Marena (lat.Rubia) - a genus of herbaceous perennials of the Madder family, numbering more than 80 species growing in southern Europe, as well as in areas with a temperate and tropical climate in Asia, Africa, America. The most famous species in culture is the madder dye, which is grown on an industrial scale for the manufacture of red paint. This property of madder dye explains the name of the whole genus, because rubia means "red".
Other useful properties of madder dye have long been known, which made it popular in private garden plots.
Read more about growing madder below.
Madder is a plant with a strong main root (it is called "crapp") with thick rhizomes extending from it, covered with a red-brown layered bark. Thin, strongly branching, climbing, tetrahedral stems of the plant, planted along the ribs with prickly, curved needles, begin their growth in mid-May. Dense, hard, light green leaves of a lanceolate or elliptical shape, set along the edges and on the lower side of the plate with frequent curved needles and collected in whorls of 2-6 pieces, reach 10 cm in length and 3 cm in width.They can be sessile or are attached to stem with a short, winged petiole. Small star-shaped yellow madder flowers with funnel-shaped corollas are collected in axillary or apical semi-umbrellas. Flowering begins in June and ends in August. Madder fruits, black drupes with juicy pulp up to 9 mm long, ripen from August to November in the first year of growth.
Madder is a thermophilic, moisture-loving and demanding plant on the composition and fertility of the soil: its roots penetrate deep to 35 cm, so the soil must be loose and structured, otherwise you can not count on a good harvest. The best soil for madder is light to medium loamy, rich in humus and well fertilized. It is advisable to sow madder after winter cereals, early forage or vegetable industrial crops in an area that was previously fallow.
Before sowing, winter plowing is carried out on the site or the soil is dug up to the depth of a shovel bayonet, embedding 2 kg of humus or compost in each m2 of the site, then the site is harrowed and cultivated to a depth of 6-7 cm The seed is treated before sowing with Granosan at the rate of 2 g of the preparation for 1 kg of seeds.
In areas with a warm climate, madder seeds are sown directly into the ground in the second half of April, when the soil warms up to 6-8 ºC. Sowing is carried out to a depth of 4-5 cm, maintaining a row spacing of 45-60 cm. At a temperature of 10 ºC, seedlings may appear in two to three weeks, however, under unfavorable weather conditions, the process of seed germination may take 30-40 days. The most favorable temperature for the growth and development of madder is 23-25 ºC.
Madder is also grown from rhizome cuttings 6-8 cm long, which are planted at a distance of 10-15 cm from each other in 8-10 cm deep grooves cut by a cultivator. The filled furrows are rolled in and watered.
Madder can bear fruit in the first year, but there will be few of them. Normal fruiting will begin in 2-3 years. Care for madder consists in maintaining the soil on the site in a moist and loose state and in removing weeds. During the season, it is necessary to carry out 3-4 loosening of the soil, including in the aisles, and weed the area by hand 1-2 times. In autumn, the plant should be hilled, and from the second year of vegetation, in early spring, remove dead ground organs and apply a nitrogen-phosphorus complex to the soil on the site at the rate of 3 g of fertilizer for each m².
For medical purposes, the roots and rhizomes of madder are harvested, which are harvested in the second or third year of the growing season, respectively: in late summer, from early August to late September, or in spring, from mid-March to mid-April. The roots are dug, cleaned of the earth and, without washing, laid out in an open place under the sun so that they wither. Then they are dry cleaned of soil residues and dried already in the shade or in a gloomy, dry room with good ventilation. If you decide to use an oven for drying raw materials, then the temperature in it should not exceed 45 ºC. Dry raw materials are placed in glass jars and sealed tightly. Madder roots can be stored for two years.
Also known in culture:
Which grows naturally in Siberia, Primorye and Priamurye. In culture, it is grown on the Cape of Good Hope and in the Nile Valley for the same purposes, for which madder is also grown - for the production of paint and medicinal raw materials. This plant is up to 2 m in height with heart-shaped leaves;
Growing in the Crimea and the Caucasus. It differs from madder dye in larger size, ovoid leaves and the presence of pubescence.
View Rubia peregrinapopular in Iran and Syria. Other types of madder are extremely rare in gardens and usually appear there by chance.
Madder roots and rhizomes contain lucidin, purpurin, xanthopurpurin, pseudopurpurin, free alizarin, ruberitric acid, haliosin, ibericin, tartaric, malic and citric organic acids, sugars, pectins, and calcium and potassium salts. An important property for humans of the herbal preparations that make up madder is the ability to remove urates, oxalates and phosphates from the body. In addition, they have diuretic, choleretic, antispasmodic and astringent properties. That is why traditional medicine recommends the treatment of madder nephrolithiasis, inflammatory diseases of the digestive organs, constipation, cystitis, nephropielitis, polyarthritis, gout and nocturia. Madder is used as an additional remedy in the treatment of bone diseases - caries, tuberculosis and rickets. Infusion of madder rhizomes is used for delayed menstruation and inflammation of the spleen.
