Broad-leaved linden

The tree belongs to the Linden family, referred to as Large-leaved linden (Tilia platyphyllos) or broad-leaved. The popular name is lutoshka or scrubber. The broadleaf linden grows in Asia, North America and Europe. Loves bright places, fertile soil and moderate watering. The maximum tree height is 35 meters. Lives on average about 600 years. Linden propagates by planting seeds.

Description of broadleaf linden

A fairly large tree, it can gain 35 meters in height. The crown is very dense, similar to a pyramid or dome. The root system becomes very powerful with age. The structure of the trunk is straight with a thin, smooth bark of light gray color. In an adult tree, the bark becomes brownish and cracks appear. Young branches are red-brown, velvety.

The leaves are of a peculiar shape, in the form of a heart with different sides and a pointed at the top. They are dark green above, and lighter below. Each young leaf has reddish stipules in pairs, but they do not last long. On the reverse side of the leaf, there is a tuft of hairs.

Linden blooms in summer, in July, with beautiful fragrant flowers. Each of them is assembled in a half-umbrella of 5 pieces of light yellow color. The tree blooms for about 10 days. The fruits ripen in the middle of autumn - this is a lionfish with a nut in a dense shell.

Linden grows quickly, it is not afraid of frost. Prefers good and fertile soil. She treats shaded places calmly, but loves a lot of light more, tolerates drought well. It takes root normally within the city. Cutting and trimming does not harm her. It can exist for a long time - up to 600 years. Linden is found with various decorative forms.

A similar tree grows in southern and northern Europe, in the vastness of Ukraine. In the mixed forests of Russia, it can also be found, more in the European part of the country, up to the Ural Mountains. It occupies large territories in the middle Volga region and is widespread in Bashkortostan. Occurs in the regions of the Crimea and the lands of the Caucasus. It grows singly and is grouped. It can grow on steep surfaces, rocks and slopes. The soil is improving under it. It gets along well with other deciduous trees, conifers and various shrubs.

Broad-leaved linden looks great in landscape design when landscaping urban recreation areas. Can be used as a hedge or for bosquets. Linden flowers, its leaves and inflorescences are widely used for medicinal purposes.


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§ 32. UKRAINE ON THE WORLD MAP. MAP OF UKRAINE Ukraine on the world map. Ukraine is an independent state, the largest in area of ​​the countries entirely located in Europe. Ukraine is located in the Northern Hemisphere. It stretches for 1316 km from west to east and 893 km from north to south. Ukraine shares borders with many Europeancountries. Consider the physical map of Ukraine and its symbols (see the 1st endpaper of the textbook). Which ones do you know? Try to tell about our country on a physical map. Name the neighbors of Ukraine. The main waterway, the Dnieper River, connects Ukraine with Belarus and Russia, and the Danube River - with many European countries. On the territory of Ukraine there are mountain ranges of the Crimea and the Carpathians. Find them on the map. The nature of our Motherland is diverse: dense forests prevail in the north, and steppes in the south. Our country is washed by the Black and Azov Seas. Through non-freezing seas you can reach Europe, Asia and Africa. Through low mountains, there are railways, highways, gas and oil pipelines from one part of Europe to another. But most of all Ukraine can be proud of its talented, hard-working and peace-loving people. Ukraine's favorable location in the center of Europe contributes to its development. Name the capital of Ukraine. What do you know about her? 101

