All about gable roofs

The gable roof occupies an average position between the single-slope and the multi-slope in terms of complexity and ease of use. Reliable protection of the house from rain, wind and snow, a wide variety of shapes and easy installation - these factors made the gable roof the most popular in our country. Its assembly can be carried out by both professional craftsmen and novice builders. The design is used in the construction of capital structures and for small architectural forms - gazebos, baths and tourist lodges in campsites.

The device and the main elements of a gable roof

A gable roof is considered, consisting of two rectangular planes located above the walls of the building and connected at an angle from above.

The popularity of the gable roof is due to the simplicity of its manufacture.

The supporting structure of the roof is a rafter system, the purpose of which is:

  • retention of the outer and inner roof covering;
  • even distribution of the load on the load-bearing walls;
  • the formation of the roof frame required to align the plane of the slopes.

In order to understand and successfully apply in practice the principles of a gable roof, we will consider in more detail the main elements of its structure. In any case, knowledge of the accepted professional terminology will help when choosing and calculating materials.

  1. Mauerlat. Wall-mounted support beam. It is made of coniferous timber and logs. The purpose of the Mauerlat is to evenly distribute the weight of the roof onto the load-bearing wall. The dimensions of the cross-section of the timber are determined in accordance with the overall dimensions of the roof, as a rule, it is from 10 to 25 cm in cross-section. Fastening is done with anchor bolts, metal threaded rods, brackets or wire. A waterproofing material is placed between the Mauerlat and the wall surface to prevent contact between hygroscopic stone and wood. Mauerlat can be made from solid wood, stitched boards or glued beams.

    Anchors, threaded rods, staples or wire can be used to fasten the Mauerlat to the wall.

  2. Roof trusses. The rafters can be assembled both on the ground and directly on the roof. The truss is a triangle with specified dimensions. Collect it from boards or timber with a thickness of 50 mm and a width of 150 mm. It is important to observe technological tolerances when installing trusses, since the final configuration of the plane of the slopes depends on them. An error of 1 cm at a distance of 0.6 m is considered unacceptable: the roof will be wavy, and the adhesion of the roofing material will be uneven. The installation pitch of the rafters varies from 0.6 to 1.2 m.

    The assembly of trusses can be carried out both on the ground and directly on the roof

  3. Sill. This detail is used in layered structures. Like the Mauerlat, it is installed on the supporting (internal) wall and serves to distribute the load from the racks under the ridge girder. The dimensions of the bed usually do not differ from the dimensions of the Mauerlat, but there are exceptions (depending on the thickness of the wall).

    In the construction of a gable roof, the bed is located on the middle support of the house

  4. Racks. Element used to compensate for vertical loads. Racks connect the ridge and horizontal girders with the bed and the supporting beams. The thickness of the timber is selected depending on the overall structure of the roof. Fasten it with nails, screws and metal brackets.

    The uprights prevent the rafters from bending under load

  5. Crossbars (tightening). Strengthen the rigidity of the triangular structure of the rafters and tie the rafter joists together into a single frame.

    The crossbar connects the rafter joists and strengthens the strength of the truss structure

  6. A ridge (or ridge girder) is the upper horizontal part of the roof, located at the intersection of two slope planes. The girder is a solid solid beam that connects the ramps along its entire length.

    All the upper points of the trusses are connected by a ridge bar

  7. Overhang. The part of the roof extending 40–50 cm beyond the Mauerlat. Designed to protect the walls from getting wet. Gutters are installed under the eaves.

    The overhang performs protective functions, covering the walls from moisture

  8. Sheathing. The outer part of the structure, which is laid over the rafter legs. It is made of wooden slats or (in the case of a soft roof) plywood, chipboard or OSB. The function of the lathing is not only to fix the roofing material, but also to strengthen the rigidity of the frame as a whole. Edged or unedged debarked boards impregnated with antibacterial compounds are used. The thickness of the lathing varies from 22 to 30 mm.

