In recent years, exotic plants grown from seeds have been increasingly appearing in our homes. Such enthusiasm of amateur flower growers deserves the highest praise.
Of particular interest is the cultivation of date palm seeds. In indoor culture, this plant does not reach such a large size as in nature, but it is still difficult to imagine that a large tree can be obtained from a small seed.
If you have patience and really want to grow a date palm, read our article. From it you will learn:
Read more about growing a date palm below.
Date palm, or Phoenix, or Date (Latin Phoenix) - a genus of plants of the Palm family, which includes about 20 species growing in Africa and Eurasia. This plant has been known to mankind for more than two millennia, the first mention of it dates back to the sixth century BC - even then the date palm was grown in Mesopotamia, on the territory of modern Iraq. The date palm belongs to the feathery types of palms, like hovea or coconut, and in nature sometimes reaches thirty meters in height.
The fruit of the date palm is a well-known and beloved delicacy by many, for which the plant is grown on an industrial scale. In addition, the juice of the date palm is used to make sugar. However, the indoor date palm has long become popular, and interest in it has increased especially since it became known that it is quite possible to grow it from a date stone. But before you grow a date palm at home, you should study the conditions for its growth in nature.
In nature, the date palm plant is a tree or a squat shrub with feathery leaves - the main decorative advantage of the plant. A date palm at home can only grow up to two meters, and even in this case, a date palm houseplant requires significant space, therefore an adult plant is placed in rooms where there is almost no furniture. But if a date palm is grown from a seed, at home you can always find a place for a small pot, because such a tree will grow for a very long time, and then, you see, living conditions will change for the better, and there will be enough room in the apartment for a date palm. After all, a large, mature plant can be placed in the office.
The date palm blooms with panicles of yellow flowers. But do not expect to eat dates from your palm tree: the tree begins to bloom, and, therefore, bear fruit only when it reaches fifteen meters in height, which is impossible at home.
Before planting a date palm, you need to prepare the date bones themselves for planting, which for reliability is better to plant several at once, and prepare the soil for planting. The seeds are suitable from fresh, candied or dried dates - the main thing is that the fruits are not heat-treated. In order for the seeds to sprout faster, it is better to slightly break their shell by rubbing with sandpaper, and in order to get the soil necessary for the germination of the bone, you need to mix raw sawdust, sand and peat in equal parts.
The seeds are placed vertically in the soil and sprinkled on top with a layer of the same substrate 1 cm thick, then the pot or container is placed in a warm place where the temperature is above 20 ºC, and even better - 25-30 ºC, and kept, observing that the soil the whole time was warm, damp, but not wet. To do this, it is best to keep it near heat sources by laying sphagnum moss on the surface of the substrate. Do not expect quick results: the seed can sit in the ground and swell before it sprouts, for three months or six months.
When the sprouts hatch, transfer the container to a bright light, protecting the seedlings from direct rays, regularly moisten the soil and spray the seedlings with warm water, and when they grow up to 10-15 cm, plant the seedlings in personal pots with a diameter of 15 cm into the soil, consisting of four parts humus, one part of peat land with the addition of two parts of sand, turf and leaf land. Throw in a couple of handfuls of charcoal as well and mix everything thoroughly before planting. Be sure to add a layer of drainage material to the bottom of the pot.
A date palm grown from a stone at home can only give leaves in the third or even fifth year of life. The growth point of the date palm is located at the top of the trunk, so neither pruning it nor attempting to shape the crown of the tree in any way. Make sure that the new leaf arrow is turned from light to shadow, and from time to time rotate the pot around the axis so that the crown of the tree forms evenly.
Taking care of your home date palm is very simple. It should be kept in a bright, sunny place in a well-ventilated area. The temperature in summer can be any, and in winter it should be no higher than 18 ºC and not lower than 12 ºC.
In hot weather, the leaves of the date palm can dry out from the ends, so it is advisable to spray them several times a day or wipe them with a damp sponge, and once a week organize a shower for the plant, closing the top layer of soil from moisture entering it.
