Growing blackberries - forming bushes and feeding blackberries - Growing blackberries in the garden - 2

Features of the cultivation and formation of bushes, a culture that is still rare in our gardens

Top dressing.

After a good pre-planting soil preparation, fertilizers are applied after 2-3 years, limiting themselves only to nitrogen fertilization in the spring at the rate of 20-25 g of ammonium nitrate or 10-15 g of urea per 1m2. In the future, on soils with medium nutrient supply, annually apply to one fruiting bush up to 6-8 kg of humus or compost, 50-60 g of ammonium nitrate, 90-100 g of superphosphate and 25-30 g of potassium fertilizers, preferably not containing chlorine.

When growing erect blackberries, various trellises are used, which are also used for raspberries. When growing such blackberries without a spaller, a strong shortening of the stems is possible, which is recommended for black raspberries. As a result, the overall yield of berries decreases, but their weight increases and the quality improves.

A fan-shaped method of forming a bush of both creeping and erect blackberries is possible, in which fruiting and growing stems are placed separately (Fig. 1). The proposed formation increases the distance between plants to 3-3.5 m. In the first year after planting blackberries, young shoots are tied to a trellis, directing them obliquely to one side. In the summer of the second year, such stems will bear fruit. New shoots, as they grow, are tied up on a trellis in the opposite direction to last year's.

The system of growing and forming a bush in creeping blackberries is somewhat more complicated. The most winter-hardy of them are suitable for creating impassable hedges in the garden along the fences, although the yields from such plantings are small due to the impossibility of normal plant care.

Fig. one.

Formation of erect blackberry varieties

To obtain a full-fledged crop of creeping varieties, they need a trellis on a wire basis or from ordinary poles. A trellis is made of 3-4 wires with intervals of 30-50 cm between them.

Already in the summer, in the year of planting, 2-3 young stems are formed from the rhizome, which, during the growing season, as they grow, fan-shaped trellis are tied to the wires and braided along the three lower wires (Fig.2a). When premature lateral shoots 30-40 cm long are formed on these lashes, they are shortened, leaving no more than 4-5 buds. In summer, new stems are formed through the center of the bush, guiding them along the upper row of the wire (Fig. 2b). Fruiting occurs on last year's stems. After fruiting, remove all fruiting stems (Fig. 2c). At this time, the stems of the current year are untied and braided along the three free lower rows of wire (Fig. 2d). At the end of the growing season, the weak tops of young shoots are cut off.

Other ways of forming bushes of creeping blackberries are also possible, one of which is the vertical formation of fruiting stems, which is used for more intensive use of the land area. At the same time, the distance between plants in a row is set to 1.5 m, which makes it possible to double the number of plants in the area against the usual.

Fig. 2.

Formation of creeping blackberry varieties

In each bush, 6-8 fruiting stems are left, which are placed fan-shaped along the trellis, but almost vertically and close enough to one another. In early spring, the stems are cut at a height of 1.5-1.7 m. Young shoots appearing during the growing season are also temporarily placed fan-shaped to the right and left of the fruiting stems; in the spring of next year, the best of them are tied vertically to a wire for fruiting. With the vertical formation of the bush, it is useful to pluck out several lower buds, since the berries on the fruit branches that have developed from them usually lie on the ground and are heavily contaminated.

The next way to form bushes of creeping blackberries is to evenly place fruiting stems on both sides of the trellis, wrapping them around the three lower wires. New shoots are directed up through the center of the bush and further distributed to the right and left along the upper wire. After fruiting, two-year-old stems are cut out at the base, young shoots are removed from the trellis at the onset of autumn frosts and covered for the winter. In early spring, after appropriate pruning, this year's fruiting shoots are braided around the bottom three wires, again leaving the top wire free to accommodate the young shoots.

With any method of formation, especially in areas of covering culture, care should be taken to insulate annual stems for the winter, for which in late autumn they are removed from the trellis, laid on the ground and covered with any mulching material. In the spring, it is necessary to open the bushes until the buds swell and carry out a formative pruning.

Blackberries are harvested gradually, as the berries ripen. The picker should have two hands free to reach the berries without being damaged by thorns. For this, the basket is hung on a belt. The berries are removed along with the fruit.