Map of Ukraine. In addition to the map of the hemispheres and the map of the world, there are maps of individual countries. The physical map of Ukraine shows in detail the relief, rivers, seas, lakes, reserves, mineral deposits, settlements, roads, borders, etc. The physical map of Ukraine is also in the school atlas. Symbols make it possible to learn about the peculiarities of the nature of a particular part of the country and to characterize it. In addition to the physical map of Ukraine, there are administrative maps on which different areas are indicated in different colors. Find the region in which you live on the administrative map of Ukraine in the school atlas. What color is it marked? Which city is the regional center? Working with the school atlas, you will notice that there are maps of soils, natural zones, flora and fauna, agriculture in Ukraine. Vocabulary: map of Ukraine administrative map. Check yourself 1. Name and show on the administrative map the countries with which Ukraine borders. 2. Show on the physical map of Ukraine the Carpathian mountains, the Crimean mountains, the Black and Azov seas. 3. What information can be obtained from a physical map of Ukraine? 4. What do the administrative maps indicate? Find on the administrative map the capital of Ukraine and your regional center. 5. What areas are “adjacent” to the area where you live? 102

Practical workWorking with the physical and administrative map of Ukraine 1. Consider the conventional signs on the map of Ukraine. 2. Country borders are marked with a thick red line. Find it on the map and show the border of Ukraine. 3. Name the countries that Ukraine borders on. Which country has the longest border? 4. What is the peculiarity of the southern border of Ukraine? 5. Red or black circles on the map represent cities. Find the capital of Ukraine and your regional center on the map. 6. The territory of Ukraine is divided into regions. Their borders are marked with red lines, thinner than the lines of the state border. Find your area on the map. Show boundaries. 7. Find the Dnieper River on the map. 8. How are mountains represented on the map? Show me the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. Practical work. Mark the capital and cities on the contour map of Ukraine. Nature researcher's library The Danube River is one of the largest rivers in Europe. More than 15 European countries are located on its shores, where more than 80 million people live. For them, the Danube is a source of water and an important transport route. The Danube is rich in fish. Beluga, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, sterlet, catfish, tench, carp, pike, pike perch, herring are found here. The Danube is of great importance as a powerful source of hydropower. Summarize Ukraine is an independent state, the largest of the countries entirely located in Europe. The mountains of the Crimea and the Carpathians are spread on the territory of Ukraine. Nayuge it is washed by the warm waters of the Black Sea and the Sea of ​​Azov. The nature of our homeland is diverse. Dense forests prevail in the north, and steppes in the south. You can get acquainted with the nature of Ukraine on the maps of the school atlas. 103

§ 33. FORMS OF THE EARTH SURFACE OF UKRAINE AND YOUR LAND Remember how mountains and plains are indicated on the map. The surface of the planet Earth is very diverse, with some plains stretching out, while others with enormous mountains. Plains and mountains are the main landforms (Fig. 93). 93. Forms of the Earth's surface Plains. Most of all on the top of the Earth's surface are plains - vast spaces, on which there are no mountains. Plains are different. Sometimes they are so huge that the horizon is clearly visible. Such a plain is called flat. 9_4 .. С_structure of the hill There are plains on which there are hills-hills. These are hilly plains. The hills are of different heights. They consist of a sole, a slope and a top (Fig. 94). The slopes are gentle and steep. Consider Figure 94. Consider whether the slope of the hill is gentle or steep. There are plains where depressions alternate with rises. These are undulating plains. Their surface usually has a slope.Rivers flow in the same direction as the slope. 104

Plains are also subdivided into hills and lowlands. Uplands are elevated plains. They usually have hilly or wavy surfaces. This is, for example, the Podolsk Upland. On the map, hills are marked in yellow. The higher the elevation, the richer (light brown) the color. Find the Podolsk Upland on the map of Ukraine. Determine what other hills are on the territory of our state. Most of the lowlands have a flat and flat surface, such as the Black Sea and Polesskaya lowlands. They are marked in green on the map. % Find and show the Black Sea I ----- and Polesskaya lowlands on the map of Ukraine. People for settlements have always chosen mainly the plains. It is easier here than in the mountains to build houses, cultivate fields and lay roads. Nowadays, most of the world's population lives on the plains. What kind of mountains are there? The mountains are much higher than the hills. Some of them reach heights of more than 8000 m. The mountain, like the hill, has a top, slopes and bottom (Fig. 95). The slopes are mostly steep. Mountain peaks can be sharp, flat, or rounded. Sometimes you can see a single Fig. 95. The building is a standing mountain, but more often the mountains are located in rows. Such rows are called mountain ranges. Valleys lie between them, and roads are laid along mountain valleys and gentle slopes. Here are villages, gardens, fields and wine - 105