Hippocrates, Dioscorides, Galen and other outstanding healers who used madder for diseases of the kidneys and liver and for healing wounds wrote about the healing power of madder dye. But Tibetan healers used madder to treat the same diseases.
The main purpose of madder is to dissolve and remove stones from the liver and kidneys. It has been experimentally proven that a five percent solution of dry extract of madder dye in two weeks is able to loosen a hard kidney stone to such an extent that it crumbles and leaves the body in the form of sand. In other words, madder root has managed to replace the surgeon's knife.
Madder preparations are contraindicated in chronic and acute glomerulonephritis, peptic ulcer disease, hyperacid gastritis, severe renal failure and pregnancy. It is not recommended to use them for children and breastfeeding. In case of an overdose of madder drugs, irritation of the gastric mucosa, pain and exacerbation of diseases of the urinary tract can occur.
Sections: Garden plants Perennials Herbaceous Medicinal Plants on M Madder
Where does the marsh cinquefoil grow? According to the name, its thickets can often be found near the water - near swamps, lakes and rivers, as well as in the tundra and forest belt. This plant is rather unpretentious and belongs to the category of perennial shrubs with long lanceolate leaves, on the inside covered with a short dark pile, and a creeping rhizome stretching up to 3 meters. Not only leaves and roots deserve attention, but also medium-sized burgundy inflorescences, as well as fruit-boxes with seeds, which can be sown even in the middle lane at their summer cottage. However, neither the flowers nor the fruits of the cinquefoil possess medicinal properties.
If you independently collect raw materials for subsequent harvesting and treatment, it is important to remember that the roots are taken after the plant inflorescences wither, and the stems and leaves are best collected throughout the summer, during the flowering period - this will provide the maximum concentration of all nutrients that can be take from the saber. In medicine, raw materials are used after drying, although some recipes allow you to change the choice in favor of fresh leaves.
Now it's time to introduce some classification, according to which we will understand this topic. There are two main ways to grow your own stock. It is seed or vegetative. What is the main difference? In the first case, the name speaks for itself. A seed stock is the result of planting a seed. That is, we sowed a bone, or a seed, of an apple tree and got a young tree, which will be the seed stock.
The second option is clonal rootstocks. They reproduce by layering or cuttings, which is why they are used much more often than others, because cultivation takes much less time. All clonal rootstocks can be divided into two groups - medium-sized and dwarf. It is apple trees on dwarf rootstocks that seem to be the most attractive from the outside, but require the greatest investment. The gardener will need to equip supports and organize watering, as well as pest control throughout the life of the garden. Therefore, amateurs are advised to choose medium-sized or large rootstocks.
There are no serious contraindications for the drug drop cap.
Only the following can be noted:
To make tea from the medicinal letter: dry leaves are crushed and poured with boiled water, and then they are drunk with the addition of sugar, jam or honey.
Applying fresh, washed leaves has a healing effect on wounds, pressure sores and ulcers.
To prepare a decoction from the roots of a plant, which is an excellent laxative, you need 20 g of dried roots and 200 ml of water. Then they should be boiled for 20 minutes and filtered. Take 3 times daily for 1 tbsp. l.
For skin diseases such as psoriasis or eczema, the herbal infusion should be taken orally. The infusion is prepared as follows: you will need half a tablespoon of the herb, it is poured with 1 glass of boiling water and infused for 1 hour and finally, filtered. Consume 4 times a day, 0.5 cups before meals. Still, such an infusion is perfect for baths with such a problem as sweating feet.
The beneficial properties of the medicinal letter are, of course, a proven fact. But still, do not forget to consult your doctor. Be healthy.
Aconite oak tree is actively used in alternative medicine for malaria, tuberculosis, cancer, gastrointestinal diseases, rheumatism. It is also used as an antipyretic agent, and in case of poisoning it is used as an antidote.
Very often it is used externally as an antiseptic for the treatment of long-term non-healing wounds. Tincture of the fighter oakravny has been widely used in the treatment of sciatica and osteochondrosis. Due to the substances contained in it, which have a strong irritant effect, the blood flow to the site of action of the medicinal plant is significantly increased. As a result, the blood circulation of the tissues and the general condition of the patient are improved. In addition to the one described above, the following techniques are used in folk medicine:
When using aconite, all indicated dosages must be carefully observed. In the case of an increase in the dose of active substances, the consequences can be extremely unpredictable. Even when preparing a medicine based on aconite oakonite, it is necessary to wear rubber gloves on your hands.
Hemlock treatment techniques
In addition to the one described above, the following techniques are used in folk medicine:
Hemlock tincture should not be used during pregnancy, with epileptic seizures, with diseases of the cardiovascular system, hypotension.