Read the previous part. ← Selection of varieties and planting of roses
Gloria dey hybrid tea
One of the most important agricultural techniques for growing roses is pruning. ...
Pruning pursues different goals: obtaining beautiful proportional bushes, healing roses and increasing their longevity, achieving abundant flowering. ...
In accordance with these goals, there are different types of pruning: formative, sanitary, rejuvenating, thinning and pruning for flowering.
Experienced growers use several types of pruning: formative, sanitary, rejuvenating, thinning, and “bloom pruning”.
Formative pruning - pruning roses after planting and in the first summer. When planting in spring, you immediately need to start forming a well-developed symmetrical bush (when planting in autumn, the first pruning is transferred to spring, so as not to cause the growth of new shoots in autumn). Usually already cut seedlings are sold, and you only need to remove diseased, dried or broken shoots.
If a rose with sufficiently long shoots is transplanted, they must be shortened, leaving several buds on each, in order to balance the underground and aerial parts of the plant and enhance the growth of young shoots. In summer, young shoots should be pinched over 3-4 leaves, this is especially important for hybrid tea roses in the case of a stronger growth of one of the shoots.
The first buds that form should also be removed. All this is aimed at early rooting and enhanced growth in the first half of summer, the formation of lateral shoots, the growth of a strong symmetrical bush. In August, the formation of a rose should be stopped, and you can let it bloom, so as not to cause the growth of shoots that will not have time to ripen before winter.
English bush rose Charlotte
Sanitary pruning... For roses, this is primarily the removal of frozen and disease-damaged shoots, and after unfavorable winters, such pruning can be very strong on all types of roses. This type of pruning includes cutting of dried, broken branches that have not ripened by the fall of the shoots.
Have grafted roses a very important technique is cutting the rose hips. This operation can also be attributed to sanitary measures, since if it is not carried out, the rose may die. Sanitary pruning is carried out throughout the year: the main one - in the spring after removing the shelter, in the summer - as needed, in the fall - before the shelter for the winter.
Anti-aging pruning... In roses, as in all typical shrubs, the main shoots become obsolete with age, give a weak growth, and weaken flowering. Young zero shoots grow on almost all roses every year. To ensure long life and abundant flowering, all roses need systematic anti-aging pruning.
Old branches with dying growth are cut out, exfoliating bark to the base or before the young lateral branch leaves. In most cases, it is impractical to leave shoots older than four years on the bushes. Pruning is carried out in the spring, taking into account the preservation of branches after sanitary pruning.
Thinning pruning. Due to the thickening of the bushes, the illumination of the shoots worsens, favorable conditions are created for the development of infection. Therefore, annual thinning is carried out in the spring - the removal of weak branches that are not valuable for flowering, as well as branches growing inside the bush, small shoots of own-rooted park roses.
Blooming pruning - aims to ensure balanced growth and flowering of roses. Its nature and degree are primarily determined by the age of the shoots on which the flowers are formed. Many roses bloom on this year's shoots (hybrid tea, floribunda) and it is important to shorten the previous year's shoots so that they can grow strong young branches that bloom this year.
The buds on the shoots have different degrees of development and the ability to bloom. The upper buds give earlier flowering, but the flowers are smaller, on short peduncles; with strong pruning, the lower buds awaken, giving large flowers on long peduncles, suitable for cutting. There are roses that bloom only on last year's and older shoots (for example, ramblers), and it is important for them to preserve last year's shoots for a considerable length.
Park Rose Grothendorst
Pruning "for flowering" is carried out by shortening last year's growth in the spring. Distinguish between low, medium and strong pruning.
Weak pruning - removal of the upper, often immature, part of the shoot to a well-formed bud. Such pruning is usually used on roses blooming on last year's and older shoots: park, climbing, shrub.
Medium cut - shortening of last year's shoots to their middle part, leaving 4-6 buds on them. Such pruning is carried out on roses blooming on the shoots of the current year: hybrid tea, floribunda, polyanthus, miniature... It promotes good regrowth and abundant flowering of the bush.
