Feijoa resembles a miniature watermelon or gooseberry with a thick matte skin. The smell of the berries is sharp and sugary, from habit it seems that someone accidentally doused themselves with perfume. The name matches the scent - unexpectedly magical. Feijoa, arriving from distant lands, found a new home in Europe and Russia.
Feijoa is an evergreen subtropical shrub or tree no more than 4 m tall. Its place of growth is Brazil, where the culture was discovered and described in the 19th century by the Portuguese natural scientist João da Silva Feijo. It got its name in honor of him. Feijoa is sometimes referred to the genus Akka of the Myrtle family, but in some cases it is distinguished as a separate genus Feijoa sellowiana. The culture received its specific name by the name of the famous German scientist, researcher of the flora of Brazil, Friedrich Sellow.
Feijoa is a short shrub or tree
Feijoa homeland - South America:
It grows, occupying the tropical zone, but it feels better in the subtropical zone.
Once in France at the end of the 19th century, the plant successfully spread throughout Europe, even got to Russia by the beginning of the 20th century. Cuttings of an unusual culture first took root in Yalta and on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. Subsequently, the quiet expansion of the overseas guest spread to the southern regions of Russia: Dagestan, Krasnodar Territory. Feijoa grows in the Caucasus and Turkmenistan.
The conquest of the plant in the Mediterranean zone of Europe was no less successful. Feijoa has been living in:
With European settlers, the plant got to the New World and gradually spread throughout the Pacific coast of the United States and some other states. In addition, feijoa grows in Australia and New Zealand.
It is a subtropical evergreen moisture-loving plant that forms a bush or tree. The trunk is rough, brown or greenish. Dense roots are located superficially in the soil.
Leaves are whole, oblong, green-gray. Smooth above, pubescent below. Leathery and tough to the touch. They have an opposite location.
Feijoa leaves are entire and oppositely arranged
Feijoa flowers are exotic and decorative. There are solitary, paired, and also collected in inflorescences. Each flower contains 4 velvety petals. They are sweet and edible. Their outer surface is lighter, and the color of the inner surface changes from almost white at the edge to dark pink closer to the center. The abundance of stamens attracts attention and gives a colorful look. Most flowers are self-fertile and need pollinating insects, although there are self-fertile varieties.
The outer surface of the petal is lighter than the inner
Usually up to 75–80% of the ovary falls off.
Feijoa bloom in Russia is observed from May to June. Under natural conditions in the subtropics of the Southern Hemisphere, this time falls in November - December. In tropical climates, both cyclical and continuous flowering occurs.
Fruits are small, fleshy-juicy berries with a dense skin of dark green or greenish-yellow color. They are covered with a wax coating. Rounded, oblong or oval in shape. The average berry weight is 15-60 g. There are monster fruits weighing more than 100 g. They have a peculiar aroma, reminiscent of strawberries and pineapple.
Feijoa blanks are saturated with vitamins during the long winter months. There are many ways to prepare these berries on the web. My option implies a minimum of effort and a complete absence of heat treatment. The washed and dried ripe feijoa berries must be passed through a meat grinder and granulated sugar added in a ratio of 1: 1.5. Stir well and pour into jars. Keep refrigerated. You can sandwich baked goods with the resulting mass or serve it with tea.
The flesh is usually whitish-cream or colorless. Some varieties are colored pink. The taste is sweet and sour. Usually creamy in consistency. There are varieties with stony inclusions. Berries are universal, used fresh and processed.
Feijoa pulp is usually creamy or colorless
Feijoa fruits contain organic acids, sugars, vitamin C, pectin, iodine. The content of vitamin C in some varieties grown in the Russian Federation reaches 50 mg or more. 100 g of berries contain twice as much iodine as needed for daily consumption. Moreover, the amount of iodine directly depends on how close the culture grows to the sea. It accumulates more in feijoa fruits that live off the coast.
Persons suffering from thyroid diseases should consult an endocrinologist before consuming the fragrant fruits, or limit themselves to one or two berries a day.
Plants in the northern hemisphere actively grow and bear fruit from April to November. The growing season in the Southern Hemisphere is from October to the end of April.
Fruiting in seedlings is observed only in the sixth or seventh year after planting, but grafting manages to get the harvest earlier by 2-3 years. Fruiting is regular.
Studies have shown that these thermophilic plants can tolerate temperatures as low as -11aboutFROM.
