Gathering tender and juicy raspberries, probably each of you had to, removing them from the fruit, find yellowish larvae of a raspberry beetle (1.5-7 mm in size and with a dark-colored head) in the fruits and casually throw them aside.
Raspberry beetle (Byturus tomentosus) is considered one of the most serious and ubiquitous pests of this crop, both in our gardens and in its wild thickets. Beetles are also found on blackberries, cloudberries, drupes, apples, cherries, pears, plums, mountain ash and other fruit and berry crops, as well as bird cherry. On the territory of the country, the beetle is most active in the European part, it is especially harmful in damp years.
The damage to the raspberry crop from the beetle and its larvae is, depending on the growing conditions, from 10 to 50%. The grayish-black body of the imago (elongated oval, 3.5-4.5 mm in size) is abundantly covered with rusty-yellow or gray hairs, which is why its color seems to be grayish-golden. The emergence of beetles from wintering on the soil surface occurs at the end of April - the first half of May at a temperature of its upper layer of 12 ... 13 ° C. As a rule, this moment coincides with the flowering period of fruit trees and bird cherry.
To achieve the ability to reproduce, beetles additionally (up to two weeks) feed on nectar and anthers of flowers of various cultural (currants, gooseberries, somewhat later apple, cherry) and early flowering weeds, and then fly to raspberry plantations (the flight distance reaches up to 120 m) ... In some years, the colonization of raspberries by beetles begins early, even before the buds appear. Then, for additional nutrition, the beetles feed on young leaves of raspberries, plucking out the pulp of the tissue and gnawing narrow oblong holes between the veins.
With the emergence of buds and flowers, the imago feeds on them, biting into the buds or eating away the nectaries (to a lesser extent other parts) of the flowers. As experts note, when feeding on pollen of additional forage plants, the maturation of reproductive products in females is almost twice as fast as in beetles that constantly feed on raspberry leaves and buds.
The female lays white or yellowish eggs of an elongated-elliptical shape, about 1 mm long (up to 20-30 eggs in total), one at a time between the stamens and pistils in the flowers and at the tops of the ovaries. The period of oviposition is extended, therefore, beetles can be found on raspberry bushes for two months (their maximum number falls on the time of mass flowering of bushes), even at the time of ripening of berries. After 8-12 days, the larvae hatching from the eggs live for some time outside the fruit, and then bite inside, where they feed, making moves, with a fleshy receptacle of still forming green berries and the adjacent part of the drupes, often severely damaging the berries themselves. Such fruits develop poorly, shrink, become ugly, wither and often rot, especially in wet weather.
The maximum number of damaged berries is observed during the period of their harvest, such fruits not only lose their nutritional quality, but also reduce the yield. The larvae live in raspberries for up to one and a half months, capturing the ripening period of the fruits, as a result of which they are often found in the harvested berries. During the ripening period of berries, the larvae leave them and burrow into the soil, where they pupate in cradles at a depth of 5-20 cm, later turning into hibernating immature beetles. If beetles emerge from pupae by the wintering period, they, as a rule, die with the onset of frost. Some of the late developmental and matured larvae enter a state of prolonged diapause, as a result of which such larvae hibernate and pupate.
Beetles of a new generation appear only in August next year, i.e. in a year. Recall that diapause is a specific state of an insect, when, when unfavorable soil and climatic conditions for its further life occur, its biological processes are reduced to a minimum, and mechanisms of resistance to these negative environmental factors are activated in the body. The number of diapausing larvae varies from year to year within 10-82% of the total number of wintering individuals: the later the larvae hatch and feed, the more of them remain for wintering. The depth and location of the larvae depend mainly on the structure of the soil and its moisture content. It turns out that under certain soil and climatic conditions, the raspberry beetle can have a two-year development period.
When harvesting raspberries, you will notice that the caterpillars often remain in the berries and can only emerge after some time. If you put cheesecloth or other dense material in the container where the raspberries are collected, you can collect and destroy the majority of the beetle larvae that have accumulated there. I often practiced this method: after the bulkhead, before making the jam, the berries were immersed in salt water, in which the larvae emerged from the damaged fruits, and thus freed from them.
Of the agrotechnical measures that significantly reduce the number of wintering beetles and larvae, the most common practice is to dig the soil under the bushes. Some of the owners of household plots, during the budding of raspberries, use open umbrellas or containers with wide necks (for example, pots) to collect and destroy beetles, where they are shaken off. This procedure is best carried out in the morning, when the beetles are the least mobile, do not "get on the wing", flying from bush to bush: this method can catch more than half of the insects. Damaged berries with larvae should be systematically removed and destroyed, and not just thrown aside, since the ingress of larvae on the ground often leads to their pupation (especially if they are older and have managed to feed on the fruits).
Chemical treatment against the raspberry beetle can be directed simultaneously against the raspberry-strawberry weevil, flower beetle weevil, leafworms, aphids and other related raspberry pests that colonize this crop during the period of bud formation.