Strong - pruning most of the shoot leaving 2-3 buds on it. In this case, long young shoots grow with single larger flowers suitable for cutting, but flowering is delayed and less abundant. This is how hybrid tea roses intended for cutting are cut, sometimes miniature roses to simplify shelter.
Pruning "for flowering" is also summer pruning of roses, i.e. removal of faded inflorescences to a well-developed bud. This pruning promotes the regrowth of young shoots and more abundant re-flowering (this does not apply to once-flowering park roses that bear fruit). In August, such pruning is stopped so as not to cause the growth of shoots that do not have time to ripen before winter.
The use of specific types of pruning at a certain time, the degree of pruning depends on the characteristics of the shoot formation and flowering of this group of roses. To facilitate understanding of the pruning process and ease of its practical implementation, a fairly simple scheme can be proposed. In this scheme, roses are combined into 4 groups so that the pruning within each group could be done almost the same way. Thus, each group has its own cutting system.
Cutting system 1. Roses bloom on the shoots of the current year, a fairly strong shortening of the shoots is used for them. This is especially important due to the fact that they are all thermophilic and require careful shelter for the winter, and a fairly short pruning greatly simplifies this process. The group includes hybrid tea roses, floribunda, miniature, polyanthus, patio.
Cutting system 2. The peculiarity of the growth of such roses is that in the first year, long, usually flexible shoots grow from the ground or in the lower part of old branches, which do not bloom in the current year. The following year, lateral branches grow on them, giving abundant flowering. In the third year, these shoots are still capable of flowering, but they thicken strongly, flowering decreases.
A large number of zero shoots are formed annually, which ensures constant renewal of the bush and abundant flowering next year. Most varieties, especially the older ones, bloom once but for a long time. The group includes small-flowered climbing roses (ramblers) and some large-flowered (Flamentants).
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - trim for cover
Cutting system 3. This pruning system brings together different groups of roses with strong volumetric growth, for which it is important to preserve the shoots for most of their length in winter. Most of them can bloom both on last year's and older shoots, and on shoots of the current year.
They have repeated and often almost continuous flowering (except for once-flowering park flowers). Some of these roses, which have a similar growth pattern to hybrid tea roses, can grow and bloom with more vigorous pruning, but at the same time they become less decorative, bloom less abundantly and lose their advantages over other groups of roses. Shoots bloom most actively at the age of 1-4 years, and it is these shoots that are left when pruning. This group includes park, large-flowered climbing roses and shrub roses - shrubs.
Cutting system 4. These roses are practically self-forming, do not require careful annual pruning. They bloom on shoots of different ages. This group includes ground cover and landscape roses.
Now let's move on to looking at these four rose pruning systems:
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - anti-aging pruning
3 - thinning pruning
4 - pruning "for flowering"
Fall. Sanitary pruning is carried out, then all shoots are shortened to a height of 10 cm below the height of the shelter, which is 30-50 cm, and for miniature roses - 10-20 cm.
Spring. We start with sanitary pruning, then rejuvenate and thin out the bush. Preliminary pruning "for flowering" was carried out in the fall, the shoots are shortened, it remains to carry out the final pruning: shorten all the shoots of the previous year to a well-developed bud, however, with severe freezing, the shoots have to be significantly shortened, and sanitary pruning replaces all other species.
Summer. In the first half of summer, faded flowers and inflorescences with a part of the shoot are cut off to a well-located (usually outward) developed bud. This improves the growth of new shoots and promotes re-flowering. In the second half of summer, such pruning is stopped to prevent the growth of new shoots, which will not have time to mature before winter. If necessary, sanitary pruning is carried out in the summer, in particular, cutting of rose hips.
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - removal of inflorescences
For once-flowering ramblers, it is usually recommended to cut off the faded shoots of the second year immediately after flowering to the base to improve the growth of annual shoots, but practically in the summer it is very difficult to prune, since the branches are tied to supports, and it is more convenient to transfer this operation to autumn, when the roses are removed from the supports ...