Galina Aleksandrova, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences

Gardeners reviews

It should be noted that the use of such a new variety for our strip has not yet become popular, so if you can try to grow Chester in your garden is definitely worth it.

In the middle lane, this blackberry variety has not yet become widespread. At the moment, amateur gardeners are in no hurry to take on the cultivation of Chester. This moment is primarily associated with their suspicion about fruitful breeding.

but some nurseries have already carried out some variety trials and started selling seedlings... As for those gardeners who purchase seedlings of the new Chester blackberry variety, they can rightfully consider themselves experimenters.

Therefore, you should not bypass the young variety, it is recommended to try and grow a bush or several bushes as a sample.

If the plant takes root and begins to bear fruit, you will not be left without proper reward, which will pay off all your efforts and efforts.

The taste of blackberries of the Chester variety is not the best compared to other varieties, but it is at the proper level

It should be noted that the taste of the berries of this variety is not the best among all its relatives, however taste is at the proper level, which is why some gardeners accepted this variety with a bang.

In their opinion, it is much more pleasant to harvest a large harvest of less sweet berries than a small amount of fruits that are sweeter in taste. At the same time, all varieties of blackberries require approximately the same care and application of forces.

Among American gardeners, both amateur and agricultural producers, namely Blackberry Chester is the most popular variety, so you should definitely try to grow it in our climatic conditions.

Planting blackberries

I can say from personal experience that blackberries love sunny places. For me, it grows both in shady places and in open sunny areas. There are more berries in the sun and they are sweeter. Elongation is observed in the shade of young shoots. I have it growing along the fence, this protects it from the wind, since when the wind blows, the branches can break off and the berries fall off.

When landing at the fence, you need to retreat from it about a meter so that there is no strong shadow. For blackberries, it is better to choose medium loams with low acidity, well-drained.

It is better to plant blackberry shoots in early spring, so that there is no danger of freezing of a young plant.

Planting blackberries. Photo from the site

  • Root cuttings are laid along the furrow 8-10 cm wide and 5-8 cm deep.
  • Green offspring should be planted in holes 10-15 cm deep and 15-20 cm in diameter.
  • Lignified offspring on a rooted cuttings are planted in a deep furrow 25-30 cm wide and deep.

At the bottom of the planting furrow or hole, a layer of earth with compost or humus is laid, superphosphate, potassium sulphide must also be added there and a little sprinkled with earth without fertilizers, on top of which the roots are placed.

At the base of the stalk there is a bud, called a growth bud. It must be buried no more than 3 cm... The pit is covered with a mixture of fertile soil removed from the pit, humus and mineral fertilizers, gradually watering the bush. After planting, a hole is made around the bush so that water can stay there. This is called the trunk circle.

The distance between holes and furrows is selected based on the variety, height and width of the shoots... If a lot of shoots are formed, then they plant 1 bush in a hole every 1.2 m, if not enough, then you can plant 2 bushes in a hole every 2 m.A distance from 1.8 to 2 m is taken between the rows.

Planting blackberries in open ground

The choice of planting material

To grow blackberries in a garden area, you need to stock up on quality planting material in a specialized store or nursery. Then you can be sure that this or that variety is it.

Planting site and soil

The blackberry bush grows and bears fruit for more than 10 years, so you need to take care of the planting site in advance and with great attention to the required conditions.

5 golden rules for planting blackberries:

  1. Blackberry bushes are planted in a sunny place protected from the winds, preferably on the western or southern slopes, since the plant is afraid of cold air masses.
  2. Grows well on a strong trellis along the fence or near the gazebo.
  3. The best time to plant is late April or early May. In summer, the plant will have time to develop well and will endure wintering better.
  4. If planting is in the fall, the appropriate month is September. Before the onset of frost, the blackberry will have the opportunity to take root.
  5. Drained breathable loams or sandy loams are preferred. Blackberries grow well on soil with acidity within pH 6, they do not like too acidic soils.

Autumn - site preparation time:

  • remove weeds
  • carry out treatment against diseases and pests.

Apply fertilizers to the soil poor in humus: a bucket of organic matter, 15 g of superphosphate and 25 g of potassium sulfate per sq. m. Fertilizers are mixed with the top fertile layer of the earth.