In Russia there are 2 scientific centers (in Yalta and Sochi) that study the properties and are engaged in the selection of feijoa. Employees of the Sochi All-Russian Research Institute of Floriculture and Subtropical Crops and the Nikitsky Botanical Garden in Yalta created feijoa varieties included in the State Register of the Russian Federation:
The once outlandish fruits of feijoa, although they have not yet become a common food product, are gradually gaining steady interest due to their attractive aroma, pleasant unusual taste and delicate pulp.
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Feijoa is a slightly unusual fruit for us with a specific taste, although it is gaining more and more popularity among exotic lovers. But where does feijoa grow, is this an interesting plant of the Myrtle family? Despite the fact that it is quite frost-resistant and tolerates drought well, it still gives preference to a mild subtropical climate. Brazil, where feijoa grows, is a country from which a century-old history of cultivating an exotic fruit began. And the name was given in honor of the famous breeder Joanie de Silva Feijo.
What does a feijoa look like? The tree is very beautiful, not very tall (up to 4 m), with a spreading crown and a very branched root system. The leaf blades are almost round, shiny and leathery. The upper part of the leaf is dark green, while the lower is much lighter, almost gray and slightly pubescent. The flowers are large, pink-white, with numerous stamens and bloom for a very long time. The plant is dioecious, pollinated by insects. The tree is decorative, it can be grown not only for its fruits.
The first cultivated variety is called André, named after the French botanist Edouard André who brought it from Brazil. On its basis, varieties such as Superba, Coolidge, Choiseana were bred. Besson is grown in India. Russian breeders have developed their own varieties of this fruit - Pervenets, Krymsky early, Svetly, Nikitsky and others.
The feijoa fruit is an oval berry shaped like a kiwi. But it tastes more like pineapple, strawberry and kiwi combined. It can be described as follows:
the peel is dense, shiny, light green in color
the flesh is almost transparent and light, with small seeds
Feijoa berry has many beneficial properties. She is even considered the champion in utility. There are such useful qualities:
It is a natural and very valuable source of iodine. Its water-soluble form is very well absorbed by the body. By the content of this element, the berry overtakes algae, sea fish and various seafood. Only 3 fruits are able to satisfy our daily need for iodine. It is used for the prevention and treatment of diseases caused by a deficiency of this element.
It contains almost all groups of vitamins and many useful substances (trace elements, sucrose, fiber, pectins, etc.). Especially a lot of vitamin C is present in fruits, which makes it possible to use it to fight colds and to raise general immunity.
The peel contains antioxidants that rejuvenate the body, inhibit pathogenic flora and prevent the development of cancer.
It is an excellent tonic and tonic due to the presence of essential oils and vitamins.
It has a very low calorie content - 49 kcal per 100 g, which allows it to be used in dietetics.
When brewing the peel, which contains essential oils, you can do inhalations to relieve swelling and nasal congestion.
It is the prevention of atherosclerosis, vitamin deficiency and anemia.
Improves blood composition, helps the cardiovascular system and intestines.
Fruit masks are used in cosmetology to relieve inflammation and tighten the skin.
The fruit also has some contraindications for use. Not recommended:
with hyperthyroidism (high levels of thyroid hormone)
with diabetes mellitus (due to the high sugar content)
during pregnancy and breastfeeding
in case of individual intolerance.
Feijoa is eaten in its pure form (with or without peel) and in the form of various culinary dishes. Salads, drinks, yoghurts, preserves, compotes, juices and much more are made from it.
You can see this amazing plant not only in pictures. On the Black Sea coast of our country, it is very common. It is quite capable of growing a tree with your own hands, it will even bear fruit.
The description of the shrub and the photo of the juniper is as follows:
The color of the bark of the juniper is heterogeneous: the trunks are gray-brownish, and the young shoots are reddish-brown, dark chocolate, cherry.
Belongs to the Pine order, the noble Cypress family. He is dioecious, that is, self-pollinating. Monoecious varieties are rare.
Many gardeners do not know if a juniper is a herb or not. It is worth remembering that it belongs to the type of shrubs or trees. In the southern regions, powerful trunks grow up to 11-15 m.In the temperate and northern latitudes, as well as in the highlands, shrubs are common, including creeping ones, with shoot lengths from 1 to 3 m.
Juniper classification is fairly well defined. It is a coniferous evergreen shrub or tree.
The underground part of the plant is well developed even on infertile and stony soils, capable of growing on heavy clay soil. The root system of the juniper is oriented horizontally, so it is sensitive to gusty winds and snowstorms. In an ordinary adult, the central root reaches a length of up to 1 m. In tree varieties, the main stem can go into the soil up to 1.5 m. At the same time, the depth of the root mass does not exceed 30-45 cm. The annual growth is 10-20 cm per year. From the age of four, the mass of the lateral processes begins to prevail over the central rod, drowning it out.