In the spring and in the summer, feed the palm tree weekly with organic and mineral fertilizers, in the fall, fertilize twice less often - once every two weeks, in winter, if necessary, it is enough to apply complex fertilizers once a month.
Cultivation of a date palm involves regular, balanced watering of the plant with settled soft water. What does balanced watering mean? This means that you need to moisten the soil so that there is enough water for the plant, but no more. To prevent excess moisture from stagnating in the roots of the plant, do not forget to put a thick layer of drainage in the pot when transplanting.
Young plants that have not reached the age of five are transplanted annually, those that are older - only if necessary, because the date palm does not like to be disturbed. When transplanting, you need to act as carefully as possible so as not to damage the root of the date palm, so it is best to use the method of transferring the plant from an old pot to a new one. The date palm pot should be deep, because its roots are long, and each subsequent flowerpot should be 3-4 cm larger in diameter than the previous one.
Before replanting a date palm, be sure to add a drainage layer. If the old palm pot still fits, but you are worried that the soil has already lost the qualities necessary for the plant, carefully remove the top layer of the old substrate and replace it with fresh one. This should be done every six months.
The date palm at home propagates only by seeds - in other words, by seeds.
Most often, when the conditions of detention are violated, the date palm suffers from spider mites, mealybugs and scale insects. The best way to control pests is to correct grooming mistakes. It is best to remove insects and traces of their vital activity that destroy the plant by mechanical means, wiping the leaves of the date palm with a soap and vodka solution (15 g of liquid soap, any dishwashing detergent or a teaspoon of grated solid soap dissolved in warm water, dilute in a liter of warm water and add to solution two tablespoons of vodka).
If the number does not pass, after a week the processing of the leaves must be repeated, just do not forget to protect the soil in the pot from soap getting into it. In case of severe pest infestation, you will have to resort to treating the leaves of the date palm with insecticides, and the best of them is actellic.
Of the diseases of the date palm, spots are known that disfigure the leaf plate, and pink rot, which affects not only the leaves, but sometimes the stem, and causes them to rot. Fortunately, only weak and diseased plants are susceptible to infection with these diseases, so the key to the health of the date palm is your compliance with the rules for caring for it. If trouble happened and the plant got sick, double-treat the palm with a fungicide containing mankozeb and methyl thiophanate, observing a weekly interval between sessions.
Sometimes the date palm leaves dry from the tips, and this is a clear indication that the room where the plant is located has too low air humidity at a normal rate of 50%. This is not so much, and there are more than enough ways to increase the humidity of the air to the desired value, so do not be lazy to spray and wash the leaves, otherwise the palm tree will lose its decorative effect, and it will be a pity for wasted time and effort. Remember that the date palm dries up only with a careless owner.
If you haven’t changed your attitude to caring for a palm tree in time and haven’t resolved the issue of supplying the plant with moisture at all levels, the next signal of a water imbalance after dry tips is yellowing date palm leaves. This means that you not only irregularly spray the leaves of the plant, but also forget to water it, allowing the earthen coma in the pot to dry out. If you don't have enough time to take care of the plant, think, maybe it would be better to give the date palm to someone who takes the time to take care of it?
When the soil in a pot with a date palm undergoes chronic waterlogging, the leaves of the plant gradually darken, turning from green to brown, the trunk becomes soft, and the smell of rot is felt from the plant. As soon as you notice this, stop watering the palm tree, remove it from the pot and inspect the roots: if they become dark, soft and watery, the plant has already died, but if there are still living ones among the rotten roots, then it makes sense to cut off the dead roots by sprinkling the cuts with crushed charcoal, and transplant the date palm into fresh soil.
As we already wrote, the temperature in the room where the palm tree is located should not drop below 12 ºC in winter. At other times of the year, the temperature should not be lower than 18-20 ºC, because root growth stops at a temperature of 16-17 ºC, which means that root activity slows down and the plant is not able to absorb nutrients, which ultimately leads to cessation of growth. In addition, there is a bias: the roots are able to assimilate some substances, while others cannot, and a deficiency of certain microelements occurs.