The best predecessors are:

  • legumes
  • carrot
  • zucchini
  • beetroot.

Landing technology

Blackberries are planted in accordance with the characteristics of the variety, namely, with the level of shoot formation.

Two landing patterns are used:

  • tape
  • bush.

Landing technology:

  1. If the variety gives numerous shoots, the seedlings are placed in a trench at a distance of 1 m from each other and row spacing of 2-2.5 m.
  2. The nearest buildings and plantings of other plants should not be less than 1.5 m.
  3. The seedling is placed in a hole or furrow on a mound from the ground, the roots are straightened without bending upwards and making sure that the root bud is buried 2-3 cm into the soil.
  4. They are covered with earth, compacted, making a small hole for water accumulation.
  5. Sprinkle with three to six liters of water and mulch with peat, pine sawdust, compost.
  6. Then the shoots are cut to a height of 20 cm, removing the fruit twigs.

Regardless of the planting time, seedlings with a closed root system take root well. Before planting, carefully remove the plant from the pot and place it in a hole or furrow along with a lump of earth. Sprinkle the gaps with soil, compact, water and mulch.

Plants such as raspberries, strawberries and roses can be infested with common diseases and pests. Do not plant blackberries in the shade or in low wetlands. Its root system is located in the upper layers of the soil and can freeze in winter.

Growing blackberries - forming bushes and feeding blackberries - Growing blackberries in the garden - 2 - garden and vegetable garden

Blackberry is a subgenus of the genus Rubus of the Pink family. In our climate, the most often grown blackberries are blueberry (Rubus caesius) - in Ukrainian "ozhinu", and bushy blackberries (Rubus fruticosus), which is usually called kumanika. Despite the fact that blackberries are a close relative of medicinal raspberries, in Europe this berry is not grown on an industrial scale, but in America, blackberries are one of the most popular berry crops. The world leader in the cultivation of blackberries Mexico exports almost the entire crop of berries to the United States and Europe. In our country, blackberries grow only in the wild and in a few private gardens, however, the popularity of the berry, which surpasses raspberries in healing properties and taste, is gradually and steadily increasing.

Garden blackberry - a shrub or shrub vine with a perennial rhizome and flexible stem shoots, planted with sharp thorns, although at present, thanks to the work of breeders, thornless blackberries have appeared, characterized by stable productivity and resistance to pests and diseases. If supported, blackberry shoots can rise to a height of two meters. Blackberry leaves are trifoliate or five to seven-part, dentate, light green, pubescent on both sides. Blooming blackberry is a honey plant. White blackberry flowers with a diameter of about three centimeters open depending on the variety and climatic conditions from June to August. Juicy blackberries, black with a bluish bloom, ripen in August.

Growing blackberries is an unusual and difficult business, but the benefits of blackberries for the human body are a convincing argument for amateur gardeners to master the agricultural techniques of this rare berry for our gardens. Unlike other rosaceous crops, blackberries are most often planted in spring, and not in autumn - in late April or early May, when the soil warms up. Find a place that is well lit by the sun and protected from the wind, as the wind can injure the leaves and berries of the blackberry and interfere with the pollination of the flowers. It is best to plant blackberries not on flat areas, but on the southern or western slopes, so that the blackberry bush does not suffer from the east or north wind. Blackberry grows well on drained, air-permeable nutritious loams, and feels good on sandy loam soils. On calcareous soils, blackberries will lack magnesium and iron. The optimum pH value for blackberries is pH 6. Before planting blackberries, it is necessary to bring the soil on the site in accordance with the agrotechnical requirements of the crop. To do this, it is advisable to free the site from weeds, pests and pathogens from the fall. If you regularly fertilize the soil in the garden, then you do not need to fertilize especially for the blackberry, otherwise it will rapidly grow greens to the detriment of fruiting. But if the soil is depleted by crops that preceded the blackberry, then when digging holes or furrows under the blackberry, mix organic and mineral fertilizers with the upper, discarded layer of soil at the rate of 10 kg of organic matter (manure, compost or humus), 15 g of superphosphate, 25 g of potassium sulfate per one square meter of the plot and cover the roots of the blackberry seedlings with this soil when planting.