The leaves are triangular or flat needles with sharp, prickly or rounded tips. They can have an elongated awl-shaped, linear-lanceolate shape, or be flat. Covered with a wax coating that gives a gloss. They reach 0.5-1.5 cm in length and 1-2 mm in width. Leaves of green, blue-green, silvery-turquoise, grayish-green, light green, golden tones are known. In the photo there is a tree and juniper leaves.
Juniper belongs to conifers and shrubs, although its needles are leaves. Distinguish between needle-shaped and scaly varieties.
All types of coniferous plants, except for the ordinary one, are highly toxic. Not only cones are poisonous, but also young shoots with leaves.
Currently, pomegranate is grown in almost all countries of the subtropical belt. Under natural conditions, it is found on the territory of the states of Central Asia (Afghanistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), it also grows in North India. Pomegranate groves are found in Abkhazia and Transcaucasia, in Azerbaijan and Turkey, as well as in the homeland of this plant - in Iran.
As a fruit crop, pomegranates are grown in many Mediterranean countries: in Italy, Greece, and in Spain a whole province of Granada is named after this plant. This culture is also grown in the USA, countries of Central and South America.
In Russia, there are very few places with a climate suitable for growing this heat-loving plant. The pomegranate has a very long growing season, it can go up to 220 days. Moreover, for maturation, it needs a lot of sunlight. Therefore, the planting of these trees can be found only in the southernmost regions of Russia.
In Crimea, pomegranates are grown by many owners of personal plots. The most suitable place for this is the South Coast with its subtropical climate. The northern part of the peninsula is less suitable for growing such heat-loving crops. The frost resistance of the pomegranate is low, and it is able to freeze out even at -10 ° C.Meanwhile, frosts in the northern part of Crimea, although rare, do occur, for example, in February 2012, the thermometer dropped there to -30 ° C, which led to the freezing of not only the Azov, but also the northern part of the Black Sea.
The Krasnodar Territory is distinguished not only by its large size, but also by significant differences in altitude above sea level. Only a small part of this region can be conditionally attributed to the subtropical zone - a narrow strip of land stretching along the Black Sea coast from Tuapse to the border with Abkhazia. The proximity of the sea and mountains creates here unique natural conditions and a climate similar in parameters to the subtropical one. This is where pomegranate will grow best. In the rest of the Krasnodar Territory, you can also grow this plant, but it will take much more care.
Abkhazia is a real subtropics, magnificent mountain air and mild climate. It is not for nothing that during the Soviet era this region was one of the best resort areas. Not only pomegranate grows well here, but also many other subtropical crops.
Although Dagestan is not part of the subtropical zone, the mountainous relief of this region creates separate oases on this territory with a climate favorable for growing pomegranates. Basically, these are mountain valleys in the southern part of the republic. However, the cultivation of pomegranate is risky here, in the already mentioned 2012, almost all pomegranate trees growing here died.
Most likely, any gardener who grows pomegranates will say that the most delicious fruits grow only with him. In reality, it is impossible to say where the trees with the most delicious fruits grow, since varieties with great taste are grown in many regions of the world. These are Iranian Ahmar, Aswad and Sharoli, Indian Alandi and Dholka, Israeli Malissi and Mangulati, Azerbaijani Galyusha pink and red, Kaim-Nar.
There are more than 400 varieties of pomegranates in total, so every lover of these fruits has the opportunity to make a choice to their liking.
In a regular pomegranate, the seeds are tough and feel well in the pulp. However, breeders have also bred several varieties with soft seeds, which are hardly noticeable when the fruit is eaten. On an industrial scale, two varieties of pomegranate seedless are grown.
Both garden and indoor forms of feijoa are disease resistant. In tubular specimens, vegetation problems may be associated with improper care - excessive watering or, on the contrary, overdrying of the earthen coma. These issues are addressed by optimizing the conditions of detention.
Sometimes sucking pests settle on feijoa: scale insects and ticks. Scabbards are crawling insects with a wax shield in the form of a convex growth. Ticks are very small pests, the presence of which can be determined by the presence of a thin cobweb on the plants. In case of severe infection, insect and acaricides are used. If the lesions are single, the pests can be collected by hand and the plant washed with soapy water.
Akka is a plant that is as decorative as it is useful. Along with the healing and tasty fruits, feijoa has a beautiful crown and spectacular flowering, which allows the culture to successfully compete with other indoor plants.