The reason for stopping the growth of the date palm can also be a too high level of soil acidity, which causes a lack of manganese and iron, therefore it is so important to observe the correct temperature regime and maintain soil acidity within the pH range below seven units.
In order not to lose a tree grown from a bone, on which a lot of time and expectations have been spent, you just need to follow the rules for growing a plant, especially since there is nothing super complicated in them, and the decorative qualities of a date palm are definitely worth the effort.
Sections: Indoor plants Ornamental deciduous Indoor trees Palm trees Palm (Arecaceae) Plants for P Plants for F
Looking at the oblong bones inside the dates loved by kids and adults, many indoor plant lovers wondered: "How does a real date palm grow from such a crumb, and what will happen if you plant a seed at home?"
The sweet dates sold in stores are from the Phoenix dactylifera genus. In nature, a powerful tree grows to gigantic proportions, giving huge clusters of fruits famous all over the world.
For indoor cultivation, more miniature species adapted to indoor maintenance are offered. These palms can be seen and purchased at flower shops. If you want to independently start growing a date palm from a stone, there is a high probability of success.
In order to grow a date palm from a fruit seed at home, you will need:
First, soak the bone so that it swells and opens easily in the ground. If the fruit has been stored for a long time, the stone may be old and not swell in room temperature water. In this case, pour boiling water over it and keep it in boiling water for 2 hours.
The second stage is important for those who want to understand how to properly grow a date palm from a stone at home - preparing the soil. The exotic beauty is accustomed to growing in the most difficult conditions - in the sands of the desert near the water. Therefore, the ideal soil for it will be a mixture of peat (or sawdust) with sand. Sawdust can be pre-soaked.
The stone should be planted vertically in the ground, deepening it no lower than 5 cm. After planting, you can water the soil a little and cover it with transparent glass, film or, best of all, wet moss. You will create a greenhouse effect, and the date palm, planted at home from stone, will sprout in a couple of months.
It is important to observe the temperature regime - an exotic resident does not like temperatures below 25 degrees, so it is better to plant in the summer, and all the time until the sprouts sprout, you need to keep the pot on the balcony or on the windowsill on the sunny side of the apartment. Watering during this period must be done carefully. The sprout should not be in dry soil, but you should not allow rotting. Ideal (if you keep the pot in the sun) - twice a week, half a glass. When the sprout sprouts and grows strong, increase the amount of water. After a few months, it can be transplanted into nutrient soil.
The process of growing a date palm from seed at home is not very laborious, but long.During the first years after planting, this tree will not be the king among your usual indoor flowers - a small number of branches and leaves, a thin trunk. But after 7 years, the palm tree begins to grow actively. And the most interesting thing about it is that you can never guess what shape the plant will be - low with a dense trunk and lush branches, or tall, graceful, with branches that stretch upward.
So, if you figured out how to grow a date palm from a stone at home, you can move on to the next point - planting a seedling in the soil.
Growing a palm tree from seed at home will take a long time, you will have to endure several years to admire the beautiful tree. Her leaves will appear in the third year, the plant blooms very rarely. The height will reach two meters over the years.
It is not easy to choose a date for a future palm tree, not everyone germinates. For cultivation, you need dried fruits that have not undergone heat treatment (fresh or dried), otherwise they will not germinate. Palm fruits contain large and hard bones. She retains germination for several years. Dates are sold all year round, you need to take a few for planting.
Each first carefully examine, sort out the defective ones, damaged by insects, diseases.
Before planting the seeds, you should:
It is not easy to germinate a seed, it takes 2-3 months, sometimes it takes more time.
To speed up the process, the bone should be subjected to more radical measures:
Next, place the bones in damp cotton wool, cover it in a glass. Keep the dishes warm: (on a radiator, sunny window). Do not dry out. If desired, replace cotton wool with sawdust, hydrogel. Plant after swelling.