    Before installing the roofing, a sheathing is installed on the rafters

  9. Filly. An additional element that is used in cases where the rafter joists are of insufficient length to organize a full overhang. To build rafters, boards or timber of the same or slightly smaller size are used. Fix them with nails and screws.

    Fillets can be bolted to the rafters or nailed

  10. Rafter legs (struts). Spacers that act as a connecting link between the load-bearing beams and the rafter legs. Manufactured locally from boards and beams. In suburban construction, small diameter poles (up to 14 mm) with turned flat ends are used.

    The main function of the rafter legs (struts) is to increase the rigidity of the rafter system

Video: stages of construction of a truss structure

Options for the rafter system

Depending on the location of the bearing walls of the building, one of the possible types of rafter system is chosen:

  • layered;
  • hanging.

Sliding rafters

The overhead fastening system assumes the presence of an additional supporting wall of the house, onto which the weight of the roof is transferred. For this, a ridge girder and a bed are used, interconnected by vertical posts. This type of structural reinforcement is simple and effective, but it interferes with the arrangement of the attic space for a living area. The usable area is reduced and additional finishing costs arise. A good solution to the problem in this case is a male pediment (which is a continuation of the wall and erected before the formation of the roofing system begins), which takes the weight of the roof structure. In addition, the inconvenience of the layered technology is the need for long elements. It is extremely problematic to transport and install girders longer than 6 m without lifting equipment. There are four types of layered structures.

  1. Spreader-free rafters. There are three types of assembly of this design:
    • with a rigid attachment to the Mauerlat (the ridge girder is connected to the top of the rafters with a sliding attachment with additional fixation with metal strips);

      The rigidity of fixing the rafters to the Mauerlat is provided by metal brackets

    • with a slide mount to the Mauerlat (the floating connection is duplicated by a flexible plate, the upper parts of the rafters are attached to the girder or in pairs);

      Slide fastening is provided by a flexible plate installed at the top of the truss trusses

    • with rigid fastening of the rafter legs and the ridge of the roof into a single whole (with the help of additional boards).

      In this version, all elements of the truss truss are connected in a rigid triangle

  2. Spacer rafters. The fastening of the rafter legs to the Mauerlat is rigid, but a horizontal run is added between the rafter legs. This construction is intermediate between a layered construction and a hanging one. It is used in cases where the load-bearing wall is strong enough to withstand the bursting pressure from the roof. Sometimes for this, a reinforced concrete belt is installed around the entire perimeter of the roof.

    Spacer rafters transfer the expanding loads from the roof to the Mauerlat, therefore they are used only in cases where sufficient wall strength can be ensured

  3. Rafters with struts. The brace serves as an additional support, it is often called the third rafter leg or rafter leg. It is installed at an angle of 45-50about and does not allow the main rafters to sag. With the help of struts, it is possible to overlap spans with large distances (up to 15 m). The main thing when assembling is accuracy in cutting the corners of the braces in accordance with the slope of the rafter leg. No other calculations are required. The brace is nailed to the supporting elements from both sides.

    Rafters with struts allow to bridge long spans

  4. Rafters on rafter beams. An additional beam is laid along the length of the roof, on which the racks support the rafters. The same function is performed by the bed and other walls of the house. If there are no purlins, a separate rack is installed under each rafter leg. The tightening is set below the girder, thus eliminating the spacer. With the help of the fights installed in the lower part, they compensate the load from the weight of the upper part of the rafters. Additional crosslinks fix the position of the scrum.

    To strengthen the structure of the rafters in the scheme with a rafter beam, additional elements are used: tightening, crossbars, fights and joining

Hanging rafters

The hanging scheme is used in the absence of a middle support. The rigidity of the roof is enhanced by the installation of trusses and crossbars between adjacent trusses. Often this is the only way to arrange a roof, especially in cases with small overlap sizes.

One of the significant advantages of this type of construction is the high strength and rigidity of the frame. When installing a hanging rafter system, there is no need to fasten the Mauerlat.

Hanging systems, as well as layered ones, are subdivided into 5 types, each of which is three-hinged.