Of insecticides, fufanon, Kemifos, Iskra M (10 ml), Iskra (1 tab.), As well as actellic (15 ml) are used (per 10 liters of water). Preparations of the first group are used at the rate of up to 2 liters per 10 bushes, and actellik - 1.5 liters per 10 m², keeping the waiting time recommended by the instructions before picking berries.
candidate of biological sciences,
senior researcher at VIZR,
The common raspberry shrub (Rubus idaeus) is a member of the genus Rubus of the pink family. This genus unites about 600 species. Most of these species were already known in the Ancient World, for example, the first mention of the existence of wild raspberries is in the manuscripts of the 3rd century. BC. For the first time, raspberries were cultivated in Western Europe in the 16th century. Under natural conditions, such a shrub prefers to grow along river banks and in forests. For many centuries, this plant has been one of the most popular berry crops grown in gardens. Today, this plant can be found in almost every garden plot. The fragrant and very tasty fruits of raspberries are also appreciated for their usefulness, as they contain minerals, acids and vitamins necessary for the human body. This culture is distinguished by its unpretentiousness. Such a plant is able to grow well and give good yields even in desolation. If properly cared for, raspberries will be protected from infection by various diseases and pests, and will also yield rich yields.
The beetle spreads by migration.
Raspberries are sprayed with kinmix or karbofos twice, and the soil under the bushes is also cultivated. When harvesting, wormy berries are selected and destroyed. In the fall, the earth is well dug up.
In childhood, we called raspberry beetles - a stink bug, they have a very disgusting smell. The description of the beetle was a little surprised, our Voronezh centimeters are 1.5-2 in size, and in the article they say from 3-4 mm, maybe they fed so well in our region or some other variety.
To your attention - the most common representatives of the fauna, which, like many summer residents, do not mind eating sweet berries (and not only them).
The pest is washed off the leaves with water, then the soil is loosened to a depth of 2-3 cm. Traps are made: a sheet of plywood is painted yellow, smeared with petroleum jelly. The leaves are treated with soapy water: 1 part soap shavings to 6 parts water. Enkarsia is released into the garden of the parasite (3 individuals per 1 sq. M).
Compliance with crop rotation. Removal of weak and diseased plants. Heat treatment of roots: a bush affected by a nematode is removed from the soil and washed with water or soaked in water at a temperature of 50-55 ° C. Planting resistant strawberry varieties (e.g. Festivalnaya).
Treatment of plants with preparations Skor, Nematofagin.
Thinning of plantings, regular weeding. Processing with onion husk infusion (pour 200 g of husk with 10 liters of warm water, leave for 4 days) or garlic extract (pour 200 g of chopped garlic in 10 liters of water, stir, strain).
Treatment of plantings with BioKill insecticide, Fufanon-Nova.
Strawberry leaf beetle
Do not allow strawberries to be adjacent to meadowsweet and cinquefoil - these are the "houses" of the pest. Regular loosening of the soil is imperative.
Before flowering, plantings are treated with pesticides: Taran, Fufanon-Nova.
Raspberry kidney moth
Thinning plantings, cleaning the site from debris. Treatment of raspberries with an infusion of wormwood: 800 g of dried grass (or 0.5 buckets of raw) pour 10 liters of water, leave for 24 hours. Then boil, strain, dilute 2 times.
Use Fufanon-Nova before and after flowering.
Raspberry stem gall midge
The affected plant parts must be removed. The insect repels the smell of garlic and onions, therefore, it is advisable to plant these crops near the raspberry.In the growing season, after each generation of the pest, use Bitoxibacillin.
Apply Fufanon-Nova twice a season, before and after flowering.
Raspberry stem fly
Affected shoots are cut and burned. In autumn, the soil is dug under the bushes, pruning is carried out in a timely manner.
Treatment with 1% Bordeaux liquid. Spraying with Iskra, Inta-Vir, etc. is effective.
Obligatory destruction of plant residues at the end of the season. Processing with wood ash infusion (pour 3 kg of 10 liters of boiling water, add 40 g of soap shavings, stir, leave for 12 hours).
Before and after flowering, plants are treated with Alatar, Taran, Fury, Fufanon-Nova preparations.
During deep (20 cm) loosening, tobacco dust is added to the soil. Garlic and onions are planted in the raspberry grove to attract predators - hoverflies and ground beetles - to the site. Plants are treated with tansy infusion (400 g per 5 liters of water, leave for 24 hours, then boil, strain and dilute to 10 liters). Before flowering, the bushes are sprayed with 2% Bitoxibacillin.
Treatment with Inta-Vir, Kinmiks, Confidor Extra preparations. The approximate consumption of the working solution is 1.5 liters per 10 bushes.
Spraying with onion infusion: pour 20 g of 1 liter of water, stir, leave for 7-8 hours, strain.
Treatment of bushes on leaves with preparations Fufanon-Nova, Iskra, etc. (dosage according to instructions).