What Is Ganoderma Rot – Learn How To Control Ganoderma Disease


By: Teo Spengler

Ganoderma root rot includes not one but several different diseases that could impact your trees. It includes root rots caused the different Ganoderma fungi that attack maples, oaks and honey locust trees, among others. If your landscaping includes these or other deciduous trees, you’ll want to learn about Ganoderma symptoms so that you can quickly identify trees attacked by Ganoderma disease. Read on for info on the Ganoderma fungus.

What is Ganoderma Rot?

Many people have never heard of Ganoderma root rot and wonder what it is. This serious rot disease is caused by a Ganoderma fungus. If you have deciduous trees in your yard, they may be susceptible to attack. Sometimes conifers are vulnerable to Ganoderma disease as well.

If one of your trees has this disease, you will see definite Ganoderma symptoms, which causes the decay of the heartwood. The leaves may yellow and wilt and entire branches may die as the decay advances. Look for fruiting bodies that resemble little shelves on the lower trunk. These are conks and generally one of the early Ganoderma symptoms.

The two main types of Ganoderma root rot fungus are called varnished fungus rot and unvarnished fungus rot. The upper surface of varnished fungus rot looks shiny and is usually a mahogany color trimmed in white. Unvarnished fungus rot conks are the same colors but not shiny.

Ganoderma Root Rot Treatment

If you learn that your trees have root rot from seeking the conks, unfortunately, there’s really nothing you can do to help. The heartwood will continue to decay and can kill a tree in as little as three years.

If a tree is stressed in other ways, it will die sooner than vigorous trees. The Ganoderma fungus will ultimately damage the structural integrity of the tree, when strong wind or storms may uproot it.

You won’t find anything available in commerce to control this type of disease. Use the best cultural practices to keep your trees as healthy as possible, and avoid damaging trunks and roots when you work in the yard.

This article was last updated on

Read more about General Tree Care


Complex Glucomannan From Ganoderma atrum

Shaoping Nie , . Mingyong Xie , in Bioactive Polysaccharides , 2018

Abstract

Ganoderma is a kind of fungus which has long been used as a folk remedy for promoting health and longevity in Asian countries. Polysaccharide is considered as one of the major bioactive substances in Ganoderma. In our laboratory, we focused on one species of Ganoderma, namely Ganoderma atrum. Complex Glucomannan was isolated from G. atrum, the structure was elucidated and it also was found to have various important bioactivities, such as immunomodulatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-hypertensive, and so on. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize our studies of polysaccharides from G. atrum on the aspects of isolation processes, structural features, and bioactivities, and to state a view for future directions.


Recognizing Ganoderma Symptoms: Learn About Ganoderma Root Rot - garden

Host: Aspen

Figure 279. Ganoderma applanatum conks are often found at the base of infected trees.

Symptoms/signs: Infected trees often break or fall before death, however, a fruiting body or conk can be found at the base of most infected trees. The tough semicircular conk is usually found near ground level. It has a brown upper surface with a white rim and an undersurface that is white and stains when touched or scratched. The latter trait allows for artistic expression that is permanent if the conk is allowed to dry. Gandoderma applanatum produces advanced white-mottled decay in the large roots and lower parts of the stem.

Biology: Ganoderma applanatum infection occurs at wounds and the fungus attacks sapwood, heartwood, and cambium. The white-mottled rot is usually concentrated in large roots (larger than 5 cm in diameter) and base of the stem, but can extend up into the trunk for a meter or more. The larger roots are believed to act as avenues of spread to new hosts.

Effects: Ganoderma applanatum is found in almost all aspen stands but is more abundant on moist sites with deep soils. Windthrow is common.

Figure 280. Trees often topple over due to severe decay of major roots.

Similar Insects and Diseases: Although there are other root decay fungi of aspen, G. applanatum is the most prominent and the only one that produces a tough woody-conk at ground line in live trees in the Southwest.