Fig. 96. Tunnel graders. Sometimes tunnels are made through the mountains (Fig. 96). All mountains are divided into low, medium and high (Fig. 97). On maps, mountains are brown. The higher the mountains, the darker the shade of that color. Mountains of medium height are located on the territory of Ukraine. These are the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean mountains. The height of the mountains on the map is indicated by numbers. Fig. 97. Varieties of mountains Find on the map the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean mountains. Determine their highest points. Vocabulary: plains hills lowlands hills mountains mountain ranges of a valley. Test yourself 1. How are mountains and hills similar? What is the difference? 2. What color do the mountains represent on the physical map? 3. What kind of plains are there? What are the surface forms that belong to the plains? Give examples. 4. What forms of land surface are there where you live? Practical work. Indicate on the contour map the main forms of the earth's surface of Ukraine. Library of the natural researcher The largest lowland is the Ukrainian Polesie, which covers the extreme northwestern and northern 106

the territory of Ukraine and is a component of the Polesye lowland. In the west, Ukrainian Polissya consists of the most swampy part of it - Volyn and Rivne Polissya. The heights of this region do not exceed 150-200 m. Summarize the Earth's surface is very diverse. Plains and mountains are clearly traced on it. Most of Ukraine is occupied by plains, subdivided by uplands (for example, Podolsk) and lowlands (for example, Prichernomorskaya and Polesskaya). On the territory of Ukraine there are mountains of medium height - the Ukrainian Carpathians and the Crimean Mountains. § 34. MINERAL FOSSILS, AND X KINDS Give examples of minerals. How do people use them? The value of minerals. A variety of minerals lie at different depths in the earth. People have been hunting them for a long time. On the territory of our country there are many quarries and mines where solid minerals are extracted. They are very important in the modern economy. Minerals are used for the construction of bridges, roads, houses, as fuel, as raw materials for the production of glass, plastics, paints, metal, as fertilizer, etc. Remember what groups minerals are divided into. Types of minerals. The first group is made up of ore minerals (Fig. 98). They are also called metal ores, because they all contain metal - iron and various impurities.Usually, ore minerals are dark brown in color and therefore difficult to distinguish. Iron and its alloys are obtained from these ores: cast iron and steel. 107

Fig. 98. Types of minerals Iron ores, or ferrous metal ores, form large accumulations in nature, are very rich in metal. The most common iron ore is magnetic iron ore (Fig. 99, 1). It has a metallic sheen. Has the properties of a magnet. Red and brown ironstone (Fig. 99, 2 and 3) have no magnetic properties. Magnetic iron ore is harder than all iron ore. In Ukraine, most iron ores are mined near Krivoy Rog. Fig. 99. Iron ores: magnetic iron ore (7), red iron ore (2), brown iron ore (3) Find an icon on the physical map of the atlas, which I-- denote iron ores. Show me where there are iron ore deposits in Ukraine. In addition to iron ores, ferrous metals are also found in Ukraine. They produce copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, silver, gold and many other metals. These metals are called non-ferrous because they are different in color and do not contain iron. Consider Figure 100. Name the non-ferrous metals. 108

