Stangopeia


On our planet, there are about 30 thousand orchids of various types. These are amazing plants, differing in size, shape and color. And all, without exception, are beautiful. Since ancient times, people have been fascinated by these delightful creatures of nature. Despite the fact that the orchid is a rather capricious flower, it is nevertheless grown at home by exotic lovers. It is provided with the conditions under which it can please one of the coming days with its amazing flowers.

In such a huge family, the genus of orchids stanhopea stands in a separate place, which stands out among others for its very large flowers, the size of which reaches 15-20 cm in diameter.It has an unusual color and, in addition, it has an amazing aroma with chocolate - vanilla notes. This genus of orchids includes about 50 different species. In natural conditions, they are found in the tropical regions of Central and South America. Stangopeia takes root well and develops at home, and with proper care it will delight the eyes of households and guests with its flowering.

Caring for the stangopeya orchid at home

Temperature

In summer, the stangopea orchid behaves well at a temperature of 23-25 ​​° C, and in winter - about 17-18 ° C. Crop professionals recommend creating a temperature difference for it during the day, the difference between which should be 3-5 ° C. This will have a beneficial effect on the development of correct flowering. In the summer, on warm days, stangopeia will not be disturbed by fresh open air. You can put it on a balcony (loggia) or hang it on your garden plot, for example, on a tree.

Air humidity

The stangopea orchid loves moisture very much. Therefore, it must be regularly moistened by spraying from a spray bottle. In this case, it is necessary to be very careful and make sure that the drops during the procedure do not fall on the growths and flowers that have just appeared, otherwise they will very quickly begin to rot. Experienced growers of these plants advise using a sprayer with as small holes as possible, as they mimic the dew that falls in the areas where this orchid is home.

Pot selection

As a container for a stangopea, the best solution would be to use a plastic or wooden hanging basket. A lattice with large meshes is also suitable for this purpose. Such a device will firmly hold the plant itself, and air will flow unhindered to the root system. Under natural conditions, this orchid is more often found on rocky ledges or in the forks of a tree, and its peduncles look down. That is why, for this flower, an exclusively hanging type container should be chosen for growing.

Earth mix

For the normal development of the plant, you can use two types of earthen mixture:

  1. Dry foliage, dry tree bark, sphagnum moss.
  2. Sphagnum moss, fern root, tree bark, charcoal.

For planting stangopea, the second type is more suitable, because the composition of these particular components will be able to provide the substrate with friability and excellent moisture capacity. In addition, it contains a lot of different nutritional ingredients that are so necessary for the stangopea.

Fertilizer

Top dressing is recommended to be carried out exclusively in spring, since during this period the plant grows intensively, and its flowering begins. It must be fed with a complex fertilizer designed specifically for orchids. To do this, you need to take only half of the dosage that is prescribed in the instructions on the package.

Watering

As mentioned above, this plant is far from indifferent to moisture. Therefore, it should be watered systematically and not wait for the soil in the container to dry out. With insufficient watering, the roots of the flower suffer, because of which the leaves begin to deform, and flowering is delayed. Excessive watering also negatively affects the state of the stangopea. The pseudobulbs of the flower become smaller, and the plant itself may not bloom at all.

At the end of autumn, when the dormant season begins, the stangopea ceases to need such abundant moisture and watering must be slightly reduced. It will be correct to water the plant when the soil in the container dries out a little along its edges. Water for watering and spraying the plant should only be used at room temperature. Water can be taken from rainwater, previously settled or boiled.

Diseases and pests

Spider mites or scale insects sometimes settle on the plant. If insects harmful to it are found on the stangopea, then you should carefully wipe the leaves with a soft cloth moistened with a slightly warm soapy neutral solution, and then treat with an insecticide.

Reproduction of the stangopeya orchid

Basically, the stangopeya orchid is propagated by dividing the rhizome into several separate parts. This is one of the most convenient options, as you can get several mature plants at a time. At the same time, the separation of the roots is recommended to be carried out during transplanting a flower into another pot or soil mixture. A transplant is allowed in three years, once and always in the spring.