  1. Triangular three-articulated arch. The least costly roof device option. It is a triangle with a limited degree of load. There are two options for attaching the rafters to the tightening - an orthogonal frontal cut and a bundle using plate fasteners.

    Rafters and tightening are fastened by cutting or using rigid plates made of wood or metal

  2. Three-pivot arch with a raised latch. It is used in the construction of attic spaces, which are planned under the attic. The cross tie is installed at the top of the truss. The mount to the Mauerlat is slide-type. For proper operation of the system, a long extension of the rafters outside the walls is recommended. To compensate for the possible sagging of the tightening, suspensions are used (one or more, as appropriate). If the tightening length is long, it is possible to join the two beams using clamps.

    The floating attachment to the Mauerlat removes stress from the rafters, and the location of the tightening determines the height of the attic room

  3. Triangular arch with headstock and struts. In the event that the rafters are very long, additional struts are used to strengthen them. They reduce the likelihood of deflection due to external loads and transfer the weight of the roof to the lower fastener. In addition, a headstock is suspended from the ridge girder on clamps, which supports the ridge, and therefore contributes to an increase in the rigidity of the entire structure.

    A triangular arch with a headstock and struts is used with very long rafters, when it is necessary to unload the ridge assembly and increase the rigidity of the entire system

  4. Three-pivot arch, reinforced with suspension or headstock. This type of truss structure is used for roofs with large (over 6 m) spans. Its essence lies in the fact that the weight of the tightening is transferred to the ridge girder. They are interconnected by pendants, the ends of which are clamped into clamps. A suspension made of a wooden bar is called a headstock, and an iron one is called a heavy one. The clamp bolts can be used to adjust the degree of tension, which is especially important in the case of slack tightening.

    Suspensions and headstock prevent bending of the tightening, and the degree of tension of the fastening unit can be adjusted

  5. Triangular arch with crossbar. For high spacer loads, a crossbar is added in the upper part of the triangle. It, unlike tightening, compensates for the compressive stress. The fastening of the crossbar does not allow a hinge connection with the rafters. The tightening is installed at the base of the structure.

    To compensate for the spacer loads, a horizontal girder is installed in the upper part of the truss

Video: installation of rafters for a garage and a bath

What determines the height of the gable roof ridge

As noted above, the ridge is the upper horizontal part of the roof, formed by the intersection of the slopes. Determining the height of the ridge is one of the key tasks in roof design. An incorrect decision entails a number of problems associated with further operation.

The following factors are used to calculate the height of the roof ridge.

  1. Climatic conditions of the region. These include the average annual rainfall, wind load and snow depth. Each factor makes its own adjustments when choosing a roof height. Thus, prolonged snow drifts and heavy rains suggest the steepness of the slopes of more than 45about, while precipitation leaves the roof rather quickly, without having time to cause damage. In steppe zones, where stable winds prevail, it is customary to erect gentle roofs, with slopes of no more than 10-12about... Here, a roof with a low-pitched structure will last longer and it will be more efficient to keep warm in the house.
  2. The presence or absence of an attic space in the construction of the house. Since gable roofs are of two types - with or without an attic, when choosing an angle of inclination, further stages of operation must be taken into account. One of the most common options for arranging an attic space is an attic. To do this, use a special gable roof design, which is called a broken line and expands the usable area of ​​the attic. The option without an attic is often used in the construction of garages, warehouse hangars and similar structures.

    A roof without an attic overlap increases the volume of the room, but has large heat losses

  3. Type of roofing material. Knowledge of the properties of the outer coating affects the optimal choice of the slope of the slopes and the height of the ridge. Here are some basic rules:
    • the greater the mass of the roof covering, the steeper the slope of the slopes should be;
    • the smaller the elements that make up the coating (for example, tiles), the higher the ridge rises;
    • the smaller the angle of inclination of the roof, the smaller the number of seams and joints is assumed when installing the coating (it is preferable to cover flat roofs with roll materials such as roofing material or large sheets of slate).