Planting blackberries in spring

If you do not know how to grow blackberries and how to care for blackberries, then you have come to the right place. We will try to cover this topic in detail, understanding how difficult the issue is - caring for and growing blackberries and how important it is for a gardener to have clarity in it.

In order to minimize the risk of failure, it is advisable to purchase planting material in well-known nurseries, and it is best to buy annual blackberry seedlings with a well-developed root system, two stems more than 0.5 cm thick in diameter and (this is the main thing!) With an already formed bud on roots. The depth and width of the seedling pit is determined by the quality and age of the seedling, but the distance of the blackberry plot from the plantings of other crops or buildings should be at least one meter, and preferably more.The size of the gap between the bushes depends on the ability of the variety for shoots and the method of cultivation of blackberries, and there are two of them - tape and bush. With the bush method, two or three blackberry seedlings with a low level of shoots are planted in one hole and the holes are placed according to the scheme of 1.8 x 1.8 m.The tape method is more suitable for varieties with enhanced shoots: seedlings are planted in a furrow in a continuous chain with a distance between specimens about a meter, and a gap of 2-2.5 m is observed between the rows.

The seedling is lowered into a hole or furrow, spreading the roots in different directions, and covered with fertilized soil so that the bud located at the base of the stem is two or three centimeters underground. However, the soil is poured not to the level of the surface, but so that a hollow or notch remains a few centimeters below the level of the site. This is done to save water during irrigation and to accumulate snow, rain or melt water in the excavation. Then the soil around the seedling is compacted and each of them is watered with three to six liters of water, and when the water is absorbed, the holes are mulched with peat compost or just manure. After planting, the shoots of the seedlings are cut at a height of 20 cm above the surface, and the fruit twigs are completely removed.

Growing blackberries in the garden

Caring for garden blackberries consists in regular watering, loosening the soil, weeding (if for some reason you have not mulched the site), fertilizing, as well as in carrying out preventive or, if necessary, therapeutic measures to combat diseases and pests, and, in addition all of the above, in pruning and forming bushes. As you can see, planting and caring for blackberries is laborious and requires specialized knowledge, so take our advice seriously.

Blackberry care in spring

First of all, it requires the installation of trellises, to which you will later tie up the fruit-bearing shoots of the plant with twine. Strong pillars up to two meters high are dug in at the beginning and at the end of the row on both sides of the bushes, as well as between the first and the last every 10 meters, three rows of galvanized wire are pulled between the posts: the first row - at a height of 50-75 cm from the ground, the second - at a height of 125 cm, the third - at a height of 180 cm. The stems of the second year, which will bear fruit in the current year, are tied to the highest wire, young shoots do not need to be tied to the wire, you just need to direct them, and they themselves will grab the wire. Shoots need to be guided constantly, they should not grow chaotically.

If you grow a straight-growing blackberry, be aware that in the first year it will not yield, and in order to get a harvest next year, it is necessary to pinch the main young shoots that have reached a height of 100-120 cm - their tops are shortened by 10 cm, and when they begin to grow side branches, they are slightly shortened once they reach 50 cm in height. As a result, the blackberry bush looks compact, but this does not affect the harvest.

Blackberry seedlings planted this year are watered regularly during the first one and a half months, as well as during dry season. Fruiting bushes need watering during the period of intensive growth and ripening of berries. To moisten the soil, you cannot use well or cold water; it is best to collect rain or tap water in a barrel or other large container and let it sit in the sun for a day or two.

For a good harvest of blackberries, the condition of the soil on the site is very important. If in the first two years you can grow tilled vegetable or green manure (used for fertilization) crops in the aisles of a blackberry, then in subsequent years the passages are kept under black steam. As weeds appear, they are removed, and the soil in the aisles is loosened 5-6 times per season to a depth of 10-12 cm, around the bushes themselves the soil is hoe or loosened with a pitchfork to a depth of 5-8 cm 2-3 times during the growing season. If you mulch the area with straw, sawdust, needles or forest fallen leaves, you will have to loosen the soil and fight weeds in the area with blackberries much less often. In addition, mulching the plot with a five-centimeter layer of rotted manure or peat compost will not only protect against weeds and prevent crust formation on the soil surface, but will also become a source of balanced nutrition for blackberries.