However, young shoots are not always formed in sufficient numbers, and not all of them can overwinter well, so it is advisable to leave some, and sometimes all, two-year-old shoots until spring. In the spring, after evaluating the number of shoots capable of flowering, remove the extra ones. In practice, pruning can be done in the following way, both for once and repeatedly flowering ramblers:
Fall. After sanitary pruning, all faded shoots of the third year, if any, are cut out to the base and the shoots are slightly shortened to facilitate shelter.
Spring. After sanitary pruning, depending on the number of surviving shoots, you can cut out part of the two-year-old shoots that bloomed last summer, since too many shoots flowering in the current year will not allow enough strong young shoots to grow. Shorten the lateral branches of biennial shoots to 2-3 buds. Last year's (not flowering) shoots should be cut to a well-developed bud. All shoots can be shortened to the same length, depending on the characteristics of the support.
Summer. Cut off faded inflorescences.
1 - sanitary pruning
2 - anti-aging
3 - thinning
4 - weak pruning "for flowering"
5 - trim to desired height
Fall. They carry out sanitary pruning, removal of inflorescences. Park roses that do not hide can not be cut at all in the fall. If climbing or shrub roses are covered with an air dry method, to facilitate the shelter, you can carry out a partially rejuvenating one - cut out the oldest branches and shorten all the shoots somewhat.
Spring. All types of pruning are carried out, especially you need to pay attention to anti-aging and thinning, since the roses of this pruning group are prone to thickening. Flowering pruning is weak. All shoots are shortened to well-developed buds. In climbing roses, the lateral branches are shortened by 2-3 buds.
Shrub roses can be shortened by one third of the height, leaving the bush about a meter high to make it more compact. Often, after frosty winters and with insufficient shelter, park and shrub roses have to be cut to the level of snow. During the year they usually recover well, and many bloom already in the current year.
Summer. For re-blooming roses, timely pruning of faded inflorescences is important. In roses with decorative fruits, the inflorescences are not cut off.
Rose Patio Clementine Black
In the first years after planting on roses of this group, only sanitary pruning is carried out, then once every few years, rejuvenating pruning. Very old thickened bushes can be cut to a height of about 20-40 cm, after which they will grow back and rejuvenate quite quickly. Often in such roses, branches that go beyond the specified boundaries are cut to give the bush a certain shape.
The terms of spring and autumn pruning for all groups are approximately the same.
The timing of autumn pruning is very important, as premature pruning helps to awaken dormant buds, especially during a warm long autumn. For the Northwest region, it has been experimentally established that the best time is the end of October - beginning of November, just before the shelter.
When pruned during these periods, secondary growth was not observed in autumn under any weather conditions. The optimal period for spring pruning is early May (in early spring - end of April), immediately after thawing the soil and opening the roses. With severe freezing, pruning is postponed to a later date, when the buds begin to bloom and it is easier to determine the degree of damage. In this case, pruning is advisable to be carried out in several stages. Often, after the growth of roses, damaged, drying branches are revealed, which do not give good growth. Such branches need to be cut.
Often, pruning means only shortening the shoots, however, the most important techniques are the complete cutting of the shoot and the cutting of the side branch. When pruning, certain rules must be followed. When removing the shoot completely, it is important to know whether it is necessary to preserve the buds located at its base.
If an old or diseased shoot is cut out, a replacement shoot should grow to replace it, and it is important to preserve the buds at the base of the shoot. Pruning is carried out at soil level or slightly above. If a rosehip shoot is cut out, new offspring should not be allowed to grow from dormant buds, and the shoot is cut below, having previously excavated its base.
When removing the lateral branch, the cut should be done at the inflow so that the cut area is minimal, but without leaving a hemp, which will make it more difficult for the wound to heal. When shortening the shoot, it is always pruned "to a well-located bud", i.e. a few millimeters above the bud, from which the continuation shoot should grow, without damaging it, but also without leaving hemp. An external bud is usually chosen so as not to thicken the center of the bush.
If fungal diseases are found on the rose plantation, the sections must be painted over with water-based paint with the addition of copper oxychloride.