      The denser the roofing material and the more airtight its joints, the less the roof slope can be.

It should also be borne in mind that lifting the skate is accompanied by additional financial costs. For example, a structure with a slope of 40–45 degrees will cost 1.5–2 times more than a roof with a slope of 10–12 degrees. With a further increase in the angle of inclination, the cost increases exponentially.

The importance of correctly determining the height of the roof ridge in each specific situation can hardly be overestimated. She did not remain unnoticed by the regulatory construction documents.

The collection of rules and tables SNiP 23.01.99 and SP 20.13330.2011 reflect in detail the requirements for the construction of roofs in various climatic zones.

It also regulates the minimum dimensions of exploited attics (residential attics). Not only the convenience of the premises for human life is taken into account, but also the fire safety standards. The dimensions of the attic should not be less than the minimum required for the prevention and maintenance of the roof - 1.5 m in height and 1.2 m in length. Narrowing of passages in complex composite structures by 35–40 cm is allowed.

There are two ways to determine the height of the skate:

  1. Graphic, which uses accurate drawing at a given scale.
  2. Mathematical - using geometric formulas expressing the dependence of the ridge height on the length of the roof base and the angle of inclination.

The third can be called an automatic method of calculation using online calculators, which the Internet abounds in today. But with all due respect to modern computer technology, you need to be aware that in the event of an error or inaccuracy of calculations, no one will be held responsible for the money spent in vain.

Therefore, it is better to do the calculations yourself. Geometric calculations are made according to the formula H = L ∙ tg A, where H is the height of the ridge, L is half the span, and tg A is the tangent of the slope of the slope, the value of which can be taken from the reference tables.

To determine the height of the ridge, you need to know the size of the base and the tangent of the slope angle

Table: tangent values ​​of different angles for calculating a gable roof

Roof inclination angle A, degreestg A

Types of gable roofs

Above, we examined the options for gable roofs from the point of view of the internal structure of the structure. Now let's take a look at their external structure.

Roof with different slope angles

Roofs with different slopes are also called asymmetric. Most often they are used in small architectural forms, but there are also cases of capital structures with such roofs. The bottom line is that the building is covered with a roof with different lengths of slopes. The number of slopes does not change - there are also two of them, but the perception of the building as a whole changes significantly. The building becomes unusual, stylish in its own way, acquires uniqueness and attracts the eyes of people.

The extended roof slope can be used to organize an additional functional extension, for example, a garage

Despite the additional difficulties in the construction of such a roof, the popularity of the structure does not diminish. On the contrary, developers are striving to give their houses unusual, original forms. To do this, they use various architectural techniques, including roofs with different slope lengths.

Roof with dormer

Dormer windows add a unique flavor to the exterior of the building and are very useful in a practical sense. With their help, the problem of lighting the attic, as well as natural ventilation, is solved without the involvement of additional technical means. Installing skylights is not an easy task and requires knowledge and skills. Initially, a glazed opening in the gable of the roof was considered a dormer, but today the range has expanded, and windows built into the slopes are also included in this category. In appearance, dormers are divided into:

  • attic;
  • single-slope;
  • gable;
  • arched;
  • hip;
  • French flat;
  • with side walls in the plane of the house;
  • without side walls in the plane of the house;
  • with side walls not in the plane of the house.

Each type of dormer is installed according to its own technology

Of all the listed categories, only dormer windows can be installed both at the time of roof construction and after the end of construction. The rest are being built simultaneously with the assembly of the truss structure. This is due to the need to organically integrate a window into the support system, which must withstand climatic loads and not cause leaks or distortions of the roof.

The dormer should fit into the overall support system of the rafters and withstand all the loads acting on the roof

Installation of dormer windows is carried out in accordance with the normative documents SNiP 11-26 and SNiP 21-01.