Another feature of blackberry cultivation is the need to shade the area from the sun during the ripening of the fruit, since the sun's rays can "burn" black blackberries, deprive them of their presentation and reduce their quality. To minimize the harmful effect of sunlight, you need to stretch shading nets along the rows.

Blackberry feeding

Fertilization times for blackberries are the same as for raspberries, gooseberries and other berry bushes. Nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate or urea at the rate of 20 g per m²) and organic matter with a high nitrogen content (4 kg per m²) should be applied only at the beginning of the growing season. Potash fertilizers, for example, potassium sulfate at the rate of 40 g per m², are necessary for blackberries every year, but not those that contain chlorine. If you use manure as mulch, you do not need to apply phosphorus fertilizers, but if you do not use manure or any other organic matter, phosphates must be applied to the soil at the rate of 50 g per square meter every three years.

Blackberry propagation

Blackberries reproduce in summer, winter and spring. The creeping blackberry is propagated by apical and horizontal layers, and the bush one is propagated by dividing the bush, by basal offspring or by cuttings.

Reproduction by apical layers is the simplest method, which consists in the fact that in the spring any climbing shoot can be bent to the ground and buried at the top with soil - the top quickly gives roots, and then new shoots from the buds that are underground. You can then separate the shoot from the mother plant.

With the method of reproduction with horizontal layers, it bends to the ground and is covered with soil, not the top, but the shoot along its entire length. As a result of this, several bushes are formed and, having cut the buried shoot between the newly formed bushes, the young plants are separated and planted in a permanent place. This method gives the best results in the spring.

Bush blackberries are best propagated by root suckers that appear around the bush every year. Only those of them that have reached 10 cm in height are suitable for separation and disembarkation to a permanent place. It is best to plant offspring in May or June - they will have enough time to settle down in a new place before the cold weather.

There are varieties of blackberries that do not give offspring, and bush division is used to propagate these varieties. The main thing in this method is to divide the dug out bush in such a way that each division is sufficiently developed and can successfully take root in a new place. Part of a bush with an old rhizome must be disposed of.

Propagation by cuttings is used when they want to get offspring from valuable varieties of blackberries. In June-July, blackberry cuttings are cut from the upper third of the shoot, consisting of a bud, leaf and part of the stem. Treat the lower cut of the cuttings with a root-forming agent, plant them in small cups with a mixture of peat and perlite (or vermiculite, or sand, or crushed expanded clay) and place the cups under the film, maintaining a 96% humidity level in the greenhouse. After about a month, the cuttings will develop roots, and they can be planted in a permanent place.

If you are interested in how to propagate a blackberry in some other way, then much less often resort to the propagation of blackberries by seeds, air layers, lignified cuttings, root cuttings, but all these methods are more difficult to implement and do not always lead to success.

Blackberries in autumn

Caring for blackberries in the fall consists in preparing the bushes for wintering. The first step is to prune blackberries, but you will read a detailed and detailed description of how to do this in a special section (below). After pruning, mulch the soil around the roots with dry sawdust or peat. Conduct preventive spraying of blackberry bushes and the soil under them from diseases with copper sulfate, and from pests - with actellik. If your climate reaches -10 ºC in winter, the brambles will need to be covered. True, frost-resistant varieties tolerate this temperature normally; frost below 20 ºC is dangerous for them. There are several ways to hide a blackberry.

For example, after pruning, you can remove the branches from the trellises, lay them on the ground, cover them with corn leaves, and lay a covering material on top - plastic wrap. It is not easy to lay the shoots of erect blackberry varieties on the ground and not break them at the same time, therefore, since the last month of summer, we recommend fixing a load on the top of the shoots, which will gradually bend the branches to the ground.

Blackberries are not prone to damping out under cover, so humus, hay, straw or sawdust can be used as insulation. It is not recommended to use foliage fallen from fruit trees in this capacity, since it may contain microorganisms dangerous to blackberries. It is also advisable to rake and burn the blackberry foliage that has fallen in autumn.

