Those who wish to plant Spanka cherries in their garden may be confused by the variety of varieties. The market will offer Shpanki: dwarf, Bryansk, Shimskaya, Donetsk. They differ in appearance and size (from dwarf to giant), lifespan and fruiting, quality of berries and yield. Therefore, each Shpanka requires a closer acquaintance.
Spanka belongs to the so-called folk varieties, the authors and the exact date of origin of which are unknown. It was isolated in the XIX or at the beginning of the XX century (and according to other sources - more than 200 years ago) as a result of crossing cherry and cherry, therefore, from a scientific point of view, it is a hybrid that has become a separate resistant variety. For many decades, Shpanka has proven itself well and has spread widely across the territories of Russia, Ukraine and Moldova.
The origin of the Shpunk cherry is difficult to establish, therefore it is called a folk variety.
The height of the tree reaches 6 m, but there are specimens up to 10 m high. The life of the plant is 20–25 years. In some cases, with proper anti-aging pruning, up to 30 years and even more, but that's not all. When the cherry begins to age, one root shoot is left under it. Then the dried up old trunk is cut down, and a new tree remains on the way to fruiting. Thus, without any problems, it is possible to keep cherry plantings in one place for many decades. In the Central Black Earth Region and other regions, there are still old plantings of cherry trees, which have been growing since the late 40s - early 50s of the last century.
With proper pruning and proper care, the lifespan of a cherry tree can be extended over decades.
The trunk and perennial branches of Shpanki are dark brown in color, young ones are much lighter in color. This is important to know, because cherries bear fruit exclusively on young shoots, which is taken into account when pruning. Crown foliage is medium. Therefore, Shpanka is not prone to thickening, shades itself a little inside the crown, even without thinning pruning. The branches do not grow upward, as in the pyramidal varieties, but at right angles to the trunk, parallel to the ground. This can be considered a disadvantage, because under the weight of a large crop, they can sometimes break and require the installation of supports. The Shpanki leaf is long, 7–8 cm, more like a cherry leaf, with pink petioles.
The first small crop of Shpanka gives 5 years after planting a 1.5–2-year-old seedling. Then, over the years, the yield increases, reaching a peak by the age of 15-18. At this age, one tree can produce 50-60 kg of berries. Average yields at other times of life are considered to be 35–40 kg. A flattened berry, weighing up to 5–6 g, which is considered large for a cherry, in a ripe state, dark burgundy, juicy. The pulp is yellow inside, the stone is easily separated. The berries are sweet, juicy, with a slight sourness.
In terms of taste and quality of berries, Shpanka has very good indicators among cherries precisely because it inherited part of its ancestor - cherries. However, the fruits are not stored for long, they require quick processing or freezing.
The harvest ripens by mid-summer. Fruiting is gradual, stretching almost until the end of summer. Ripe fruits fall off by themselves at the slightest breath of wind, so they must be picked on time.
Spanky is considered self-fertile, that is, it does not require cross-pollination with neighboring cherries - both male and female flowers grow on the same tree. A lonely tree will also bear fruit. But the harvest is more plentiful and the quality of the fruit is higher if Shpanka grows in a group of cherries of any other varieties.
So that the garden is not unstable, it is not recommended to plant undersized or dwarf varieties next to a tall Shpanka, which, moreover, will be heavily shaded.
An adult Spanky tree produces up to 40 kg of cherries
Shpanka is a hardy variety that tolerates drought and severe frosts in winter (up to -35aboutFROM). But the properties of the thermophilic ancestor (sweet cherry) do not allow the variety to spread far to the north. Cherries can endure winter, but too short a summer will not allow fruits to ripen. However, in the Moscow region and in the Middle Volga region, Shpanka is growing.
Spanko is successfully propagated by root shoots. Removing the offspring under the trunk is a must because they drain the main tree. And if the shoots are not touched, then in a few years it will become a competitor to the main trunks and to each other, cause thickening, as a result, instead of a garden, there will be abandoned impassable jungle with a small harvest.
The shoots are cut at the level of the ground, without leaving a hemp, then thrown away or burned. But you can use it as a planting material. To do this, choose a suitable seedling from what has grown at the moment or, cutting out the growth, leave several of the strongest shoots in order to transplant them in a year or two. It is optimal to replant 1.5–2-year-old shoots with a height of 60–80 cm.