Fig. 100. Non-ferrous metals: bauxite (1), copper pyrite (2), lead (3) Most of all aluminum is smelted from an aluminum ore called bauxite. It looks like clay, but does not become viscous when exposed to water. In Ukraine, aluminum ores are mined in the Dnepropetrovsk region. An important ore from which copper is mined is copper pyrite. It can be recognized by its metallic luster and yellow color with a reddish or green tint. Copper ores are found in the Rivne region. Lead is most often smelted from an ore called lead glitter, while zinc is smelted from zinc blende. In nature, metals can also be found in their pure form. Among the rocks, you can find pure gold, silver, copper and other metals. Usually ores contain several metals. Ukraine has significant deposits of gold, nickel, copper, tin, zinc, mercury and other ores. Glossary: ​​ore minerals iron ores of non-ferrous metals. Check yourself 1. What is the name of the minerals from which metals are smelted? 2. Name ferrous metals. What ores are they smelted from? 3. Give examples of non-ferrous metals. What ores are they smelted from? Using various sources of information, prepare a story about what is produced from non-ferrous metal ores. 109

Library of the nature researcher In which regions of Ukraine gold is mined? These are the Carpathians, Dnieper, Donbass, Crimea. Some geographical names of Ukraine indicate the presence of gold in this area. For example, the precious metal was found in a loose state in Transcarpathia, in the channel of the Golden Stream, not far from Mount Zolotukha, near the village of Yablonevoye. Summarize Mineral resources are divided into groups: ore, combustible (fuel) and construction. Iron ores and non-ferrous metal ores belong to ore minerals. Iron ores contain a metal - iron. Copper, aluminum, zinc, lead, silver, gold, etc. are obtained from non-ferrous metal ores. § 35. NATURAL FUEL AND ITS RESERVES IN UKRAINE Remember what natural fuel you know. Ukraine is rich in natural fuel. These are peat, coal, oil and natural gas. When burned, they release a lot of energy in the form of heat, so they are used as fuel. Peat. In the north of Ukraine there are brown and brown peat deposits (Fig. 101). It is very fragile and may contain remnants of half-decayed plants. Peat is lighter than water, insoluble. Its main disadvantage is that it contains a lot of moisture and, when burned, emits less heat than coal, but generates a lot of smoke and ash. Peat is mined in a mechanized way. There are quite large reserves of peat on the territory of Volynskaya and Rivne-Ris. 101. Peat mining areas. 110

Peat was used mainly for heating houses and for burning in power plant stoves.Currently, peat is used in agriculture as fertilizer for plants, feed additives for animals and material for rice. 102. Transportation of coal by railroad bedding on farms. For growing seedlings and seedlings in greenhouses, special pots are made, prepared from a mixture of peat and humus. Coal is a hard shiny rock of black color (Fig. 102), heavier than water. Does not dissolve in it. Most of all coal is in the Luhansk region. There are significant reserves in Donetsk and Dnepropetrovsk regions. Extraction is carried out from large depths by mining method. Find on the physical map of Ukraine the areas of coal mining. What is the symbol for it? Bituminous coal is used as a fuel. Its processing is no less important, during which such valuable substances as: resins, dyes, medicines, plant protection products, explosives, etc. are obtained. Therefore, it is better to process coal than to burn it. Oil. Remember how oil differs from coal. Oil burns well. When burned, it gives more heat than coal or peat. Oil is also called black gold. It is used for the production of fuel oil, paraffin, petroleum jelly, perfume, rubber, gasoline, etc. Natural gas is lighter than air, burns without a smoke-blue flame, emitting heat. It is poisonous and explosive. Therefore, you need to handle it very carefully. In Ukraine, the largest oil and natural gas deposits are located in Chernihiv, Kharkiv, 111

Poltava, Sumy and Ivano-Frankivsk regions. Searches for oil and gas in the Black and Azov seas are underway. Natural gas is mainly used for the purpose of obtaining heat, as well as for cooking food in the home. It is processed into various valuable products. It is a raw material for the manufacture of printing ink, rubber products, plastics, fertilizers, etc. Natural gas is used even for desalination of sea water. Consequently, fossil fuels play a significant role in human life. In addition to being used as a fuel, they are used to produce many products that are irreplaceable for mankind. Throughout Ukraine there are also significant deposits of building minerals: sand, clay, limestone, gypsum, granite, etc. & Give examples of human use of building minerals. Glossary: ​​peat coal oil natural gas construction minerals. Check yourself 1. Give examples of natural fuels. Which one is on the territory of Ukraine? 2. Remember, how else, besides fuel, you can use peat. 3. Where and how is coal mined in Ukraine? 4. What natural fuel and how does your family use it? 5. Show on the map where oil and gas are produced in Ukraine. 6. Using the physical map of Ukraine, find out what sign the peat deposits are used for. Explain why it has this shape. 7. Which fuel, when burned, pollutes the air the least: coal, oil, natural gas or peat? Mark on the contour map with a conventional sign the areas of coal mining in Ukraine. 112