You can get acquainted with the garden rose groups mentioned in this article on our website rosa-spb.ru.
Read the next part. Shelter roses for the winter →
Tatiana Popova, gardener
Photo by the author
Read all parts of the article "Growing roses in St. Petersburg"
- Part 1. Selection of variety and planting of roses
- Part 2. Types and rules for pruning roses
- Part 3. Shelter roses for the winter
Cutting rose bushes is carried out on a quiet, sunny day in mid-late October, preferably on the waning moon according to certain rules:
Climbing roses are not pruned, they are laid on the ground, spreading coniferous spruce branches. Although in some cases it is recommended to shorten the branches of this type of plant after the first planting, leaving no more than thirty centimeters from the base of the bush.
At the end of the growing season, last year's shoots must also be removed completely, and the young should be placed horizontally, which will increase the flowering of the rose.
When pruning, you need to clearly know what the procedure is for: for the purpose of early, abundant flowering, the formation of a bush or lengthening the life of a flowering plant.
We'll show you how to properly prune your favorite roses.
Many growers do not like to prune roses because they have to deal with thorny stems. Nevertheless, if pruning is carried out correctly, the development of the plant will improve, it will become more abundant and more beautiful to bloom. In young seedlings, pruning improves the formation of the root system, which begins to develop faster.
Also, thanks to pruning, young shoots appear and grow more actively. Removing dry and old parts of the bushes helps to ensure the correct distribution of nutrients throughout the plant. Pruning also contributes to the flow of fresh air to all parts of the bush, which helps prevent the development of diseases, in particular black rot.
This operation is time-consuming and requires some practice and special tools.
To prune roses, first of all, you need to arm yourself with a pruner (see fig.) And gloves, which will help to avoid injury to your hands. In order to get to hard-to-reach stems, as well as to get rid of faded buds from climbing roses, use a lopper with long
All tools must be kept clean and thoroughly washed and dried after each trimming. It is also recommended to wash the tools after cutting each individual bush: in this case, the spread of the disease can be prevented if one of them has been infected.
Before starting the operation, you need to assess the condition of the bush and decide which pruning method to choose, because the latter depends on the type of rose and the purposes with which this manipulation is carried out. So, autumn pruning is carried out more rigidly, as a result of which the bush can be shortened up to 40 cm in height. Spring pruning is carried out to ensure the penetration of fresh air and sunlight to the stems and leaves.
It is recommended to make cuts at an angle of 45 °, and they should be neat, without torn or chewed edges (see fig.). When pruning, you should remove dry, broken and affected parts of the bushes, as well as thin and weak shoots. If the seedlings have white and thin shoots after storage, they must also be cut off, otherwise the plant will die. On grafted roses, it is necessary to cut off the shoots that appear below the rootstock, since otherwise the cultivated part of the plant can die.
After cutting, the cut sites should be treated with an antiseptic, which will help prevent possible infection. As such an antiseptic, it is permissible to use a solution of brilliant green.
Picture. Pruning roses
There are the following types of pruning, which depend on the time and type of roses.
1. Long cut used when planting seedlings and after harvesting a winter shelter. Suitable for hybrid tea and park roses.
2. Medium cut used after the roses have faded. During its implementation, the shoot is cut off above the first developed bud, thereby stimulating the growth of new shoots. In addition, a bush is formed with the help of medium pruning.
3. Short cut carried out during the spring planting of seedlings. It is suitable for climbing roses, if it is necessary to stimulate the growth of new shoots so that they bloom next year.
4. Combined trimming use, if necessary, to form bushes of some varieties of roses (primarily of the floribunda species). Thanks to this type of pruning, the bush looks more graceful during the flowering period.
5. Sanitary pruning is needed as a preventive measure to combat various diseases. When it is carried out, the affected, weak, dry and thin stems are removed.
Depending on the season, pruning can be spring, summer and autumn. Spring pruning is performed to rejuvenate the bushes, stimulate the growth of new shoots and flowering, and also form a bush with its help. It is carried out in early spring, when the frosts have already passed, and the buds have not yet begun to wake up. During summer pruning, faded buds are removed. Autumn pruning is carried out to prepare the bush for the winter period before the shelter.