Pruning blackberries is troublesome, but you need to do it regularly. Processing of blackberry bushes with pruning shears is carried out in spring, summer and autumn. Blackberries are divided into erect, which is called kumanik, and creeping - dewberry. Shoots of kumanik reach a height of three meters or even more, it forms many replacement shoots, like raspberries, erect blackberries bear fruit on two-year-old shoots. Most varieties of dewrock do not give root growth, its shoots look like whips with a large number of fruit twigs.

How to prune a blackberry

In the spring, even before the buds awaken, dry and broken stems, as well as the frost-bitten tops of the shoots, are cut off before the buds awaken, until the first healthy bud. Bushes of the first year of growth are subjected to double pruning: to stimulate the growth of lateral shoots in May, the tops of the branches are shortened by 5-7 cm, and in July the tops of those lateral shoots that have reached half a meter are cut off by 7-10 cm, in addition, only 6-8 of the strongest, and the rest must be removed. In mature bushes, in addition to frozen and broken branches, all weak shoots are removed in the spring, leaving only 4-10 strong branches on the bush, the lateral branches are shortened to 20-40 cm so that 8-12 buds remain on them. During the growing season, remove the root shoots that appear in the summer, leaving only those that have grown since spring - they will bear fruit next year.

These spring shoots in the fall need to be pruned at a height of 1.7-2 m.In addition, remove all weak branches and, most importantly, cut all the second-year shoots under the root immediately after they stopped bearing fruit - they will no longer produce berries, so in vain the plant does not need to spend food and strength on them.

Blackberry pests and diseases

Both diseases and pests are common in blackberries and raspberries. Just like raspberries, blackberries in our gardens suffer from rust, powdery mildew, anthracnose, septoria or white spot, didimella or purple spot, botrytis or gray rot, as well as from a lack or excess of trace elements in the soil and violations of agricultural practices of the species ... Rust infecting blackberries can be glassy or columnar. The first appears in the garden, if sedge grows somewhere near the shore of the reservoir, the second is carried by the wind from the nearby cedars or pines. And in fact, and in another case, only weakened plant specimens get sick. The disease manifests itself in early summer by the formation of orange-brown dots on the blackberry leaves, which later turn into pads on the underside of the leaf.

If the disease is not stopped, it can rob you of 60% of your crop. As a preventive measure, they use the treatment of plants on newly blossoming leaves with a one percent Bordeaux liquid, after harvesting, another session of such treatment is carried out - it will help you protect the blackberry not only from rust, but also from many other diseases. As a cure for rust, diseased bushes on a warm day (the temperature should not be lower than 16 ºC) are treated with sulfur preparations - a solution of colloidal sulfur, for example, which is used against other fungal diseases, as well as against aphids and ticks.

Anthracnose can infect blackberries in late May or early June, if the rainy, wet weather lasts for a long time: oval purple spots appear on the young shoots that have just appeared, which, gradually increasing and reaching the tissues of the bark, form gray ulcers with purple edges on it. Spots with a reddish border also appear on the leaves. In winter, the affected shoots die. As a preventive measure, carefully inspect the planting material when purchasing. Fertilize blackberries with peat compost, remove weeds on the site. Prevention and treatment of anthracnose is carried out by the same means as the fight against rust.

Septoria, or white spot, is ubiquitous. It affects the leaves and shoots of blackberries and looks like pale brown spots, later lightening, with a darker border.

Purple spot, or didimella, destroys blackberry buds, leaves dry and fall off, and the stem may dry out. The disease begins with the appearance of small brown-purple spots on the lower and middle parts of the plant. With the course of the disease, the kidneys turn black, the leaves become brittle, necrotic dark spots with a yellow border form on them.

Botrytis, or gray rot, also develops more actively on blackberries in wet weather, affecting the berries with rot. To avoid damage by botrytis, try not to grow blackberries in close quarters - the bushes should be well ventilated.

And, finally, the main enemy of raspberries and blackberries is powdery mildew, or spheroteka, covering fruits, leaves and shoots with a loose white bloom. The fight against all these diseases is carried out by the same methods and by the same means as the fight against rust or anthracnose. And most importantly, try not to violate the agrotechnical rules for growing blackberries, so that some ailment does not become attached to a plant weakened by improper care.

Sometimes it happens that the blackberry turns yellow. This is most likely a sign of a micronutrient deficiency or excess. Analyze the quantity and quality of the fertilizers you apply and find where your mistake is.