Nature Researcher's Library Coal was formed from the remains of ancient plants that grew in a humid warm climate many millions of years ago. When these plants died, they fell into swampy waters. The bacteria turned the wood into a black mass. Over time, a thick layer of earth and sand with its weight almost completely displaced all the liquid from the black pasty plant matter, and it began to solidify, turning into coal. Summarize IDET- Ukraine has deposits of natural fuel - peat, coal, oil and natural gas. Natural fuel is widely used on the farm. When burned, it emits heat and energy, which is used in production and in everyday life. It is used to make a variety of products that are irreplaceable for humans. Therefore, natural fuel must be used sparingly. § 36. WATER BODIES OF UKRAINE Remember what is called water bodies.What are the reservoirs in Ukraine? On the surface of the Earth, there is a huge number of reservoirs: oceans, seas, rivers, lakes, swamps, groundwater. Rivers, their structure. After rain, part of the water passes through the layers of soil and sand to a layer of clay, which does not allow this water to pass through. Here, underground streams are formed, which flow to where the clay layer is inclined. Where the clay comes close to the surface of the earth - near a cliff, a high bank, in a ravine - water flows out onto the surface and forms a spring. Spring water is clean, clear and cold. Think why. A stream flows out of the spring. Other streams can flow into it, there will be more water. This is how the river is formed, and the place where it originates is called the source. Source 113

rivers can be a spring, lake, swamp. The deepening, along which the river flows, is called a channel (Fig. 103). Some rivers have a shallow channel depth, while others have the size of a ten-story building. River water flows over land Fig. 103. The river bed is so fast that it dissolves very little salt. Therefore, unlike the ocean, it does not become bitter-salty, but remains fresh. Only this kind of water is suitable for drinking, cooking and irrigating fields. Rivers flow in depressions - valleys (Fig. 104). The valleys of lowland rivers are generally wide. For example, the Dnieper valley in some places reaches 18 km wide. The place where the river flows into the sea, lake or other river is called the mouth. Big rivers flow into small ones - tributaries. Thus, the Pripyat and Desna rivers are tributaries of the Dnieper. Find them on the physical map of Ukraine in the school atlas. To determine where is the left bank and where is the right, they face the river. On the right there will be the right bank, on the left - the left bank. On our rivers, the right bank is mostly high and steep, and the left bank is low and gentle. See the physical map of Ukraine in the school atlas. Identify the right and left tributaries of the Southern Bug. 114

Plain and mountain rivers. There are flat gambling rivers. Lowland rivers have a slow, smooth flow, mountain rivers have a fast and stormy flow. They are shallow, their valleys are narrow and deep. During rain or melting snow, these rivers become full-flowing, the streams of water in them seethe, picking up and transferring stones to their place. Most of the rivers in Ukraine are flat. Among them are the Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug. Determine on a physical map which other rivers are flat. The Dnieper is the largest river in the country and the third largest river in Europe. It flows through the territory of three states: Ukraine, Belarus and Russia. Its length is 2201 km. Within Ukraine, the length of the Dnieper is 1121 km. Many hydroelectric power plants have been built on this river ._ Using a physical map of Ukraine, name the right and left tributaries of the Dnieper. Dniester r is one of the largest deep rivers in Ukraine. It begins in the Carpathians and flows into the Black Sea. The length of the river is 1363 km. On the territory of Ukraine, almost 500 rivers flow into the Dniester. The Southern Bug originates in the Podolsk Upland on the territory of the Khmelnytsky region and flows into the Black Sea. The large rivers also include the Seversky Donets and the Danube. Find the ethics on the physical map of Ukraine in the school atlas. Mountain rivers are typical for the Ukrainian Carpathians. These are, for example, the Tisa and Prut (Fig. 105). There are also small mountain rivers in the Crimean mountains. The rivers of Ukraine are fed by melted snow and rainwater. Fig. 105. The Prut River is the wealth of Ukraine. in the Carpathians 115