❧ The oldest of the garden roses is the French rose, which was brought to Britain by the Crusaders.
The intensity of pruning and the timing of its implementation depend on the type of rose and the climate in which it grows. Most varieties need spring pruning before sap flow begins.
Floribunda roses are pruned strongly in spring, removing about half or two-thirds of the height of the bush, as well as old and dry shoots. As a result, 3-5 strong stems are left, cut at different heights, so that during continuous flowering the bushes look especially impressive.
Grandiflora and hybrid teas are also heavily pruned in the spring to form the main stem. However, in this case, it is necessary to take into account the fact that the flowering of varieties of hybrid tea roses occurs on last year's branches.
When pruning climbing types of roses, it is necessary to remove only damaged parts of the bush, and after flowering - and faded buds. Thanks to this, such roses will cover most of the gazebo or fence. Groundcover roses are pruned in the same way.
When pruning miniature species, only thin or damaged stems are removed, and after flowering, faded buds are cut off, because most varieties of miniature roses bloom on last year's shoots.
In order for the roses to be strong and healthy and delight you with abundant and long flowering, you need to observe the timing of pruning and adhere to its correct methods.
It is not for nothing that climbing roses are considered easier to grow plants than their bush competitors that adorn their flower beds, ridges, lawns and hedges. In general, climbing roses are more hardy and unpretentious, they are content with really minimal care. They only need a few plentiful watering, the minimum number of dressings, they grow quickly and take shelter for the winter easier (in technique, and not in labor intensity) than bush garden queens. But the main difference in care is in the scraps, in which it is difficult for an inexperienced gardener to get confused.
Pruning climbing roses is not a difficult task. Despite some differences associated with the need to take into account the individual characteristics of each climbing rose, the shape and type of shoots, pruning is always carried out according to the same principles. As with any rose, pruning on climbing princesses is the key to a lush and beautiful flowering. But for climbing roses, the main thing in pruning is not at all stimulating flowering or formation, but completely different tasks:
Climbing roses self-rejuvenate, releasing young shoots that eventually replace old ones. Easy help from the gardener - the regular removal of the oldest branches - allows you to constantly maintain climbing beauties in perfect condition. It is the regrowth and development of vegetative shoots, replacing branches in steeple-necks, that is given increased attention: climbing roses bloom on the growth of last year, and obtaining strong replacement shoots that can bloom in the future should be the main goal of pruning and directing climbing roses.
When carrying out any pruning procedures on climbing roses, do not forget the general rules for pruning all roses without exception:
Tools for pruning climbing roses should be chosen carefully. You can cope with simple pruners, but they are much better suited for work:
From a practical point of view, pruning on climbing roses is conveniently divided into three stages:
Pruning when planting climbing roses is almost unnecessary. In plants, dry or damaged shoots, as well as all very weak lashes, are removed only if necessary. In August or September of the first year, the branches of climbing roses are pinched to improve their ripening. Plants will need minimal cleaning for the first two years. Heavy pruning at this time is especially dangerous for semi-twisted roses, which can regain their bush form. With age, after the formation of a good "frame", anti-aging measures are also added to sanitary pruning - they regulate the number of shoots and remove the oldest ones.
The tool necessary for pruning climbing roses. © Glory Garden
Rose is the queen of all colors. And you can't argue with that. If there are no roses in the garden, then this is no longer a garden, but so. a flower garden or even a vegetable garden. Millions of people around the world give them to each other as a sign of love and admiration. The rose has a very pleasant aroma, beautiful colors and even an abundance of thorns do not detract from its merits.