Blackberry pests

Insects that can harm blackberries: mites (spiderweb and hairy raspberry), raspberry kidney moth, raspberry-strawberry weevil, raspberry beetle, nutcracker, as well as aphids, gall midges and caterpillars of butterflies - fireflies, raspberry glass moths. In the fight against these pests, spraying blackberry bushes with actellik or karbofos gives good results, phytoverm and acarin copes well with them. If you make it a rule to carry out preventive treatment of blackberries with these drugs in the spring, before budding, and in the fall, after harvest, you can protect the blackberry and yourself from unpleasant surprises - insect attacks that destroy your hopes for a good harvest.

Blackberry varieties

We have already introduced you to the differences between upright and creeping blackberries. The description of blackberry varieties does not allow adhering to a strict classification, because modern hybrids and varieties of this berry, which is gaining popularity, sometimes combine both the characteristics of an erect species, conventionally called kumanik, and the features of a creeping blackberry, called for convenience a dewberry. So, the best blackberry varieties:

  • Agave is one of the oldest American varieties, mid-season and incredible winter hardiness: its fruit buds are damaged only at temperatures of -27 ºC, and the roots and stems can withstand cold down to -40 ºC.Blackberry shoots of this variety are powerful, faceted and strongly thorny, berries weigh about three grams. And the yield reaches four kilograms per bush. Agave is resistant to rust, stem cancer and anthracnose
  • Thornfree is a hybrid thornless blackberry, bred many years ago, but still popular among summer residents. This variety ripens early, has a high yield, unpretentiousness to growing conditions, is winter-hardy enough and combines the properties of both kumaniks and mildews
  • Karaka Black is a new variety, ultra early maturing, but at the same time bears fruit until the very cold. The berries of this variety are elongated and weigh from 20 to 30 (!) Grams, they have excellent taste, characterized by high sugar content and juiciness. Karaka Black is one of the most drought-resistant blackberry varieties, it is immune to all blackberry diseases, there are very few thorns on its stems, and they bend well. The only drawback of the variety is its low frost resistance.
  • Netchez - The early ripening berries of this variety are truly huge, their cherry flavor is amazing, there are no thorns on the stems. This is one of the latest products of American breeders from Arkansas.
  • Polar is a Polish winter-hardy variety that does not need winter shelter. Compact bushes give a good harvest, the berries are large, the taste is pleasant sweet and sour
  • Valdo is a product of English breeders - miniature, compact bushes that take up little space and almost do not require shaping. Gives high yields from mid-July, winter-hardy
  • Loch Tay is also an English variety, undemanding to growing conditions. The berries are medium-sized, but very tasty. You can collect a couple of buckets of fruit from one bush.

Repaired blackberry varieties were bred by breeders not so long ago, therefore they have not been very studied yet. They bear fruit until the very frost, before winter you can cut off all the shoots from them, and, nevertheless, next summer they will still give a harvest: the berries will begin to ripen on the shoots that have grown since the beginning of spring. The first harvest can be harvested in June, and the second harvest will begin to ripen from August. Sometimes remontant blackberries bear fruit practically without interruption. The problem of remontant varieties is their sharp thorns, but the permanent flowering of the bushes is extremely decorative - the flowers sometimes reach 7-8 cm in diameter.

Of the varieties of blackberry remontant, American hybrids of the Prime series have proven themselves well:

  • Prime Arc 45 was launched in 2009. The bushes reach two meters in height. Straight, strong shoots are studded with thorns, berries are elongated, dense, very sweet. The first fruits appear in June, the second time fruiting begins in August and lasts until the very frost
  • Prime Yang - erect prickly shoots, medium-sized dense elongated sweet berries with an apple aroma. The earliest of the remontant varieties
  • Prime Jim is a variety bred in 2004. Shoots are straight, strong, prickly. The berries are large, elongated, sweet and sour taste. A flowering bush with large white flowers and pale pink buds looks amazing.