The seedling chosen for transplantation is buried to the depth of a shovel bayonet along the perimeter, pulled out along with the ground, trying to keep as many roots as possible intact. In the process of removing the seedling, a horizontal thick uterine root, coming from the main tree, will reveal itself. It is chopped off with a shovel or nibbled with a pruner. When digging up the shoots, one should not forget that work is going on in the zone of the root system of a living tree, so there is no need to dig too much. The hole is then covered with loose soil and sprinkled with fallen leaves or mulch. The seedling is placed on a damp burlap and the entire root system is covered with it.
Correctly cut root shoots are removed along with the roots and earthy clod
But if you manage to find a 2.5–3-year-old shoot that looks like an independent seedling, you can transplant it too, this will speed up the first harvest by 1–2 years. In the abandoned garden, you can also find a 4–5-year-old seedling. But the older it is, the worse it takes root, and the greater the volume of roots and earth will have to be moved with it.
Can also be propagated by grafting onto the stock of outbred, but hardy cherries. But this is more difficult and time-consuming, because first you need to grow the stock, then wait for the grafted shoot to grow back.
In the southern regions, you can plant Shpanku during the rest period:
In the northern regions, it is recommended to plant cherries in the spring, since the tree planted in the fall will not have time to prepare for wintering.
Spanke needs a sunny spot. In the southern regions, shading at the bottom is allowed, for example, from distant fences or low buildings. In the suburbs and other colder regions in shaded areas, the snow melts longer, the ground warms up worse, the growing season of the tree is reduced, so the place should be completely sunny.
There are places between buildings where drafts blow even in calm weather. Such places are not suitable for cherries.
Shpanke needs a loose, free-flowing, but sufficiently water-absorbing soil. Unstructured sticky alumina or heavy loam is not suitable, in which the roots will not be able to develop well. The soil should not be acidic, but neutral or slightly alkaline, with a pH of about 7. Groundwater should be no higher than 1.5 m from the soil surface.
The sequence of steps when planting cherries:
The root system of the seedling should be freely placed in the planting pit.
The roots of the seedling are located on a mound, the root collar should not be covered with earth
The tree is watered, taking into account the moisture content of the soil
Caring for Shpanka - feeding, pruning, pest and disease control - is almost standard, as for all tall cherries. Some features:
Many years of experience in growing Shpanki has shown that almost the only problem in cultivating it is harvesting from a tall tree.
At the end of the 20th - beginning of the 21st century, on the basis of the old Shpanka variety, breeders created new varieties that are also worthy of the attention of gardeners.
The variety was included in the State Register in 2009, it is recommended for use in the Central Region. The trunk is short, of medium height, that is, lower than the old Shpanky. The shoots do not grow parallel to the ground, but upward, which is why the tree has a different shape. The color of the bark is gray-olive. Fruits are smaller, up to 4 g in weight, round-flat, light red. Sakharov gains up to 9%, which is far from a record, so the taste of ripe fruits is not sweet and sour, but, on the contrary, sweet and sour. It is considered self-fertile, capable of bearing fruit on a single tree. Early ripening.
The average yield of Shpanki Bryanskaya, according to the State Register, is 73 kg from 1 hectare, that is, 73 kg from 100 m2, or about 8 kg per barrel. According to other sources, Shpanka Bryanskaya produces about 35-40 kg from one trunk, which is closer to reality.
Cherry Shpanka Bryansk is recommended for cultivation in the Central region
The variety was named after the place of origin - Shimsky district of the Leningrad region. Therefore, it is perfectly adapted to the conditions of the Northwest.
Early ripening variety, berries ripen in late June - early July. Fruiting until August. The farther south the region is, the faster fruiting begins. Up to 45–55 kg of fruit can be harvested from one adult trunk. Begins to bear fruit from 3-4 years, life span up to 25 years. Fruits are medium in size, up to 3.5 g, light red even when ripe, sweet, with sourness. The pulp is light pink, the juice is not coloring.
The tree is medium-sized, up to 3 m in height. The crown is bushy, rare, does not require thinning pruning. The bark is very dark, almost black even on young two-year-old shoots. It tolerates winter well, but sometimes it can suffer from a fungal disease, monilial burn, which will require treatment with fungicides.
The variety is self-fertile, therefore it requires planting in a group with pollinators, cherries of other varieties, for example, Vladimirskaya or Korostynskaya.