They stipulate the conditions under which the installation of the dormer window can be made:

  • permissible slope of the slope - not less than 35about;
  • the maximum allowable size of a window with opening sashes is 1.2x0.8 m;
  • a dormer roof window with a hip structure and a rectangular facade cannot be in the same plane with the walls of the building;
  • for the external facing of the window, tiles, copper, sheet steel can be used.

You can install the dormer on your own or contacting professionals for help. But in any case, it is necessary to comply with the general construction rules developed by specialized organizations.

Roofs with "cuckoo"

"Cuckoo" is a structure built into the main rafter system in the form of a protruding window or balcony. The appearance of such a structure compares favorably with the surrounding houses, and the inner space of the attic is transformed and becomes more interesting. In addition to the aesthetic advantages, the "cuckoo" increases the usable volume and area of ​​the residential floor, increases the level of natural light. A window located on the south side of the roof allows direct sunlight to enter the attic. The ventilation of the room is improved.

The "cuckoo" design creates an original appearance and increases the lighting area of ​​the attic, but requires careful calculation to maintain the load-bearing capacity of the roof

But the "cuckoo" also has disadvantages, mainly of a financial nature:

  • the labor intensity of installation work increases;
  • the total estimate for the construction of the roof is increasing;
  • there is a need to use the services of qualified designers and builders.

An illiterate installation of an external window (or balcony) on a gable roof can damage the roof and cause leaks.

Roof with large overhangs

A roof that extends far beyond the house is called a chalet roof. The technology is borrowed from Europe - from the mountainous Alpine regions of France and Switzerland.

One of the features of the "chalet" type roof is the increased size of the roof overhangs

Distinctive features are considered to be the first floor, built of stone, and the second floor, entirely made of wood with a voluminous, gently sloping gable roof and large overhangs. The originality of the exterior is combined with practicality, due to the formation of a large area around the house, protected from snow and rain. This solution reliably protects the walls of the house from getting wet, increases the sound insulation inside the room. The façade side is often equipped with full-length windows and balconies. Despite the impressive dimensions, the roof practically does not make the building heavier. If the roof overhang exceeds 3 m, its edge is additionally supported on columns or walls. There are numerous projects in which the rafters are gently lowered to the very ground. An additional isolated area is formed next to the building, which is used for utility purposes, as a car parking, etc.

Traditionally, chalet roofs are covered with shingles, but for our latitudes this is a very expensive material (oak, chopped into tiled plates). Therefore, today modern natural and synthetic materials are used for such roofs, including:

  • straw or reeds;
  • flexible or ceramic tiles;
  • composite stylized roof;
  • larch shingles or shingles.

Off-center roofs

The avant-garde direction in architecture includes roofs designed according to the principle of asymmetry. The ridge is displaced from the central axis of the building, due to which the roof sometimes takes on the most fantastic outlines.

Despite the bizarre shape, the roofs with an offset center regularly perform their functions.

Formally, such a refinement can be considered one of the varieties of roofs with different slope angles. In practice, this technique is used in cases where the internal retaining walls are not in the middle of the building. The displacement is due to the desire of the designer to support the rafter structure in the most reliable way and reduce the cost of reinforcing the hanging span.

Selection of roofing materials

Of all the possible options for roofing, the most common today are materials of artificial origin. The table below shows the comparative characteristics of the main coatings on the construction market.