Rose belongs to the Rosaceae family - Rosaceae L. Rose is a separate genus of the Rosaceae family, which combines cultivated (roses) and wild (rose hips) species. Roses are erect, multi-stemmed shrubs, from 0.5 to 2.5 m in height, and some evergreen climbing species reach 10 m. Woody stems and shoots are almost always covered with thorns of various sizes and shapes. Leaves are compound, unpaired-pinnate, in most species they consist of 5-7, sometimes 9-11 leaves. Flowers of various colors, bisexual, solitary or collected in umbellate-paniculate inflorescences. In evergreens and in many garden species, they form on annual wood. Their flowering is repeated several times during the summer. Fruits are nut-like, single-seeded, with a dense, woody shell, ripen in August - September. They contain from 3-5 to 100 or more seeds. It is widely used in medicine.
Roses are distinguished by the shape of the bush, aroma and color of flowers. That is why they are used in a wide variety of plantings, combined with other plants, or create gardens only from roses. Roses are subdivided into a prefabricated group of park roses (rose rugosa, noisette, bourbon, provence), tea hybrid, remontant, poly-liante, miniature, grandiflora, flory-bundle, climbing and others. For each of the aforementioned groups of roses, there are specific pruning rules. There are three kinds of spring pruning of roses: preventive, thinning and formative. Preventive pruning is done in early spring to eliminate fungal diseases. Thinning is carried out in spring and summer, removing old shoots with dying growth and branches growing inside the bush. This pruning promotes abundant flowering. It is used to rejuvenate old bushes of park and climbing roses.
Exists three types of formative rose pruning: strong, medium and weak. With strong pruning, 1-2 well-formed buds are left on the shoot, with average - 3-6 well-formed buds, with weak pruning, only the tops of the shoots are removed. Strong pruning is used for polyanthus and miniature roses, medium - for hybrid teas, floribunda and grandiflora roses, weak - for park and climbing roses. Wild rose species are propagated by seeds to obtain rootstocks and when breeding new varieties, cultivated varieties - vegetatively. There are several ways of vegetative propagation of roses: dividing the bush, rooting cuttings and cuttings, grafting on rose hips. Reproduction of roses by green cuttings, carried out in spring and summer, allows you to quickly obtain planting material.
Rose cuttings root well in hermetic cuttings without watering, airing and without care.
Budding is the main breeding method for roses... It can be done in summer and spring. Oculants for the winter are covered with soil with a layer of 20-25 cm. In the spring they are uncooked and cut on a thorn. In the first year of life of grafted plants, you need to monitor the timely removal of wild growth.
For planting roses, you need to choose even, well-lit places. On steep slopes, they can be grown on terraces. In the shade, they are drawn to the light and bloom poorly.
Roses are demanding on the soil... They grow well on chernozems, light loams and sandy loams with a good structure and a high content of organic matter. The soil should be slightly acidic (pH 5.5-6.5). Roses can be planted in spring and autumn. The system of agrotechnical methods for caring for roses includes deep tillage, application of organic and mineral fertilizers, watering, cutting of wild growth, pruning, pest and disease control, shelter for the winter.
Caring for roses consists in regular thorough loosening and weeding of weeds from weeds, systematic removal of wild shoots.In hot summer months, roses should be regularly watered and sprayed in the evening or early morning with pre-warmed water. It is very harmful to water them with cold tap water or well water. It is better to cut off fully blossoming flowers, this contributes to more abundant flowering. When cutting branches with flowers, you should strive to preserve the leaves on the bush as much as possible, given that removing a large number of leaves during cutting weakens the plant and it does not overwinter well. Faded flowers must be pinched off, not allowing the seeds to set, since after setting the seeds, roses bloom poorly and are greatly depleted.
Garden roses are divided into groups depending on their origin, decorative qualities and biological characteristics. We give a brief description of the most common garden groups and varieties.
Roses of Grandiflora. This is a group that includes varieties with abundant flowering, like in floribunda, and the shape of the flower, like in hybrid tea, but surpass them in growth strength. These roses bloom like hybrid tea, but more abundantly. They are more winter-hardy. Used for decoration, winter forcing, cut.
Roses of Cordes obtained from a hybrid of the Rugosa rose. They differ in very vigorous, often whip-like shoots. Bloom profusely until late autumn. Hardy and resistant to fungal diseases.