The rhizome should be divided, adhering to the rule: several pseudobulbs should be located on each separate division. As a tool for this work, you can take a sharp knife, having previously disinfected it. The places cut off at the dealerships must be treated with well-crushed charcoal. This is done in order to prevent infection from entering the plant. Stangopea will bloom in full force only when the rhizome grows and 5-6 pseudobulbs appear, no less. Therefore, it must be placed in a pot with the expectation of growth.

Stangopea is an extraordinarily attractive plant. The orchid is endowed with gorgeous flowers with an artistic color and bizarre shapes, and when the flowers are fully open, it is impossible to take your eyes off them.


Site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.

Plants of the genus Stanhopea and related orchid genera look simple enough, but large flowers, and sometimes whole inflorescences, are real masterpieces of nature.

Private collections entirely dedicated to the genus Stanhopea (Stangopea) and related genera of orchids, we are quite rare. Probably due to the large size of most species that should be grown in hanging baskets. But at least one or two specimens are sure to be in every amateur collection of orchids. These are very characteristic epiphytes.

Probably only orchids can have such unusual flowers. A feature of most species is that their peduncles develop downward, sprouting through the substrate. That is why these orchids are grown in shallow epiphytic baskets with large slits or cells. Their exotic flowers do not live long, only three to five days, sometimes a week, but this is more than compensated for by their beauty and wonderful aroma.


Stangopeya, or "bull orchid"

In kind stangopea (Stanhopea) there are about 50 species that are widespread in the tropics of America - from Mexico to Brazil and Peru. The genus got its name in honor of the President of the London Medical Botanical Society F. Stangoup. Because of the two outgrowths on the lip of the flower, resembling bull's horns, the stangopea received a second name - "bull orchid".

These epiphytic orchids have ovoid, ribbed pseudobulbs, each bearing one oblong-oval, folded leaf, with clearly protruding longitudinal veins. Peduncles are formed at the base of pseudobulbs and grow obliquely downward or sideways, therefore stangopea are grown in hanging baskets, in a loose substrate based on sphagnum moss. Their only drawback is a short flowering, which, however, is compensated by the originality of the flowers and their pleasant, strong aroma, characteristic of the most popular species in culture.

The most famous stangopea - stangopea tiger (Stanhopea tigrina)... And although the article will focus on her, many tips on agricultural technology and care are applicable to other species and hybrids. The tiger stangopea blooms in July-September. Peduncles are formed on last year's growth after the end of the dormant period. As a rule, there are several large, fleshy and fragrant flowers in the inflorescence. Duration of flowering is 2-4 days. For novice florists, stangopeias may not be very simple, orchids that do not bloom for a long time in culture. You should know that until the plant gains a certain biomass, or at least does not grow several pseudobulbs, the size normal for this type, there will be no flowering. Since the dormant period for many stangopaea is forced, under certain conditions they can give two increments per year, which makes it possible to relatively quickly get a flowering plant from the back (older) pseudobulbs. This matters if the grower has just such a division without roots.

From May to August-September, the young plant is actively developing. At this time, it should be shaded and watered regularly, directing the stream closer to the edges of the basket, after which it is imperative to dry the substrate. The need for the next moistening of the sphagnum substrate is easiest to determine by touch. Do not replace traditional watering by dipping the orchid basket in water. First of all, this applies to young specimens with an underdeveloped root system, which, under conditions of excessive moisture, ceases to develop, and after 5-6 months sphagnum begins to emit a rotten smell.

In the tiger stangopea, the thickness of the protective layer of the velamen root, which is only 4 mm in diameter, can reach 1 mm, since this orchid grows in conditions of unstable moisture. In nature, stangopeans settle in forks in trees or on rock ledges. Some of their roots are directed to the sides and upward, thanks to which they trap leaf litter and other organic debris, from which an environment is formed for the further development of the root system. Under natural conditions, such a super-friable substrate is blown by all winds and dries quickly, and a thick layer of velamen protects the roots from water loss.