Table: properties of roofing materials

Material nameThe angle of inclination of the slopesRefractoriness levelNoise insulation propertiesSpecific weight, kg / m2Service life, yearsPriceAssembly difficulty levelComplexity of repair and replacementMaterial disadvantages
Corrugated board12–90aboutTallLow (especially with illiterate assembly)5,7–9,430–35LowEasy installation that does not require high qualificationsEasy, replacement of the damaged areaNoisiness, susceptibility to corrosion, large waste on complex roofs
Asbestos-cement slate12–60aboutTallMedium (but higher than metal roofing types)10–1525–30LowMiddleEasy, replacement of the damaged areaThe presence of asbestos in the composition, which is harmful to humans. Fragility, covered with moss.
Ondulin15–90aboutLowHigh6–6,535–50LowEasy installation that does not require high qualificationsEasy, replacement of the damaged areaThe color is guaranteed for 5 years, low decorative properties.
Ceramic roof tiles15–60aboutTallGood40–100up to 100Very highDifficult, requires qualificationsEasy, replacement of the damaged areaThe only drawback is the fragility of the material to break
Cement-sand tile15–60aboutTallGood18–30up to 100HighDifficult, requires qualificationsEasy, replacement of the damaged areaNot
Metal tilefrom 14aboutTallLow (especially with illiterate assembly)3,5–540–50LowEasy installation that does not require high qualificationsEasy, replacement of the damaged areaLarge waste of material when installing a complex roof. Corroded.
Soft (bituminous) shinglesfrom 15aboutTallGood3–430–40AverageEasy installation that does not require high qualificationsEasy, replacement of the damaged areaThe composition contains bitumen, a carcinogen.

In addition, when constructing roofs, sometimes non-standard types of coverings such as straw, reeds or sod are used. But this phenomenon can rather be called an exception to the rules and a tribute to ancient traditions, these materials do not have widespread use.

Laying a roof from reeds requires a lot and painstaking work and is more of an exotic option.

Projects of houses with a gable roof

Most developers, when choosing a ready-made project for a house or a cottage, pay attention to the functional features of the structure and the shape of the roof. And this is no coincidence. The cost of the roof can be up to 30% of the total estimate. But the budget can be significantly reduced by changing the shape and choosing inexpensive roofing materials. In this respect, the gable roof has a clear advantage over the others. And therefore, today it is the most demanded. Here is a far from complete list of the advantages of a gable roofing at home:

  • any building, including complex multi-level buildings, can be covered with a roof with two slopes (without sacrificing appearance and interior comfort);
  • roof installation work will be much cheaper due to the ease of installation and the availability of materials (without sacrificing strength and reliability);
  • when covered with metal tiles, the amount of waste will be minimal (for example, in a hip roof, waste can be up to 30%).

Architectural and construction organizations have a huge number of ready-made projects, and for little money they modify them according to the conditions of the customers.

Photo gallery: ready-made options for projects of houses with a gable roof

Individual design (including independent) is mainly carried out for the construction of houses with gable roofs and improved layout, such as:

  • one-story residential buildings with increased dimensions of the under-roof space;
  • attic houses with and without lucarnas;
  • two-storey houses with attic and mansard rooms.

Having decided on the necessary parameters of housing and financial possibilities, you can independently or with the help of specialists create your own project of your dream home.

Gable roof for gazebo

A wonderful invention of our ancestors is the gazebo. Rest in the country, family celebrations, meeting guests at their summer cottage and picnics are just a short list of those functions that are associated with the gazebo. Perhaps that is why such a structure is present in almost every suburban area. One of the main components of the gazebo is the roof.

The gable roof reliably protects the gazebo from rain, dust and falling leaves and makes it look like a fairytale house

Gazebos are built with various types of roofs, but the most popular are gable ones.

Photo gallery: gazebos with gable roofs

The principles of erecting a roof over a gazebo are in many respects identical to those used in the construction of residential buildings. The only difference lies in the arrangement of supports: the roof is not on the walls, but on columns or vertically installed bars.

The types of gable roofs for gazebos are identical in design with the roofs of ordinary houses.

Building a gazebo can be a good experience before building a large gable roof on your own.

Assembling a pitched roof is, of course, faster and easier. But by giving preference to the classic gable roof, the owner of the building simultaneously acquires a more durable covering and an attic space, which can eventually be turned into a residential attic. The initial costs will more than pay off, and the house will acquire a distinctive and at the same time attractive appearance.

How to make a porch to the house with your own hands: projects, photos and a variety of options

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K the stigma is a functional element of any home ownership and is its hallmark. Such a structure should be located at the entrance to the building and fit into the created exterior of the building. Having chosen the right material, you can build a luxurious porch to the house with your own hands. Projects, photos and construction drawings can easily be found in our review. In addition to practical functions, this structure has a decorative function. At the same time, the canopy and railings are decorated with beautiful carvings and other decorative elements.