Almonicar RS (1992) Twotypes of root rot disease affecting Acacia mangium. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports 10, 94–95.

Arentz F, Simpson JA (1988) Root and butt diseases of native plantation species in Papua New Guinea. In ‘Fifth international congress of plant pathology, Kyoto, Japan’.

Bakshi BK (1957) Fungal diseases of khair (Acacia catechu Willd.) and their prevention. Indian Forester 83, 41–46.

Barry KM, Irianto RSB, Santoso E, Turjaman M, Widyati E, Sitepu I, Mohammed CL (2004) Incidence of heartrot in harvest-age Acacia mangium in Indonesia, using a rapid survey method. Forest Ecology and Management 190, 273–280. doi: 10.1016/j.foreco.2003.10.017

Batista MDF (1982) Red root rot of guarana. Fitopatologia Brasileira 7, 437–438.

Bhaskaran R, Ramadoss N, Suriachandraselvan M (1991) Pathogenicity of Ganoderma spp. isolated from Thanjavur wilt infected coconut (Cocos nucifera L.). Madras Agricultural Journal 78, 137–138.

Boa E, Lenné J (1994) ‘Diseases of nitrogen-fixing trees in developing countries: an annotated list.’ (Natural Resources Institute: Chatham, UK) 82 pp.

Bridge PD, O’Grady EB, Pilott CA, Sanderson FR (2000) Development of molecular diagnostics for the detection of Ganoderma isolates pathogenic to oil palm. In ‘Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops’. (Eds J Flood, PD Bridge, M Holderness) pp. 225–234. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

CABI Biosciences (2008) Indexfungorum. Available at http://www. indexfungorum.org/Names/Names.asp [Verified 26 February 2009].

Corner EJH (1983) Ad Polyporaceas I. Amauroderma and Ganoderma. Nova Hedwigia. Beiheft 75, 1–182.

Corner EJH (1987) Ad Polyporaceas IV. The genera Daedalea, Flabellophora, Flavodon, Gloeophyllum, Heteroporus, Irpex, Lenzites, Microporellus, Nigrofomes, Nigroporus, Oxyporus, Paratrichaptum, Rigidoporus, Scenidium, Trichaptum, Vanderbylia and Steccherinum. Beihefte Nova Hedwigia 86, 1–265.

Crous PW, Gams W, Stalpers JA, Robert V, Stegehuis G (2004) MycoBank: an online initiative to launch mycology into the 21st century. Studies in Mycology 50, 19–22.

de Oliviera ML (1993) Red root rot of cocoa caused by Ganoderma philippii. Agrotropica 5, 13–18.

Felsenstein J (1989) PHYLIP — Phylogeny Inference Package (version 3.2). Cladistics 5, 164–166.

Flood J, Bridge PD, Holderness M (Eds) (2000) ‘Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops.’ (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK) 275 pp.

Gardes M, Bruns TD (1993) ITS primers with enhanced specificity for basidiomycetes — application to the identification of mycorrhizae and rusts. Molecular Ecology 2, 113–118. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-294X.1993. tb00005.x

Glen M, Tommerup IC, Bougher NL, O’Brien PA (2001) Specificity, sensitivity and discrimination of primers for PCR-RFLP of larger basidiomycetes and their applicability to identification of ectomycorrhizal fungi in Eucalyptus forests and plantations. Mycological Research 105, 138–149. doi: 10.1017/S0953756200003361

Glen M, Tommerup IC, Bougher NL, O’Brien PA (2002) Are Sebacinaceae common and widespread ectomycorrhizal associates of Eucalyptus species in Australian forests? Mycorrhiza 12, 243–247. doi: 10.1007/ s00572-002-0180-y

Glen M, Potter K, Sulistyawati P (2006) Molecular identification of organisms associated with root and heart rot in Acacia mangium. In ‘ACIAR Proceedings No. 124. Heart rot and root rot in Acacia plantations: a synthesis of research progress, 7–9 February, Yogyakarta, Indonesia’. (Eds K Potter, A Rimbawanto, C Beadle) pp. 55–59.

