What Is Lethal Yellowing Disease: Learn About Lethal Yellowing Of Palms

By: Jackie Carroll

Lethal yellowing is a tropical disease that affects several species of palm. Find out about lethal yellowing treatment and detection in this article.

What is Lethal Yellowing?

As the name implies, lethal yellowing is a fatal disease. It is caused by a phytoplasma, which is a microscopic organism a little less sophisticated than a bacteria. Insects called planthoppers carry the phytoplasma from tree to tree. Planthoppers can’t survive at temperatures below freezing, and this prevents the disease from spreading into other parts of the country. Lethal yellowing disease can’t be controlled by killing the insect vector because insecticides often fail to come into contact with these constantly moving, flying insects.

Lethal yellowing disease affects coconut palms, date palms, and a few other palm species. In the U.S., it occurs in the lower third of the state of Florida where temperatures never drop below freezing. Palm trees in some parts of the Caribbean, as well as Central and South America, may also suffer from the disease. There is no cure, but you can extend the life of your tree and prevent lethal yellowing from spreading.

Treating or Preventing Lethal Yellowing of Palms

Before you embark or a campaign to control leafhoppers and planthoppers, make sure you have lethal yellowing and not a less severe disease with similar symptoms. The symptoms of lethal yellowing appears in these three stages:

  • In the first stage, the nuts fall from the trees prematurely. Fallen nuts have a blackened or browned area near the point where they were attached to the stem.
  • The second stage affects the tips of the male flowers. All new male flowers blacken from the tips down and then die. The tree can’t set fruit.
  • The disease derives its name from the third stage where the fronds turn yellow. Yellowing begins with the lower fronds and advances toward the top of the tree.

Trees infected with lethal yellowing disease should be removed and replaced with a resistant species. Consider planting native varieties, which have a natural resistance to the protoplasm. Taking the tree down as soon as you detect the disease helps prevent the spread to other trees.

When trees are rare or valuable, they can be injected with antibiotics. This is an expensive treatment, and the antibiotics are only available to professional arborists in the lower third of the state of Florida. Injections are only used as part of a broader control plan that includes the eventual replacement of the tree. Do not eat coconuts collected from treated palms.

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Lethal yellowing is an unique disease that influences a number of kinds palm species. This disfiguring condition can ruin views in North Carolina that rely on hands. Discover dangerous yellowing therapy and also acknowledgment in this certain article.

Just what’s Lethal Yellowing?

As the name suggests, deadly yellowing is a deadly illness. A phytoplasma causes it, which really is a microscopic organism simply a little much less progressed when as compared to microorganisms. Insects called planthoppers take the phytoplasma from tree to tree. Plant hoppers can’t endure at temperature level listed below freezing, which prevents the problem from dispersing into other locations of the countrywide nation. Lethal yellowing disease could not be manipulated by killing the pest vector considering that insecticides constantly overlook to touch these continuously removaling, flying insects.

Lethal yellowing disease influences coconut hands, day palms, as well as a few other palm varieties. Within the United States, it takes place in the reduced third of the consistent state of Florida where temperature ranges never ever go down listed below cold. Palm trees in a couple of aspects of the Caribbean, along with Central as well as SOUTH U.S.A, may have issues with the condition also. There is definitely no cure, nonetheless, you can lengthen the whole life of your tree protecting against dangerous yellowing from expanding.

Safeguarding versus or managing Lethal Yellowing

Prior to you begin or an ad campaign to manage plant hoppers and also leafhoppers, be sure to have dangerous yellowing instead of a much less severe illness with equivalent symptoms. The signs and symptoms of deadly yellowing looks in these three degrees:

Inside the initial stage, the nut products too soon show up from the trees and also hedges. Fallen nuts have actually a smudged or browned location close by truth point where they were connected to the stem.

The 2nd degree influences the ideas of the male plants. New male arrangements blacken from the suggestions down and after that end. The tree cannot establish fruit.

The problem acquires its name from the Third stage where actually the fronds transform yellow-colored. Yellowing commences with the lower fronds and also advances toward the top of the tree.

Trees as well as hedges affected with lethal yellowing condition ought to be eliminated as well as substituted with safeguarded kinds. Consider growing native ranges that have a 100% natural resistance to the protoplasm. Taking the tree down as soon as you identify the problem aids in protecting against the pass on to other trees and also hedges.

When trees and also bushes are valuable or unusual, they might be injected with antibiotics. That is an expensive treatment, as well as the antibiotics are simply open up to expert arborists in the reduced third of the consistent state of Florida. Injections are just utilized within a wider control strategy that includes the eventual substitute of the tree. Normally do not consume coconuts built up from dealt with hands. Buy disease free Palm Trees North Carolina from reputed palm tree supplier.