Florists use another method of germinating seeds in vermiculite (a special mixture for plants). The bone is planted at the depth of its growth or in a separate bowl or in a common container. Cover with foil or glass. Ventilate twice a day to eliminate excess condensation. Water regularly as it dries, do not fertilize. They dive when the sprout is 4 cm.
For planting, take the hatched bones with the first leaves.
The seedlings are placed using the land where the seeds grew. Prepare a separate deep pot for each. The substrate is made from a mixture of turf, leaf, clay soil, humus in one part and ½ part of peat and sand. Add crushed charcoal. Drainage is made 2 cm thick from expanded clay and charcoal. The next time the plant is replanted when the first leaf is 15 cm long. They are placed in a bright room.
If desired, the date palm can be grown from seeds. Before planting, the bone for swelling is preliminarily placed in water for several days, periodically changing the water. It happens that the emergence of seedlings from seeds is "inhibited" if dates have been stored for a long time. To accelerate the germination of the date, the bones can be scalded with boiling water.
The flower pot is filled with a mixture of peat (sawdust) and sand, the seed is placed vertically in the ground, covered with glass on top (and, if available, with wet moss). The optimum temperature for germination is 25-30 ° C. Palm shoots will appear in about 1.5 - 2 months.
For the first five years, the plant is very modest, the decorative value of the date tree will appear only after 5-7 years. It is curious, but true: a date palm of various shapes can grow from the same seeds: both a small fluffy tree and a tall slender one. It is impossible to cut off (break off) the top of the plant stem, such a procedure is fraught with the death of the palm tree.
In order for our house, office, greenhouse to be decorated with a beautiful date palm tree, it is necessary to adhere to a number of important points when caring for it.
The plant prefers bright sunlight, it is shaded only in the hottest hours. For uniform formation of leaves, the date palm must be turned towards the light so that the top of the leaf has a direction towards the interior of the room.
During the growth period of the palm tree - in spring and summer - a moderate temperature (20-25 ° C) is recommended. In autumn and winter, the optimum temperature for many palm species is 15-18 ° C, while some species hibernate normally at 8-10 ° C. The plant has a negative attitude towards drafts. Date palm roots are also sensitive to cold: plant pots are not recommended to be placed on marble floors or a cold window sill.
In the summer season, abundant watering is preferable for the date palm; complete drying out of the soil is not permissible. As a result of the drying out of the earthen coma, the leaves of the date may wilt; in the future, they will not restore their previous position. In addition, the drying out of the earthen coma can cause yellowing of the leaves. With waterlogging (especially in combination with cold air), brown spots may appear on the leaves of the date palm. In winter, watering is significantly reduced - it directly depends on the air temperature in the room.
The date palm is irrigated with warm, soft, chlorine-free water with a temperature of about 20 ° C. Water mineralized with calcium (it is also called hard) does not work well on a palm tree, therefore it is better to exclude watering the plant with such water. A prerequisite for good plant growth is good drainage, it does not allow water to stagnate at the roots. Since humid air is desirable for the palm tree, a daily sprinkling of the leaves is recommended, and a real shower weekly. During the shower procedure, the plant must be carefully covered with a film of an earthen lump in a pot. To give the palm tree a well-groomed appearance, the leaves of the plant are periodically wiped with damp sponges.
Date Canary (Phoenix canariensis). © PalmenLager
Fertilizers are applied in a diluted form and always in wet soil. For feeding, complex preparations are used for palm trees or for decorative deciduous indoor plants. In spring and summer, palms are fertilized 2 times a month, in winter - 1 time per month.
The date palm does not tolerate transplanting well, therefore, in the spring, the plants are transshipped: a young palm tree (up to 4-5 years old) is transferred to another flower pot annually, and an adult one - after 2-3 years. Every six months, it is advisable to remove the topsoil and cover the vacant space with fresh earth.