When watering, water should not get inside young, not yet unfolded leaves, covered with a cover of covering scales. This can lead to decay of the leaves, a sign of which is their yellowing. In this case, it is necessary to immediately remove the entire cover, and then the sheet, otherwise the developing pseudobulb may also rot in the future. If rotting has affected the pseudobulb, it must be removed, and the place of cut on the rhizome should be disinfected with alcohol, and then sprinkled with activated charcoal or sulfur and dried well.

A leaf with a pseudobulb can also die due to the "bulging" of growth. If the conditions of detention are violated, the cover covering the young shoot stops growing in sync with the leaf. In this case, the tip of the leaf gets stuck at the exit from the cover, and the leaf itself, continuing to grow, gradually crumples into an accordion. Since the outlet of the cover is tightly clogged with the tip of the leaf, ventilation is disturbed and moisture rises inside the cover, and the young leaf rot. If the cover and leaf are not removed in time, the entire shoot will die. This can happen in hot summer with insufficient watering and low air humidity, as well as during autumn-winter growth, when it is relatively cold, which is why watering is rarely necessary, and the plant is not equipped with artificial lighting.

In weak specimens, no more than one shoot per year should be left from each "active" pseudobulb, otherwise new growths will be small. You can deviate from this rule only once, for 2-3 years of an orchid's life, if in the future you want to have a large collectible plant. However, this will delay the first flowering. It may take 5 years to get a flowering specimen with 20 pseudobulbs from a delenka with two pseudobulbs.

During the period of active growth, the daytime temperature should not be higher than + 25-27 ° C, however, stangopea can withstand a significant short-term increase in temperature with appropriate watering of the plant. Usually in August, pseudobulbs are already formed, and root growth begins. It is accompanied by slight wrinkling of previously smooth pseudobulbs. In stangopea, tiger roots can continue to grow in the autumn-winter period, if the temperature does not drop below + 16 ° C at night. With additional lighting at temperatures above + 20 ° C, tiger stangopea will grow normally all year round. By March-April, the next growth will end and a new development cycle will begin.

Normally, the size of pseudobulbs increases from growing season to growing season, and in 2-3 years you can get a blooming plant of 3-4 pseudobulbs. With excessive moisture, small pseudobulbs form, flowering is delayed. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to carefully monitor the dynamics of plant development and choose an irrigation regime based on the moisture capacity of the substrate.

For mature plants, agricultural technology should be different. After a period of active growth, the orchid must be brought to rest in the fall. This is achieved by reducing watering and lowering the temperature (it should be slightly below 18 ° C). If the orchid finishes growing in early autumn, then it can be transferred to the windowsill in the coldest and most dimly lit place. For the transition to the dormant state of the stangopee, a decrease in the ambient temperature before the start of the heating season is sufficient. After that, the orchid can be moved to a lighter, but always cool place. In winter, when the night temperature does not exceed + 16 ° C, in conditions of low illumination and low moisture, the tiger stangopea does not grow. If the growing season ended in August, when it is still warm, you should reduce watering and take the plant out to the balcony in a low-light place, and thus provide a cool content at least at night.

In large specimens, shoots can be in different stages of development. In this case, transferring the plant to a dormant state is fraught with additional hassle. The orchid must be placed in such conditions where the "belated" pseudobulbs will normally finish their development, and those that have already formed will not give a new growth. For the tiger stangopea, such conditions are daytime temperatures no higher than + 20-22 ° C, nighttime temperatures up to 16 ° C and not very bright lighting (the light source should not be above the orchid). Here, growth usually ends in November-December, and the pseudobulbs reach normal size.

In winter, the stangopea at rest are watered moderately, depending on the humidity and air temperature. In orchids that hibernate in natural light, leaves often turn yellow and fall off on old pseudobulbs. To avoid this, at the beginning of winter, you can feed the plants 1-2 times with a weak (0.5%) solution of fertilizers. However, the age of the leaf may also be the cause of the yellowing.