Like Shimskaya, it was named after its place of origin - Donetsk Experimental Gardening Station. It is a hybrid of cherry and cherry. The crown in the early years is in the form of a pyramid, then it becomes rounded. The variety yields record large berries - up to 6–7 g. Fruits are light red, yellow flesh, sweet and sour taste. The variety is winter-hardy and drought-resistant. In severe frosts in winter, it can suffer, but it is able to quickly recover. The tendency to fungal diseases is average.
The tree begins to bear fruit in 3-4 years, reaching its peak by 9-12 years.
A variety of low self-fertility, a single tree will give a small yield. Therefore, it requires planting in a group for mutual pollination. In warm regions for pollination, it is recommended to plant not cherries or a hybrid, but cherries.
Shpanka Donetskaya has large light red berries
Spanki dwarf berries are distinguished by excellent taste. It is a hybrid of cherry and cherry, therefore it has a cherry flavor combined with the best cherry flavor. The variety is considered tenacious and hardy, resistant to frosty winters, fungal diseases and pests, therefore it grows successfully in the North-West.
The average height of an adult dwarf Shpanki tree is no more than 3 m
This variety was isolated by breeders almost a century ago. And in 1938 he was given a separate name Shpanka early, or Kurskaya, after the place of origin, in order to avoid confusion in the group of varieties, also known as Shpanka. Many people still confuse it with the large southern Shpankoy. But these are two separate varieties, very different from each other. Shpanka Kursk is not a hybrid with a cherry, but a pure cherry, belongs to the amorel type, that is, a red cherry with colorless juice. The variety was widespread in the Kursk region, less often found in neighboring regions. In more northern regions, it never grew, possibly due to its low winter hardiness. And even in the southern regions, cherries were severely frozen in severe winters.
Early variety, fruits ripen from mid-June. The tree reaches a height of 4 m. The crown is wide and spreading, sparse, the shoots are thick, gray-brown in color. The yield depends on the wintering conditions of the flower buds. If the buds do not freeze, the tree gives up to 30 kg of fruit. Begins to bear fruit at 4–5 years. The life span is up to 25 years, the peak yield occurs at 12-18 years.
Propagated by grafting on local sour cherry seedlings. This increases its frost resistance. Although you can propagate by root shoots. For pollination, you need to plant it in a group with varieties of the same height - Vladimir, Kent and varieties of the Griot group.
Old varieties, reliable and proven for centuries, can get lost among the abundance of new ones with convenient qualities - fast-growing, quick to return, with a dull harvest, undersized, and so on. Therefore, there is a reason to find a real Shpanka in the old gardens, knowing exactly what it is, and transplant, keeping it in the new garden.
Rate the article:
(2 votes, average: 5 out of 5)
Share with your friends!
Cherry Spunk Is a Ukrainian variety that has several varieties. It was obtained as a result of folk selection, a hybrid of cherry and sweet cherry. It is a tall tree with a spherical crown. Branches extend from the trunk at an obtuse angle. Since the branches are not firmly attached, sometimes crown breaks occur.
The leaves are dark green, pointed from above, of medium size, have a pinnate venation. They are kept on pink petioles.
Fetus - a dark brown shiny berry of a round-flattened shape, weighing 4-5 g. The pulp is juicy, sweet and sour, light yellow. Fruiting begins in late June - early July, at the 6-7th year of the tree's life.
The yield is quite high and regular, up to 50 kg can be harvested from one individual. Fruits hang on the branches in garlands or along the entire length of the annual growth, so the shoots are periodically pruned.
In care, Shpanka cherry is not whimsical, it has high frost resistance. Withstands frosts down to -35 ° С. Drought-resistant. Grows well on fertile, light soils. When growing on heavy, nutrient-poor soil, burns and lacrimation appear on the branches and trunk. Self-fertile. Self-fertility is 5-10%. Many varieties of sweet and self-fertile cherries are suitable as pollinators.
Cherry fruits of this variety are used in cooking as an additive to many dishes. Jam, jams, compotes, and wines are made from berries. Cherries can also be dried or frozen.