In many buildings, the porch is part of the project and fits perfectly into the overall exterior


We did not think at all what the facade would be, but knew right away. First, not siding, only wood. Secondly, the color is blue. Thirdly, it is desirable to highlight the texture of the tree.

Due to the builders who cannot calculate the angle, the area of ​​the facade has increased. It would seem three degrees, but in height it is a meter. The builders also told us that we should be grateful, because this is an increase in the area. Uh ... your train is going too fast, I don't understand what you are talking about! Apparently, they meant that the amount for the facade will not increase by a factor of construction cretinism.

First, they thought out a larch facade, brushed planken. With painting, he left us $ 14 per "square". But there was almost no money left, we decided to consider the edged board. We arrived at the sawmill, and there was brushed larch. My heart pounded, but then I thought: you actually have a dense blue paint, are you serious?

In general, we moved away from the corner with larch, saddened a little and took a false beam from pine as much as the second category.

There were two ways of laying, we chose the first, herringbone - this is more economical and the joints are not visible, it's cool. It's not cool that the masters who made the facade are gone. They just did, did and - dumped. Simple, no warning.It's just "we'll be there in three days." What? Work? Timing? No, you haven't heard. As if they work for condensed milk.
For 65 "squares" of the facade, 2.9 liters of soil and 9 liters of paint (for two layers) were enough. "Tecurilla" is applied beautifully, looks perfect. She painted herself. We are delighted.

Now we have assembled the box, there are windows, the roof is made, the floor is flooded, the staircase is made with our own hands, and the interior decoration begins.

Advantages of a mansard roof

With any method of installation, a roof with an attic has undeniable advantages, which are often decisive when developing a project for a future house.
The main advantages of gable roofs with an attic are the following:

  • the usable area of ​​the house is significantly increased without additional costs for foundation work
  • due to the insulation of the under-roof space, the total heat loss is reduced
  • low cost of materials and technological simplicity of construction make a roof with an attic an economically viable solution
  • the house with an attic has an attractive exterior design

  • for the construction of the roof, the involvement of special equipment is not required, which makes it possible to carry out the installation by hand.
  • All of the above allows us to say that the attic, arranged in the under-roof space of a gable roof, is a modern, economical and simple solution to the issue of increasing the living space of a house.

    Sketches of gazebos with drawings and dimensions

    Available sizes can be increased or decreased proportionally. It is important that you understand that as the size increases significantly, the frame requires a more powerful one. Do not forget about this, and everything will work out for you: a self-made gazebo will be beautiful and reliable.

    Simple gazebo made of wood

    Almost the same project, but with different dimensions: the top point of the roof is raised higher, which makes it visually appear lighter. The gazebo is also quadrangular, the roof is hipped.

    When installing such a roof, the most problematic are two places (nodes), indicated by circles. How to do them, see the photo below.

    Chinese style gazebo (with drawings and dimensions)

    Project with all dimensions, foundation markings, roof truss system, etc. Arranged in a photo gallery.

    Large gazebo on the foundation

    Before you build this gazebo, you need to make a strip foundation. Its parameters depend on the soil, on the material that you are going to use for the frame: metal or wood, and what you are going to glaze with. In general, the width of the tape is about 20 cm, the depth is 20-30 cm deeper than the level of the fertile layer. On heaving soils, it is better to make a pile foundation.

    Drawing of a swing gazebo

    The swing gazebo requires special attention: it is fastened very firmly so that the arising variable loads do not loosen or overturn the structure. To do this, you can extend the legs down, dig a hole under them, fill them with rubble, tamp, and then fill everything with liquid concrete. If the frame is made from a pipe, there are no questions; for a tree, you can use "P" -shaped mounts with a pin mounted in the lower part. Here it can be bent and filled with concrete.

    For even greater reliability, crossbars are attached to the legs, which turn out to be slightly recessed in the ground. They are hammered with U-shaped staples.