Lethal Yellowing

Lethal yellowing is a disease first noticed in the Caribbean region of North America about 100 years ago. However, it was not until the 1950s and a devastating outbreak in Jamaica and the Florida Keys that the economic consequences of lethal yellowing were recognized and intensive research begun. More recently, the disease has spread to other areas of Florida and into Texas. There is no cure for lethal yellowing although it can be controlled in valuable trees with regular injections (four times annually) of oxytetracycline. The good news is that palms native to Florida are generally resistant to this disease.

Lethal yellowing gets its name from the yellowing and drooping of palm fronds beginning with the lower fronds and advancing up through the crown. The disease characteristically has the following progression:

1. Coconuts, mature and immature, begin to drop from coconut palms and the fruit begin to drop from other varieties, a process called ‘shelling’.

2. Flower stalks (inflorescences) begin to blacken.

3. Palm fronds start to yellow (or, in the case of some species, turn greyish-brown), beginning with the older, lower fronds and progressing up through the crown.

4. The spear leaf collapses and the bud dies. By the time that this happens, the tree is already dead.

5. The entire crown falls from the tree leaving a forlorn ‘telephone pole’ stalk.

Unless treated, the tree dies within three to six months of the first symptom.

The Cause
The cause of lethal yellowing is believed to be a bacteria-like organism called a phytoplasma. Phytoplasmas are not yet well understood but, like bacteria, they can be controlled with antibiotics, in this case, oxytetracycline.

The Spread of the Disease
While there is not, as yet, definitive proof, the lethal yellowing micro-organism is most likely spread by an insect, the planthopper (myndus crudus). Again, research is continuing into the way in which this insect spreads the disease. Tests have demonstrated that insecticides can slow the spread of planthoppers and, with them, lethal yellowing. However, large-scale spraying using currently available chemicals is ecologically damaging and not economically viable. Another approach may be to develop a groundcover that discourages the insect, as young planthoppers feed on common grasses, but there have been no concrete results so far.

What To Do
There is to date no cure for lethal yellowing. Quarterly injections of oxytetracycline can keep the disease in check and this may be an option for extremely valuable residential landscape palms. Check with your local tree care specialist for advice regarding the cost and procedure in your area. The best option in combating lethal yellowing is to plant palms resistant to the disease.

Popular Native Palms Resistant to Lethal Yellowing
Cabbage Palmetto (Sabal palmetto)
Royal Palm (Roystonea regia)
Paurotis Palm (Acoelorraphe wrightii)
Florida Thatch Palm (Thrinax radiata)
Key Thatch Palm (T. morrisii)

Common Imported Palms Resistant to Lethal Yellowing
Alexandra Palm (Archontophoenix alexandrae)
Carpentaria Palm (Carpentaria acuminata)
Yellow Cane Palm (Chrysalidocarpus lutescens)
Pygmy Date Palm (Phoenix roebelenii)
MacArthur Palm (Ptychosperma macarthurii)
Solitaire Palm (Ptychosperma elegans)
Mexican Washingtonia (Washingtonia robusta)
Foxtail Palm (Wodyetia bifurcata)
Queen Palm (Syagrus romanzoffianum)

Spreaders, Sprayers, Dethatchers and Aerators

Departments - Product Focus

BlueBird 530 Lawn Aerator
The pitch: Greater productivity, better maneuverability and a user-friendly design are just a few of the features that make BlueBird’s 530 Lawn Aerator a breeze to operate.

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  • Removable side weights offer balance for easier slope aeration.

Tine-Rake dethatchers
The pitch: Tine-Rake dethatchers feature a unified raking motion that removes large amounts of thatch and surface aerates soil for better root development.

  • Triple dethatching efficiency by lifting thatch and vacuuming debris at the same time using a Grasshopper PowerVac Collection System.
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  • Permanent-mounting brackets can be installed in minutes.

AR 19 tine aerators
The pitch: Husqvarna’s hollow tine aerators feature free-wheeling outer tines for better maneuverability.

  • Additional side weights allow for improved soil penetration.
  • A folding operator handle, lift handles and semi-pneumatic front tire allow for easy transport and storage.
  • Rear-wheel control allows for adjustment of working depth and settings for stability.

Spreader cover
The pitch: Jump Start Lawncare’s see-through slide on shield fertilizer spreader cover is a durable lid that keeps fertilizer dry.

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  • Keeps fertilizer from getting wet and easy to wipe dry.

Z-Spray Line
The pitch: L.T. Rich Products Z-Spray line offers four sprayers, including Junior 36, Junior, Intermediate and Z-Max.

  • Each has a 4.0 GPM Pump, lock caster system, GPS system and stainless steel chassis.
  • The granular hopper ranges from 120 pounds to 220 pounds and the spray system ranges from 18 gallons to 50 gallons on the four models.
  • The spray width is 8 feet for the Junior 36, Junior and Intermediate, and 10 feet on the Z-Max.