Gottlieb AM, Wright JE (1999) Taxonomy of Ganoderma from southern South America: subgenus Elfvingia. Mycological Research 103, 1289–1298. doi: 10.1017/S095375629800848X

Harsh NSK, Soni KK, Tiwari CK (1993) Ganoderma root-rot in an Acacia arboretum. European Journal of Forest Pathology 23, 252–254. doi: 10.1111/j.1439-0329.1993.tb01343.x

Hong S, Jung H (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of Ganoderma based on nearly complete mitochondrial small-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences. Mycologia 96, 742–755. doi: 10.2307/3762108

Hseu R, Wang H, Wang H, Moncalvo JM (1996) Differentiation and grouping of isolates of the Ganoderma lucidum complex by random amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR compared with grouping on the basis of internal transcribed spacer sequences. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 62, 1354–1363.

International Rubber Research and Development Board (1999) Red root rot. Available at http://www.irrdb.com/IRRDB/NaturalRubber/Diseases/ RedRootDisease.htm [Verified 26 February 2009].

Irianto RSB, Barry KM, Hidayati N, Ito S, Fiani A, Rimbawanto A, Mohammed CL (2006) Incidence, spatial analysis and genetic trials of root rot of Acacia mangium in Indonesia. Journal of Tropical Forest Science 18, 157–165.

Ito S-I (1999) Study on mass mortalities of Acacia mangium in the multistoried forest management project (1991-1999). Report to the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia, Perak State Forestry Department, and Japan International Cooperation Agency. 28 pp.

Ito S-I, Nanis LH (1997) Survey of heart rot on Acacia mangium in Sabah, Malaysia. Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Sciences 31, 65–71.

Lee SS (1985) Tree disease and wood deterioration problems in Peninsular Malaysia. Occasional Paper No. 5. Faculty of Forestry, Agriculture, University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. 15 pp.

Lee SS (1993a) Diseases. In ‘Acacia mangium growing and utilization. MPTS Monograph series No. 3’. (Eds K Awang, D Taylor) pp. 203–223. (Winrock International Institute for Agricultural Development: Arlington, VA)

Lee SS (1993b) Diseases of Acacias: an overview. In ‘Acacias for rural, industrial and environmental development. Proceedings of the second meeting of the consultative group for research and development of Acacias (COGREDA), Udorn Thani, Thailand, 15-18 February 1993’. (Eds K Awang, DA Taylor) pp. 225–239. (Winrock International, FAO: Bangkok)

Lee SS (2000) The current status of root diseases of Acacia mangium Willd. In ‘Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops’. (Eds J Flood, PD Bridge, M Holderness) pp. 71–79. (CABI Publishing: Wallingford, UK)

Lee SS (2002) Overview of the heartrot problem in Acacia — gap analysis and research opportunities. In ‘Heartrots in plantation hardwoods in Indonesia and Australia. ACIARTechnical Report 51E’. (Ed. KM Barry) pp. 26–34. (Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research: Canberra)

Lim TM (1977) Production, germination and dispersal of basidiospores of Ganoderma pseudoferreum on Hevea. Journal of the Rubber Research Institute of Malaysia 25, 93–99.

Mehrotra MD, Pandey PC, Chakrabarti K, Suresh S, Hazra K (1996) Root and heart rots in Acacia mangium plantations in India. Indian Forester 122, 155–160.

Moncalvo JM (2000) Systematics of Ganoderma. In ‘Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops’. (Eds J Flood, PD Bridge, M Holderness) pp. 23–47. (CAB International: Wallingford, UK)

Moncalvo JM, Ryvarden L (1997) A nomenclatural study of the Ganodermataceae Donk. Synopsis Fungorum 11, 1–114.