    You can read about the manufacture of ordinary swings of different types here.

    Current types of roofs

    If you take into account all the roofs, then they can be divided into two main categories: pitched and flat. In the case of a flat type of roof, everything is already clear, because there are no special features here. It should be noted that one-story houses with a flat roof look very boring and unsightly, so its use is not recommended. The only options where a flat roof is best is to create additional space for a rooftop pool equipment.

    Types of pitched roofs that can be used for one-story houses:

    • One- and two-slope.
    • Hip, hip and half-hip.
    • Broken line (attic).
    • Complex (multi-pliers) and combined.

    A pitched roof is cheap, simple and reliable, but not very attractive. In general, a pitched roof is a slope attached to walls with different heights. This option has rather outlived its usefulness, since a shed roof is practically not used in the construction of modern houses. It is best used in outbuildings or garages.

    The gable roof is a timeless classic. It is this option that is optimal for a one-story house. This type of roof combines practicality and reliability; it is simple and not very expensive to build it. With this roof, you can already emphasize the exterior of the house, express its individuality, using different styles and roofing.

    The hip-roof hipped roof consists of ramps in the form of a triangle, the tops of which converge at one point. This option looks interesting, it is quick and easy to build.

    An alternative option is a hip roof, this is also a kind of hipped roof. The main difference is that during the construction of the roof, two triangular slopes (end slopes) are used, and the two main ones are made in a trapezoidal shape. Building a hip roof is a little more difficult, but externally it will be very tempting.

    The mansard roof is a construction with broken slopes, which is constantly gaining popularity. Thanks to such a roof, it is not necessary to create a second floor, because the attic can be actively used as a residential attic.

    A combined or multi-gable roof is an expensive and difficult option to implement. Such roofs are mainly used for large cottages or houses with several floors, so the use of these types of roofs will not be entirely logical when building a small one-story house. These roofs are the most beautiful in appearance, however, only professionals can build them, and the cost of this will be very high.

    Arbor made of wood 3m by 4m do it yourself, drawings and dimensions

    The gazebo shown above was 3x3 square. Another option is if you are making a rectangular shape that is 3x4 in size.

    The drawing will look like this.

    Another drawing of the same gazebo only with four slopes.

    Or such a drawing of a gable gazebo.

    For the construction of such a gazebo, it is best to use a foundation with 9 or 12 supports. Concrete blocks are well suited as supports. You can also dig holes about 30 cm deep. Level the bottom of the holes, tamp and lay a brick pillar in five rows in the hole. The last row should be above the ground. Instead of bricks, you can take all the same concrete blocks. From above they are covered with roofing material.

    The lower harness is installed on these supports. Vertical supports Are selected with a length of 2 m, the size of the bar is 100x100. The supports are leveled with a plumb line, and reinforced with jibs.

    The rectangular gazebo implies three roof options: one, two and four-pitched. The simplest in execution is a pitched roof. If you decide to make a pitched roof, then at the stage of installing the racks, the front ones, you need to do a little higher than the rear ones.

    Rafters are attached to the beam of the upper strapping, while metal corners, screws or nails are used.

    The distance between the rafters is 80 cm. The lower edge of the rafters should protrude beyond the frame of the gazebo by at least 30-40 centimeters.

    After that, the crate is attached to the rafters. A 50x50 bar is used for it. The distance between the lathing timber depends on the roofing material. When covered with metal tiles, this distance is less than when covered with slate. Before covering with roofing material, a waterproofing material, such as roofing felt, is placed on the crate.

    Having finished with the roof, we move on to the floor. A floorboard is attached to the lags, which are located between the beams of the lower harness. Self-tapping screws serve as fasteners.

    And finally, finishing. Traditionally, it is considered a clapboard covering half a gazebo. The upper part can be glazed, you can leave it open, or you can close it up with a patterned strip.

    Creating a mansard roof with your own hands step by step. Video instructions

    Watch the video: Amazing Technology Construction Sloping Roof Concrete - Building House Step By Step

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