ATT 150 All Terrain Tric
The pitch: With the new ATT 150 All Terrain Tric from Mid-Atlantic Services, operators can get on the ground earlier, increasing productivity and improving results with its accurate pump system.

  • Lightweight and comes with tricycle steering, which keeps load off the ATV tow vehicle.
  • Features a 150-gallon, low profile poly tank with high flotation 31 x 13.5 terra rib tires.
  • The John Blue ground metering pump system allows for the application of chemicals and fertilizer.

PermaGreen Triumph Sprayer Spreader
The pitch: The PermaGreen Triumph Sprayer Spreader can be used for all lawns, from postage-sized residential yards or sprawling, multi-acre commercial accounts.

  • Ride on technology with a 5.5-hp Honda horizontal shaft engine and wet clutch.
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Hydrostatic Aerator
The pitch: The primary feature of SourceOne’s PL855 PRO HD hydrostatic drive aerator is built-in performance.

  • Features a fingertip speed-control knob and a self-propelled hydrostatic-drive system.
  • Like all Plugr reciprocating aerators, heat-treated, high-tensile-strength, computer-machined tines are driven into even hard soils with cam-action engine power instead of bulky weights.
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Turfco TurnAer XT5

The pitch: The TurnAer XT5 utilizes Turfco’s steerable aerator technology with a new variable-speed hydrostatic drive system.

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  • Places weight directly over the tines for better penetration and smooth operation.
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US250 sprayer attachment
The pitch: TurfEx’s universal mount for zero-turn mowers allows the mounting system to stay within the mower’s footprint and is completely electric powered.

  • With a 12-volt electric motor, the sprayer draws its power from the mower’s battery.
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  • To apply liquid, the US250 features an adjustable spray wand, which is attached to a 25-foot hose.

100 Gallon Sprayer
The pitch: Turbo Turf’s 100 Gallon Sprayer was designed for reliability and for easy-to-use service.

  • Comes with a compact rectangular tank with an 8-inch fill well for easy loading.
  • Features an adjustable turbo gun, hose reel and mount and 300 feet of hose with a 600-psi rating.
  • There is a front-mounted-tank shutoff valve and tank drain, along with a 30-micron filter that has a convenient, easy-to-reach location.

Treatment of Lethal Yellowing in Foxtail Palms

The condition should be addressed immediately with injections of oxytetracycline-HCL, which should be available from most garden centers in areas where the trees are commonly seen, and from specialist palm tree nurseries. Howard and Harrison note, however, “this treatment is not curative, and must be repeated every three months to keep the disease in remission.” They also recommend seeking information on types of native palms that are immune to lethal yellowing disease from county extension services.

Why are my papaya leaves turning yellow?

Papayas need plenty of water to grow tasty fruit, but the plants do not tolerate wet feet. To avoid overwatering the papaya, water deeply only when the top 1 inch of soil dries.

Additionally, what is the best fertilizer for papaya tree? Regular fertilizer applications with a balanced, all-purpose fertilizer helps support proper papaya tree growth and fruit development. For the best results, use a 14-14-14 product starting in the third month after planting. Use 4 ounces of 14-14-14 per papaya tree, once every four weeks.

Likewise, people ask, why is my papaya tree wilting?

My Papaya Tree Is Wilting. Papaya trees are tropical plants that produce pear-shaped, melon-like fruit. They can be difficult to grow because they're sensitive to drought, cold temperatures, high winds and shade. Insufficient water, disease or attack by nematodes can all cause trees to wilt.

How is papaya disease treated?

  1. Papaya Anthracnose.
  2. The fungus is spread by wind and rain while disease emergence is favoured by high temperature and humidity.
  3. Benomyl or thiobendazole are amongst the more important fungicides used to reduce anthracnose of papaya.
  4. These fungicides are used with or without hot water treatment after harvest.

Chinese fan palm may develop yellowing or burnt leaves if grown in full sunlight and not irrigated regularly. Floridata notes that young Chinese fan palms look better in partial shade than full sunlight. To help prevent cultural-related foliage problems, plant Chinese fan palm in U.S. Department of Agriculture plant hardiness zones 9 to 11. Though the palm is not picky about soil, Floridata recommends fertilizing the palm in the spring and summer with a 1-1/2 pounds per 100 square feet of a slow-release, 8-2-12 fertilizer that contains micronutrients.

Michelle Wishhart is a writer based in Portland, Ore. She has been writing professionally since 2005, starting with her position as a staff arts writer for City on a Hill Press, an alternative weekly newspaper in Santa Cruz, Calif. An avid gardener, Wishhart worked as a Wholesale Nursery Grower at Encinal Nursery for two years. Wishhart holds a Bachelor of Arts in fine arts and English literature from the University of California, Santa Cruz.

Watch the video: Get It Growing: Lethal bronzing can kill windmill palm trees

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