A transplant is only required if the roots are cramped in the flower pot and are already visible through the drainage holes. Each transfer of palm trees is carried out into a flower pot with a diameter of 3-4 cm larger than the previous one. It is advisable to use a flower pot for a date palm not wide, but high: the long roots of the plant will fit here. During the transfer, the plant is carefully rolled into a new flower pot, and the voids are filled with new soil.
For good growth, the date palm needs a soil mixture prepared in the following ratio: 2 parts of light clay-sod land, 2 parts of humus-leaf land, 1 part of peat land, 1 part of rotted manure, 1 part of sand and a little charcoal. If it is not possible to prepare the necessary components for the soil mixture, then ready-made soil mixtures can be purchased in the store for handling the palm trees (specialized "For palm trees" or universal for indoor plants).
Loose, soft, air and moisture permeable soil will provide good nutrition to the plant roots. To prevent stagnation of water, a good drainage layer is formed at the bottom of the flower pot.
This exotic plant is sick mainly due to poor care.
A change in the color of the leaves of the palm tree indicates waterlogged soil: it becomes dark, almost brown, and the trunk is soft and a putrid smell is felt. When these signs are found, watering stops, it is necessary to dry the soil. It is necessary to remove the palm from the flower pot and check its root system. The plant cannot be saved if the roots have become dark, soft and watery (they have already died). If there are intact (living) roots among the dead, then they are carefully separated from the dead and the places of the cut are sprinkled with crushed coal.
As a result of insufficient watering of the palm, dry air, winter drafts and sudden changes in temperature, the tips of the leaves of the plant can turn brown. But the brown leaves growing at the bottom of the plant are safe - these are age-related changes in the palm tree. The darkened leaves of the date palm have died out, so they are removed. With insufficient watering, the leaves of the plant go down, and you can raise them only by tying them to a support. Watering a palm tree with hard water, lack of moisture or nutrients can cause the plant to turn yellow.
A pale appearance in the date palm indicates excessively abundant lighting or a red spider mite attack. A slight shading of the plant protects from excessively bright sunlight.
It happens that the date palm dries, the leaves darken, curl and fall on the surface of the leaves, brown plaques appear. Such signs indicate that the palm tree is dying from pests. Pest control (scale insect, mealybug or spider mite) is standard for all indoor plants: the leaves must be washed with a solution of laundry soap and sprinkled with garlic extract. In case of more severe damage to the plant, Actellik's solution is used in a ratio of 1-2 ml per liter of water.
In ancient times, the palm leaf was considered a symbol of triumph and victory. Currently, the presence of a date palm house testifies to the fact that an amateur florist has become a winner, who turned his home into a small cozy oasis.
Growing exotic plants at home is the dream of many flower growers, which is quite feasible and you can definitely bring it to life!
To plant a date at home, you need to take fresh fragrant dates. For planting, only fresh seeds, undamaged and not heat-treated, are suitable.
To determine the freshness of the seeds, soak them for 50-70 hours. During this time, the freshest bones will go down.
Before planting, it is advisable to soak the bone in water for 2-3 days at a temperature of + 25 ... + 30 degrees. For better seed germination, it is necessary to break the shell. This can be done in any way (with a knife, file, nail). The bone must be handled with care so as not to compromise the integrity of the kernel.
The planting container should be deep because the plant will have long roots. The bone itself should not be immersed very deeply in the ground, literally a few centimeters. The stone is planted vertically in the ground (palm substrate), and then covered with glass or damp moss on top. The sprouts will appear in 2-5 months, if the seeds are fresh, the sprouts will sprout in 20-25 days.
The date palm will refuse to grow well with illiterate, poor care. It is not easy to grow a "tropicana", you need to pay attention to any defects when leaving. A date grown from seed suffers for the following reasons:
A date palm, sprouted from a seed, stops growing when the temperature drops to + 12C. If watering is not stopped under such conditions, then the second negative moment comes - the roots rot. All this ends with the death of the finger date.
The appearance of pests and diseases is determined by the following criteria: