for example, in a greenhouse protected from frost, covered with leaves.

Watering: always plentiful, only with soft water. It is good to immerse the pot in wet peat or take it out for the summer to the garden, to the shore of the reservoir and dig it into the ground to the upper edge.

Reproduction: Sarracenia propagate by seeds, which are conveniently sown in Petri dishes on peat, followed by picking into pots. Sarracenia yellow is perfectly propagated by segments of rhizomes, which, in principle, explains its simplicity in culture.


Family Sarraceniaceae

The only species in the genus, called the Californian Darlingtonia - D. californica, grows in the Californian swamps.

Darlingtonia (Darlingtonia californica), a perennial herbaceous insectivorous plant of the Sarracene family with a rhizome and a rosette of trap leaves. Flowers are single, 5-membered, yellowish petals with reddish veins, with 15 stamens and 5-celled ovary. The fruit is a capsule. The leaves are jugular, up to 1 m long, on the edge of the leaf there is a dark red bifurcated leaf-like appendage. On the inner surface of the leaf there are glands that secrete nectar that attracts insects. The walls of the trap leaves are covered with hairs that allow the movement of insects only inward: insects die in the liquid secreted by the leaf and decompose under the action of bacteria. Darlingtonia is common in the swamps of North America from northern California to southern Oregon in marshy soils.

Darlingtonia leaves transformed into traps resemble a cobra preparing to attack with a swollen neck. It catches its victims, attracting them with its emitted smell. On the inner surface of the leaf there are glands that secrete nectar that attracts insects. The walls of the trap leaves are covered with hairs that allow the movement of insects only inward. The attracted insects fall into storage traps, from which they can no longer get out. They dissolve in the digestive juices, and the plant receives the necessary nutrients. But this is like an additional dish, the main ones come through the root system.

Very beautiful yellowish or reddish-brown flowers on long stems appear in June.

A very rare houseplant. Requires a lot of experience and care from the grower.

It is very difficult to adapt darlingtonia to indoor conditions. Best of all, it takes root in special greenhouse boxes, protected from low temperatures by moss or leaves. Staying in the dark during the dormant period does not harm them. The best substrate for them turned out to be ordinary peat, which can be mixed with sand and coniferous soil.

Location: Light to sunny. in summer it must be protected from direct sunlight. In winter, they are kept at low temperatures no higher than + 10 ° C, but not in the cold.

Watering: Since this plant is a marsh plant, it must be watered very abundantly, and it is best to dig the pot into damp peat or place it on a stand in a bowl of water and water it frequently. use only settled, soft water. During the dormant period, almost no watering. Lighting - prefers bright light, dimming is needed during the rest period. Air humidity is moderate, it is advisable to ventilate the plant often.

Reproduction: Stimulate with seeds, which is very difficult at home. Better in spring by dividing.It is best to divide the plant in the spring, before starting to grow: 1. Remove the plant from the pot and divide it carefully. 2. Plant each piece in a separate pot filled with damp earth. 3. Cover each planted plant with a transparent bag and place in a bright, warm place.


Darlingtonia - gardening

A garden is a planned area, usually outdoors, organized to display, cultivate and enjoy plants and other natural forms. The garden can include both natural and artificial materials. The most common form is known as a residential garden. Western gardens are almost always plant-based. Zoos that display wildlife in simulated natural habitats were formerly called zoological gardens. Some traditional types of oriental gardens, such as Zen gardens, rarely use or do without plants. Fruit-producing orchards differ from plantations in their smaller scale, more labor-intensive methods and purpose (pleasure and hobby, not production for sale). Gardening articles discuss the differences and similarities between gardens and plantations in detail.

Gardening is the activity of growing and maintaining a garden. This work is done by amateur or professional gardeners. The gardener can also work on organizing and maintaining non-garden areas, such as a park, a roadside embankment, or other public space. Landscaping is a related professional activity of landscape architects who tend to specialize in projects for public and corporate clients.

The term "garden" in British English refers to an additional area of ​​land usually adjacent to a building. It is called "yard" in American English.

Garden planning and design

Garden planning and design can be done by a professional. A landscape designer is a professional who can plan and design outdoor spaces. Garden designers are usually trained to plan and implement residential gardens.

The planner must consider many factors:

• Purpose
• Existing conditions
• Financial constraints
• Operating values

Garden elements are composed of natural resources and materials, as well as artificial elements:

Natural remedies and materials:

• The soil
• Stones
• Lighting conditions
• Wind
• Precipitation
• Air quality
• Pollution
• Closeness to the ocean (salinity)
• Plant materials

• Terrace, patio, deck
• Tracks
• Lighting
• Hammocks
• Outdoor art / sculpture, such as a belvedere
• Swimming pool, water garden or other water features

Use of the garden space

A garden can serve many purposes - aesthetic, functional and recreational. Use of the garden space:

• Cooperation with nature
• Cultivation of plants
• Contemplation of nature
• Bird and insect watching
• Reflection of changing seasons
• Relaxation
• Family dinners on the terrace
• Children playing in the yard
• Reading and relaxing in a hammock
• Maintenance of flower beds
• Leisure activities under a canopy
• Walking in warm light
• Ability to avoid sunlight and high temperatures

Useful cultivation produces:

• Flowers that can be cut and brought into the home for inner beauty
• Fresh herbs and vegetables for cooking


Classification

Evolution of classification systems

Haeckel (1894)
Three kingdoms
Whittaker (1969)
Five kingdoms
Woese (1977)
Six kingdoms
Woese (1990)
Three domains
Cavalier-Smith (1998)
Two domains and seven kingdoms
Animals Animals Animals Eukaryotes Eukaryotes Animals
Plants Mushrooms Mushrooms Mushrooms
Plants Plants Plants
The simplest The simplest Chromists
Protista Protista
Monera Archaea Archaea Prokaryotes Archaea
Eubacteria Eubacteria Eubacteria

Watch the video: Darlingtonia umtopfen und vermehren - Test verschiedener Substrate - Slacksche Methode


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