Moncalvo JM, Buchanan PK (2008) Molecular evidence for long distance dispersal across the Southern Hemisphere in the Ganoderma applanatumaustrale species complex (Basidiomycota). Mycological Research 112, 425–436. doi: 10.1016/j.mycres.2007.12.001

Moncalvo JM, Wang H, Hseu R (1995) Gene phylogeny of the Ganoderma lucidum complex based on ribosomal DNA sequences. Comparison with traditional taxonomic characters. Mycological Research 99, 1489–1499. doi: 10.1016/S0953-7562(09)80798-3

Old KM, Lee SS, Sharma P, Yuan ZQ (2000) ‘Amanual of diseases of tropical Acacias in Australia, South-East Asia and India.’ (Centre for International Forestry Research: Jakarta) 104 pp.

Quanten E (1997) The polypores (Polyporaceae s.l.) of Papua New Guinea. A preliminary conspectus. Opera Botanica Belgica 11, 1–352.

Risna RA Suhirman (2003) The diversity study of polyporous fungi in plantation and natural forest in South Sumatra. In ‘Botanical international conference, 15–18 July 2003’. Bali Botanic Garden.

Ryvarden L (1985) Type studies in the Polyporaceae 17. Species described by W. A. Murrill. Mycotaxon 23, 169–198.

Ryvarden L (1994) Can we trust morphology in Ganoderma? In‘Proceedings of contributed symposia 59A, Ganoderma — systematics, phytopathology and pharmacology. Fifth international mycological congress, Vancouver, 14–21 August 1994’. (Eds PK Buchanan, RS Hseu, JM Moncalvo) pp. 19–24.

Ryvarden L, Johansen I (1980) ‘A preliminary polypore flora of East Africa.’ (Fungiflora: Oslo) 636 pp.

Seo GS, Kirk PM (2000) Ganodermataceae: nomenclature and classification. In ‘Ganoderma diseases of perennial crops’. (Eds J Flood, PD Bridge, M Holderness) pp. 3–22. (CABI International: Wallingford, UK)

Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K (2000) Internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNAsequence of five species of Ganoderma from Australia. Mycological Research 104, 943–951. doi: 10.1017/S0953756200002458

Smith BJ, Sivasithamparam K (2003) Morphological studies of Ganoderma (Ganodermataceae) from the Australasian and Pacific regions. Australian Systematic Botany 16, 487–503. doi: 10.1071/SB02001

Steyaert RL (1972) Species of Ganoderma and related genera mainly of the Bogor and Leiden herbaria. Persoonia 7, 55–118.

Tham LX (1998) Aphylogenetic hypothesis of the Ganodermataceae based on a possible mode of basidiospore evolution. Mycotaxon 69, 1–12.

Thompson JD, Higgins DG, Gibson TJ (1994) CLUSTAL W: improving the sensitivity of progressive multiple sequence alignment through sequence weighting, position-specific gap penalties and weight matrix choice. Nucleic Acids Research 22, 4673–4680. doi: 10.1093/nar/22.22.4673

Utomo C, Niepold F (2000) Development of diagnostic methods for detecting Ganoderma-infected oil palms. Journal of Phytopathology 148, 507–514. doi: 10.1046/j.1439-0434.2000.00478.x

Wang D-M, Yao Y-J (2005) Intrastrain internal transcribed spacer heterogeneity in Ganoderma species. Canadian Journal of Microbiology 51, 113–121. doi: 10.1139/w04-118

White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor J (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In ‘PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications’. (Eds MA Innis, DH Gelfand, JJ Sninsky, TJ White) pp. 315–322. (Academic Press: San Diego, CA)

Ying SL, Chien CY, Davidson RW (1976) Root rot of Acacia confusa. Quarterly Journal of Chinese Forestry 9, 17–21.


Watch the video: WHAT Wednesday: Ganoderma Butt Rot


Previous Article

Cambria - Orchids - Cultivation techniques and main species of the Cambria Orchid

Next Article

Vitamin A Veggies: Learn About Vegetables High In Vitamin A