Vocabulary: source bed river valley estuary tributaries Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug. Check yourself 1. Tell us how the river is formed. 2. Why is the river water fresh? 3. What is the name of the place where the river originates from? 4. What is inflow? How to identify the left and right banks of the river? 5. Sketch the structure of the river. Sign parts of it. 6. What is the difference between a flat river and a mountain one? Using a physical map of Ukraine, give examples of flat and mountain rivers. 7. What river flows through your regional center? Name it and mark it on the contour map. Using different sources of information, prepare a story about the river of your settlement. Designate on the contour sump of Ukraine: Dnieper, Dniester, Yuzhny Bug, Seversky Donets, Danube. Nature researcher's library Typical inhabitants of mountain rivers are the bighead goby and brook trout. Golovach is nocturnal and hides among the stones most of the time, not spending energy fighting the current.It feeds on insect larvae, as well as small fish. Another inhabitant of fast-flowing rivers is brook trout (Fig. 106). Every autumn she goes to spawn in areas with a rocky bottom, swimming against the current. Each trout has its own feeding area, which it protects Fig. 106. Brook from the invasion of strangers. trout 116

Summarize The river originates from a source, which can be a spring, lake, swamp. The depression along which the river flows is called the channel. Rivers flow through the valleys. The place where the river flows into the sea, lake or other river is called the mouth. Small rivers flow into large rivers - tributaries. Rivers are divided into flat (Dnieper, Dniester, Southern Bug) and mountain (Tisza, Prut). § 37. LAKES AND BOLOTA. ABOUT THE GUARDIAN OF THE WATERS Have you ever been to the lake? Remember what lakes there are on the territory of Ukraine. A lake is a body of water that has arisen in natural depressions on the surface of the Earth. There are over 3000 lakes in Ukraine. They differ in size, depth, water salinity, age. The largest freshwater lake in Ukraine is Fig. 107. Lake Yalpug. Lake Svityaz is located in Sivash in the northwestern part of Ukraine. The average depth is 7 m, the largest is 58 m. More than 20 species of fish inhabit the lake. Many small but deep mountain lakes can be seen in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The most beautiful is Synevir. There are salt lakes in the south of Ukraine. The most famous lake is Sivash (Fig. 107), from the indignant table salt.0 Find lakes Synevyr and Sivash on the physical map of Ukraine in the school atlas. Swamps. Small and freshwater lakes are gradually overgrown with herbaceous plants. Dying off, these plants turn into silt, accumulating from year to day. As a result, such a lake gradually grows shallow and becomes

winds in a swamp. There are lakes overgrown with moss from the coast to the middle. There remain only small areas of open water - "windows", which eventually overgrow. Swamps are drained by digging ditches where the water is collected. In place of drained bogs, rich crops are grown. In Ukraine, swamps are common in the north. They are mostly small in area. Many rivers originate from the swamps and are fed. They also feed groundwater, which is an important source of water supply. Artificial reservoirs. On Earth, in addition to humid areas, there are many places whose population suffers from a lack of water. There people create artificial reservoirs. These include canals, ponds, reservoirs. A canal is an artificial river, which is directed to where water is most needed, that is, water is "thrown" from one river to another. The North Crimean Canal is known in Ukraine. P r uds are used for breeding fish, keeping waterfowl, watering cattle, irrigating fields. In cities, ponds decorate parks and recreation areas. Reservoirs, in their size, resemble large lakes or even seas. They are mainly built on rivers. For example, Kievskoe and Kakhovskoe reservoirs are located on the Dnieper. The value of reservoirs and their protection. It is difficult to overestimate the importance of reservoirs in nature. Significant reserves of water are concentrated in them, without which life on Earth is impossible. Plants and animals live in reservoirs. Water bodies also play an important role in human life and are used as navigable routes. Hydroelectric power plants have been built on the rivers. Fresh water bodies are a source of drinking water. Water is used in households, factories and factories. To clean it, it is first fed through pipes to a water treatment plant, and only then through a water supply system - 118