Planting and leaving
Planting is done in September or early spring before budding. To do this, pre-prepare the soil, dig a hole the size of the root of a young tree, add fertilizer to the bottom. If the root system is damaged, it is carefully pruned. After planting, the plant is watered abundantly with water. The place for planting Shpanka cherries should be sunny, preferably on a hill where no shadow will fall on the plant. It is also necessary to protect the tree from the wind, since in winter the cold wind will freeze the seedlings, which sometimes leads to their death. When planting in groups, a distance of at least 4 m is left between the trees. Planting on acidic soils is unacceptable, as this will interfere with the absorption of nutrients by the seedlings. With increased acidity, limestone and mixtures containing phosphorus and potassium are introduced into the soil.
Plant care consists of annual fertilization and regular watering on dry days.
Photo of Shpunk cherry can be seen below in the photo gallery.
Cherry "Shpanka" is a hybrid of national selection of Ukrainian origin. Parent varieties were popular in Ukraine varieties of cherries and sweet cherries. "Shpanka" has become widespread in the southern regions, Ukraine and Moldova.
Cherry "Shpanka": variety description
The tree at "Shpanki" is powerful, tall, up to 6 meters high. The trunk and branches are covered with dark brown bark, and the young shoots have a light brown bark. The leaves are large, elliptical, up to 8 centimeters long. At the base, the color of the leaves is green, and as you move towards the top, it is dark green. The flowers are large, five-petal, white, collected in inflorescences of 2-3 pieces.
The "Shpanki" fruits are large, weighing 4-5 grams. Their shape is rounded-flattened, the diameter is 1 centimeter. The skin color of cherries is maroon, sometimes with a dark brown tint. The pulp is light yellow, dense, homogeneous, juicy. The cherries have a pleasant, sweet and sour taste. The stone separates well from the pulp.
There are several more varieties of "Shpanky". "Shpanka dwarf" - up to 3 meters high, "Shpanka Bryanskaya" - a medium-sized variety with a height of 3-4 meters, "Shpanka Kurskaya" - up to 4 meters high, "Shpanka Shimskaya" - a variety adapted to the conditions of the Pskov, Novgorod and Leningrad regions. There is also "Shpanka Donetskaya" - bred on the basis of the variety of cherries "Donchanka" and sweet cherries "Valery Chkalov", and "Shpanka early" - the variety ripens at the end of June.
"Shpanka" enters fruiting late - 5-6 years after planting. However, on rootstocks, the beginning of fruiting occurs 2-3 years after planting. The variety is fruitful and gives up to 35-40 kilograms of fruit per tree. The cultivar is self-fertile and requires pollinators.
The advantages of "Shpanki" are: frost resistance up to -35 degrees, drought resistance, good and stable productivity, good transportability of berries. The disadvantages include: the tallness of the tree, late entry into fruiting, fragility of the branches, the need for regular pruning.
Cherry "Shpanka": planting and care
"Shpanku" is recommended to be planted near fences and curbs in order to create additional protection for the seedlings from the wind. The best time for planting in the southern and central regions of Russia is autumn, somewhere in late September, a month before the soil freezes. In the eastern regions, it is better to plant "Shpanku" in the spring, in April, after the soil has warmed up enough.
If groundwater is close to the ground on the site, it is better to plant cherry trees in sunny and elevated places. Best of all, the Shpanka cherry variety takes root on loose, fertile soils, the acidity of which is close to neutral. Acidic soils are limed: on sandy loam soils, 400–500 grams of lime is added to the soil per 1 square meter, on heavy loamy soils - 600–800 grams. Lime is carefully rubbed with the soil to avoid scalding the root system of the seedling.
Pits for spring planting of cherries are prepared in the fall: the depth of the pit is 50 centimeters, the diameter is 100 centimeters. The dug soil is mixed with a bucket of compost or humus, 150-200 grams of simple superphosphate and 100 grams of potassium fertilizer. In addition, up to 500 grams of reverse ash is added to the mixture. For autumn planting, pits are prepared at least 2 weeks in advance.
Don't forget about pollinators when planting. The best pollinators for the variety are: "Griot Ukrainian", "Griot Ostgeimskiy", "Stoicaya".
"Shpanka" is famous for its drought resistance and can do without watering for a month at a temperature of + 35-40 degrees. However, twice during the growing season, the tree needs abundant watering. This is the period of flowering - the end of April - May and the period of fruit ripening - from mid-June. During these periods, about 20-30 liters of water must be poured under each tree every day, otherwise the taste of the fruit will significantly deteriorate.
Cherries are also fed according to the usual scheme: spring - nitrogen fertilizers, autumn - phosphorus and potassium, and regular pruning of the crown is carried out to prevent its thickening.