In the spring, depending on the weather, you need to take the stangopea to the balcony for 2-3 weeks to ensure the required temperature difference (orchids can withstand drops at night to + 7 ° C). Watering for this period should be reduced. In May, after the establishment of warm weather, it is better to keep the stangopea in such conditions when the daily temperature fluctuations are 4-6 ° C. Watering during this period should be moderate, otherwise the orchids will not bloom, but will begin to grow actively.

Quite often, in spring or early summer, secondary branching of roots is observed in stangopeans. For a flowering specimen, a well-developed root system is vital, since the buds grow very quickly during the last week before flowering. A day or two before the flowers open, the orchid should be watered abundantly.This will prolong the short flowering by one day and, in addition, will help maintain the decorative effect of the flowers until the end of flowering.

Stangopia may not grow until the end of flowering, and then release many shoots. In very large specimens, some of the pseudobulbs may bloom, and some may give new shoots.

The peduncle appears unexpectedly, as it grows very quickly in the substrate (2-3 weeks). Having appeared outside, it slows down development, and 1.5-2 months pass before the flowers open. The peduncle located in the substrate is not pigmented, and only when it comes out into the light after a few days, it turns green. If within 3-4 days it does not stain, then, most likely, the peduncle will die. A common mistake for novice orchid lovers is to increase watering and top dressing after the flower stalk appears. In this case, a young shoot often wakes up next to it, and the peduncle dries out. At the initial stage of peduncle development, there is no reason to change the plant maintenance regime. In large specimens, flower stalks can appear one after another within a month. If the leaves of such plants begin to turn yellow (a sign of nitrogen starvation), you can feed the stangopea once with full mineral fertilizer (NPK 10:30:20) at a concentration of no more than 1 g / l, at the moment when the buds begin to develop on the first peduncle. An increase in the amount of nitrogen interferes with the flowering of other pseudobulbs. For plants with a single peduncle, a slightly higher dose of nitrogen can be given.

During the period of active growth, adult specimens are fed with a complete mineral fertilizer in the NPK ratio of 30:10:10 at the rate of 1.5 g / l. Usually 6-8 such weekly dressings are enough for the normal development of plants on low-nutrient substrates. Various substrates are used to keep stangopias, the main requirement for which is looseness, so that the growing peduncles are not damaged. The thickness of the substrate should not be more than 15 cm, otherwise the peduncle can "steam up" and die, being in wet conditions for a long time. Most often, a mixture of sphagnum, fern roots, fibrous peat with the addition of rot and dry leaves is recommended. Another option is a mixture of coniferous bark, semi-rotten leaves, sphagnum and charcoal (2: 2: 1: 0.5). Some replace sphagnum with forest mosses, but the latter decompose faster. You can use only one sphagnum. With its annual replacement, the plant practically does not need feeding. Before planting, the moss must be scalded with boiling water to destroy possible pests (slugs). The use of sphagnum alone facilitates transplanting, since the roots do not "stick" to the moss, and the basket can be simply disassembled. Only a part of the peripheral roots adherent to the basket is damaged, but if the root system is well developed, this does not affect the general condition of the plant.

A basket for stangopes is made of 12-15 cm thick wooden planks or square plastic tubes. The latter are preferable as they do not rot. The bottom of the basket can also be made from plastic tubing or coarse mesh sink grates. Sometimes the peduncle can rest against the plastic lattice and cannot get around it, so it is advisable to inspect the bottom of the basket daily by the time the peduncle leaves the substrate.

(Based on the materials of the "Tsvetovodstvo" magazine, No. 4, 2004)


Breeding methods for stangopea orchids in indoor conditions

At home, the stangopea orchid is propagated by division. This method of propagation is applicable to mature, well-grown plants. The division is carried out during transplantation, while the roots of the stangopea are completely freed from the substrate and carefully untangled, strongly entangled places, cut with a knife, treating the cuts with crushed charcoal or activated carbon.