Blackberry properties - harm and benefit

Useful properties of blackberries

Blackberries, like the berries of its related raspberry, are a whole vitamin complex - carotene (provitamin A), vitamins C, E, P and K. They contain blackberries and such minerals as sodium, calcium, potassium, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, iron, chromium, molybdenum, barium, vanadium and nickel. They are rich in fiber, glucose and fructose, pectins, as well as malic, tartaric, salicylic and citric organic acids. Blackberries improve metabolism and strengthen immunity, they have antipyretic and antioxidant effects and are a natural substitute for aspirin, however, unlike it, blackberries are not only completely safe, but also have a healing effect on absolutely all internal organs of a person. Blackberries also have a beneficial effect on the work of the digestive system, so they are often included in the diet of patients suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract.

The beneficial properties of blackberries are successfully used in the treatment and prevention of urolithiasis and diabetes mellitus. Juice from berries and young leaves of blackberries is effective for tracheitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, sore throat, fever, gynecological diseases, dysentery and colitis. External use of the juice treats wounds, dermatoses, trophic ulcers, eczema, gum disease.

Not only berries, but also other parts of the plant are used for medicinal purposes. The amazing properties of blackberry leaves, rich in tannins, vitamin C, amino acids and possessing wound healing, astringent, diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, blood-purifying and diuretic effects. Infusion of blackberry leaves is recommended for heart diseases and nervous disorders, a decoction and tea from them is indicated for anemia and as a sedative and general tonic for climacteric neurosis. A decoction of blackberry leaves is useful for gastritis, and fresh leaves treat old leg ulcers and lichens.

A diuretic is made from blackberry root for dropsy, and tincture from it is recommended to be used for poor digestion and bleeding.

Blackberries - contraindications

As for contraindications, blackberries do not have them as such, but some people may have an intolerance to blackberries, which causes an allergic reaction. Symptoms of such intolerance are manifested by nausea, diarrhea, vomiting and swelling of the mucous membranes, sometimes after a few minutes, and sometimes even a few days after taking blackberries.

Planting blackberries is carried out in pre-prepared soil. A competent gardener begins to prepare a bed for a blackberry in 2 years, sowing green manure on the site. It is believed that they better saturate the soil with useful substances than ready-made fertilizers applied to the soil. However, for those who do not have time for such a long preparation, you can simply apply mineral and organic fertilizing directly to the planting pit.

Blackberries love slightly acidified soil. It is acceptable if the acidity is neutral, but if your soil is alkaline, it must be normalized with sulfur or ferrous sulfate. Too high acidity is neutralized with ash or slaked lime. If the seedlings will be planted in rows, then the entire bed should be dug up, and if 1-2 bushes are to be planted, then you can limit yourself to a small area by the size of the planting pit.

As mentioned above, for planting, you need to allocate a sunny and calm place where planting holes or trenches should be dug (if the plants are planted in rows). Blackberries, unlike many berry crops, are best planted in spring - this way the seedling will have time to take root before the onset of cold weather. The most favorable time for planting is May - early June, but early varieties can also be planted in April, as they tolerate the cold more easily.

The seedling must be carefully examined before planting. If it is not grown by you with your own hands, then you should pay special attention to the rhizome - the roots of the seedling are young, light, and in no case dry. Stems are smooth, monochromatic, not damaged. It is better to purchase a seedling in well-known nurseries with a good reputation.

Three ways to plant blackberries

Blackberries: care and cultivation, reproduction and pruning

  1. Planting blackberries - basic rules for a gardener
  2. Blackberry varieties description
  3. Time to start preparing
  4. Removing blackberry shoots in autumn
  5. Leaning to the ground
  6. Garter and pruning of garden blackberries
  7. Why prune blackberries in the fall
  8. When pruning blackberries in the fall
  9. We apply fertilizers and water the blackberries
  10. Watering the blackberry
  11. Fertilizing blackberries
  12. Reproduction of blackberries - simple ways to get planting material
  13. What to do with blackberries in the fall after fruiting: the main measures for preparing a shrub for winter
  14. Features of preparation for winter
  15. No thorns
  16. In the first year
  17. Young bush
  18. Old bush
  19. Shelter blackberries for the winter
  20. When to cover blackberries
  21. How to cover blackberries
  22. Do I need to remove leaves before sheltering for the winter
  23. Reproduction
  24. Dividing the bush
  25. How to prune blackberries

Watch the video: Growing Delicious Blackberries Vertically And In Containers

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