Miniature roses first brought to Europe from China in 1810 Outwardly similar to Bengal and polyanthus roses, but differ from them in smaller flowers, leaves and short stature. The bushes are low (15-20 cm), compact, highly branched. Flowers of various colors, small (1.5-2 cm in diameter), double, often fragrant, very beautiful constitution. Bloom profusely. Easily propagated by cuttings. Used in indoor culture.
Climbing roses Vizhurayan... Found wild in Japan and China. Introduced to Europe in 1886 by Dr. Vihura. They are very close to R. multiflora Thunb, from which they differ in the flexibility of the shoots and stronger growth. A number of hybrid varieties were given, many of which are used in ornamental gardening. The varieties of this group are very effective on boles. Blossom once, very profusely, within 30 - 35 days.
Climbing roses multiflora. They grow wild in the Primorsky Territory, in Japan, China, Korea. Vigorous bush - up to 4 m high, with whip-like inflorescences. The flowers are small (2-2.5 cm in diameter), white, pink, non-double, collected in large inflorescences. Hardy enough for winter shelter. Many climbing varieties have been bred from this species. The oldest variety, 'Crimson Rambler', was brought to Europe from Japan by Turner in 1893. The cultivated varieties are dominated by pink, red and white flowers. Terry flowers (4-6 cm in diameter), persistent. Flowering once, very abundant, within 30-35 days. They propagate easily by cuttings and grow well on their own roots.
Polyanthus roses obtained in the 70s of the XIX century as a result of crossing a multi-flowered rose with tea and other continuously flowering varieties. One of the first varieties is considered to be 'Paguerette' bred by Guillot in 1875 in France. The flowers are small (3-4 cm in diameter), of various colors, sometimes fragrant, from non-double to strongly double, collected in large paniculate inflorescences. Flowering is very abundant, continuous. Easily propagated by cuttings.
Many varieties grow well and bloom outdoors on their own roots. Used for flower decorations, borders and indoor culture.
Repaired roses appeared in Europe in the first half of the 19th century as a result of hybridization of local Damask, Bourbon, French roses with tea and Bengal roses. They inherited the ability to re-bloom (remontantity) from tea plants, but are more frost-resistant. The bush is high - 1-2 m. The leaves are large, dense. The flowers are large (8-10 cm in diameter), rounded-cupped, pink or red, rarely white and yellow, double, with a strong aroma. The second bloom is much weaker than the first. In the conditions of Ukraine, roses of this group winter well when they are sheltered for the winter by the ground. Recommended for group planting, cut and in standard culture.
Tea hybrid roses obtained by crossing remontant roses with tea roses. The bush is low (60-80 cm). The leaves are large, beautiful, of various shades. Flowers of various beautiful colors, distinguished by an elegant constitution and a very varied pleasant aroma, large (on average 10-12 cm in diameter), double, single or more often collected in small inflorescences. Flowering lasts 30-35 days, then there is a break from 15 (early) to 30 days (late varieties), after which flowering continues until late autumn. Hybrid tea roses are very decorative in bush and standard form, in flower arrangements, used for cutting. Suitable for winter forcing under glass and in indoor culture.
If you follow the simple rules of pruning, you can get a lush blooming of roses in early spring.
Spring is the right time to prune roses. The forsythia bloom can tell you when to grab the pruner. As soon as the forsythia is covered with golden flowers, and the buds begin to swell at the bottom of the rose bushes, then you can start pruning. Somewhere at the end of April.
If you cut the roses earlier, then the cut shoots will freeze during frost. Then the lush bloom of the rose will come later. If you delay pruning, the rose will waste its energy on the growth of new foliage and shoots. As a result, the plant will be weak, and the flowering will not be lush.
Wild shoots, which often occur below the graft, are cut off. To do this, you need to expose the root collar and cut it off at the base.
When pruning roses in summer, you need to remove faded flowers, thus ensuring re-flowering. In the fall, it is necessary to cut off overgrown rose bushes, remove branches affected by fungi.
But the main pruning of roses is carried out, as noted earlier, in the spring, when you can see which branches have not overwintered, and which ones show swollen buds.