When dividing, it should be borne in mind that on each division there must be at least 2-3 pseudobulbs. Each young specimen is planted in an independent container, larger, for growth and immediately placed in its usual place for growth. Such young orchids start growing quickly enough, but they will bloom fully only when they grow well and acquire 5-6 pseudobulbs.


Stanhopea

Stangopeia is a genus consisting of 55 natural species and 5 hybrids that have arisen in natural conditions. Most of them are home to the rain forests of Central and South America. Spectacular epiphytes with a downward-pointing peduncle, which is why the plant is often referred to as an inverted orchid.

Pseudobulbs with a weakly pronounced ribbed surface, on the crown of each a single oblong-ovoid leaf with a distinct venation is formed. The flowers are large, with a variegated color and a strong vanilla-chocolate smell, which intensifies towards dusk. Grown exclusively in trellised baskets.


What flowers are usually presented on March 8, and what should be the starting point when buying a bouquet?

On the eve of March 8, flower shops are overflowing with fragrant and vibrant bouquets, and on the streets you can find many people wandering from store to store in search of the perfect gift.

I will say right away that there is no consensus on which flowers should be given and which should not. The classics of the genre in this matter are tulips, carnations, roses, mimosa and lilies.

Why exactly are they? Because most often flower shops are filled with such budgetary and unpretentious options on the eve of the holiday. But is it worth it to blindly trust the statistics, and also buy the usual flowers from year to year? It seems to me not.

Statistics allow you to analyze which flowers are most popular

When choosing flowers for a woman on March 8, many factors should be considered:

  • Her age - the older the woman, the more restrained and conservative the gift should be.
  • The degree of your relationship - a close or beloved woman can be presented with bright flowers, I advise colleagues to choose neutral tones.
  • Hobbies of the gifted - despite the unspoken rules, a woman first of all needs to give those flowers that she really likes.
  • The presence or absence of allergies - unfortunately, women often suffer from allergies to certain representatives of the flora. They, of course, should be immediately excluded from the possible options for delivery.

Of course, in solving such a difficult task, you need to pay attention to all the factors. But I propose, first of all, to build on the age of the woman.


Stangopeia

Stangopea (Stanhopea) are mainly epiphytic sympodial orchids with ribbed, ovoid, univalent pseudobulbs - grow in tropical regions of Central and South America. The genus, numbering, according to various estimates, 40-60 species, is named after the president of the Medical-Botanical Society in London R.N. Stanhope (1781-1855). Because of the large horn-like outgrowths on the lip, inherent only in the flowers of the stangopea, it is also called the "bull's head" and "bull orchid".
In nature, stangopea often settle in the crowns of trees, at the forks of branches, where leaf litter and humus accumulate, and their inflorescences hang down. These features of growth must be taken into account when growing stangopae in indoor conditions. The easiest way is to cultivate them in hanging baskets made of blocks of wood, bamboo, plastic tubes, etc., as well as in pots and containers with a lattice or a coarse mesh instead of a bottom, through the holes of which the continuity can not exceed 12-15 cm in order to avoid decay and other problems with the free growth of flower shoots. In addition, they practice growing stangopae on bark or driftwood blocks.
In different types of inflorescences there are from two to four to ten large flowers, the diameter of which can reach 15-20 cm.They are distinguished by a bizarre structure, providing a complex pollination mechanism, and exotic coloring in cream and yellow - with red-brown and burgundy spots and specks ... In addition, many members of the genus have flowers with an intense vanilla-chocolate aroma.
All this serves one purpose - to attract certain insects - pollinators. The odorous substances of stangopea have a narcotic effect on euglossus bees, as a result of which they visit the same flower several times.

Small flaw

Unfortunately, the showy flowers of the stangopea are short-lived. Flowering lasts only two to four days, depending on temperature and other conditions. But this disadvantage is paid off by the ability of large clumps to form numerous, gradually blooming inflorescences.

Heat and light should be moderate

Stangopeia are moderately warm orchids. The recommended temperature in winter is 16-18 degrees, in summer - 20-24 degrees. During the growing season, they can tolerate higher temperatures, but it is desirable to provide ventilation, increased air humidity and shading. In the summer, plants can be taken out into the open air, for example, in a loggia or on a balcony.
In appearance, light green, folded, elliptical leaves of stangopea with clearly protruding longitudinal veins resemble aspidistra or lily of the valley. Without gradual adaptation, they can get burned by direct sunlight. In general, stangopeans prefer bright, but diffused lighting, about the same as Cattleya, with a share of direct sunlight - not hot morning or evening.

Watering features

In winter, with the onset of a dormant period, I water the stangopea moderately - two to three times a month, depending on the temperature, the rest of the time - regularly. Drying of the substrate is permissible only along the edges of the basket or other growing container. Moisture deficiency negatively affects the state of the root system, and can also manifest itself in the deformation of the leaf blade, which begins to "harmonize". I water my plants by immersing the baskets in a basin of water.

Spraying is helpful, but ...

Stangopia develop well in conditions of high air humidity, respond positively to spraying. However, when watering and spraying, water should not be allowed to get on young growths in order to avoid their decay.

Substrate and fertilizers

As a substrate, you can use various options, for example, pure sphagnum moss, coniferous bark, as well as their mixture with fern roots and charcoal. I consider the most acceptable combination of pine bark of a coarse fraction and sphagnum moss — these components provide the necessary looseness and moisture capacity of the substrate.
I try not to overuse feeding, since the need for nutrients is very modest in stangopia. In addition, they are sensitive to substrate salinity. Therefore, only occasionally I use highly diluted specialized fertilizers complex with microelements for Orchids. When grown on substrates with the inclusion of fern roots, it is not necessary to feed.

Divide correctly

The easiest way to propagate stangopea is by division. At the same time, it is convenient to combine it with a transplant, which is required about once every three years, as the curtain grows and the structure and quality of the substrate deteriorates. The best time for these procedures is spring. It is desirable that the delenki consist of at least three to five tuberidia, since stangopea bloom only after a certain number of pseudobulbs have grown (approximately five seven). It must also be borne in mind that large plants bloom better and more abundantly, therefore, proportionate baskets should be selected for planting, providing a place for future growth.
Stangopea seeds are propagated in laboratory conditions, on artificial nutrient media.

Pests and diseases

Of the pests, the main danger is scale insects, plant mites. In case of violation of agricultural technology, they can be affected by various bacterioses and spots of fungal origin.

Popular types

Of the several dozen cultivated stangopae, the following species are most common:

S. tigrina - Tiger Tangopea. The most widespread species in culture with the largest pale yellow flowers with merging chestnut spots.

S.nigroviolacea - Black-violet Stangopea. Often considered a variation of the previous species (S. tigrina var. Nigroviolacea). Flowers with extensive dark purple spots with a black tint.

S. oculata - Stangopea ocellar. One of the most beautiful species, named after two dark brown spots at the base of the lip.

S. insignis - Stangopea is wonderful. Bright yellow flowers with a yellow-orange lip.

S. wardii — Ward's Stangopea. Yellow-orange flowers with light purple dots.

In Costa Rica, Colombia, Guatemala and Ecuador, natural interspecific hybrids of stangopea have been found. A number of varieties and intergeneric hybrids of stangopea with Acineta, Coryanthes, Gongora and some other orchids are known in culture.


How to make a bouquet of gerberas?

Gerberas can exist alone or in combination with other flowers. They look great with fresh herbs and spray roses, which serve as a great backdrop for dominant gerberas. Do not use leader flowers such as single roses or tulips with gerbera. They will suppress the sun flower, make its meaning in the bouquet insignificant.

It is also not recommended to combine delicate snow-white inflorescences with deep burgundy tones. This rule is especially true for the bride's bouquet. Such a bouquet will not look gentle and original, but rather annoying and ridiculous.

It is better to entrust the preparation of a beautiful bouquet of gerberas to professional florists of the Greenland flower shop. Here you can not only buy flowers, but also arrange for their delivery by courier around the city.


Watch the video: Stanhopea oculata species


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