at home. In agriculture, water is used for irrigation. Reservoirs are the decoration of our Earth and a place of rest. People fish, hunt animals with valuable fur for waterfowl. To prevent fishing and hunting from affecting the number of animals, laws on the rational use and protection of water reservoirs have been adopted. Inhabitants of reservoirs are very sensitive to pollution.Production wastes are often dumped into water bodies. Poisonous chemicals and mineral fertilizers get there with streams of melt water or after rainstorms. They pollute water bodies and household waste. All this leads to the death of living creatures living in water bodies. The purity of reservoirs also depends on you, your behavior in nature. Think about what you can do to save water bodies. Vocabulary: lake swamp canal pond reservoir. Check yourself 1. What is a lake? Give examples of lakes in Ukraine. 2. How are swamps formed? 3. What is the significance of reservoirs in nature and human life? 4. What rivers and lakes in Ukraine need protection? Suggest measures to protect them. 5. What is the cause of water pollution and what are the consequences? 6. How does water pollution in rivers and lakes affect flora and fauna? 7. What water bodies are there in your settlement? Name them. Are these artificial or natural reservoirs? Find out what plants and animals live in the waters of your area. Which ones require protection? Prepare a story about one of them. 119

Library of the Nature Researcher There is a White Lake near the village of Rudka. This is the second largest lake in the Rivne region. Its water contains glycerin, phosphorus and hydrogen sulfide. This composition testifies to the healing properties of water. Rare plants grow near Beloye Lake. Wild ducks, geese nest on the banks, beavers and muskrats live. There are 22 species of fish in the lake. Summarize Natural bodies of water, besides rivers, include lakes and swamps. A lake is a body of water that has arisen in natural depressions on the surface of the Earth. There are fresh and salty lakes. The lake, overgrown with grassy plants, gradually turns into a swamp. Artificial reservoirs are canals (for example, North-Crimean) ponds of a reservoir (for example, Kievskoye and Kakhovskoye). Human economic activity has a detrimental effect on natural water bodies, therefore, they need protection. § 38. BLACK SEA What seas wash the territory of Ukraine? Find them on the map of Ukraine. Features of the Black Sea. The Black Sea is one of the deepest in the world. It is located in the south of Ukraine and looks like an oval. Its largest width is 580 km. Most of the Black Sea coast falls on the territory of Ukraine and Turkey (Fig. 108). Using Figure 108, find out which other countries are located on the Black Sea coast. The Black Sea is surrounded by land on all sides, but it nevertheless connects with the World Ocean. In the northeast, the Black Sea connects with the Sea of ​​Azov. In the southern west, the Black Sea is also linked to the Mediterranean Sea. Sandy beaches prevail along the Black Sea coastline. 120

Fig. 108. Black Sea coast There are few islands in the Black Sea. The island is a plot of land surrounded by water on all sides. The largest islands of the Black Sea are Dzharylgach and Serpentine. In addition to the islands, there are peninsulas in the sea. The ditch peninsula is a small part of the land, surrounded on three sides by water, and on the fourth, connected to the mainland. The largest peninsula of the Black Sea is the Crimean Peninsula, which juts out into the Black Sea from the north. A huge number of rivers flow into the Black Sea, and together with water they carry silt into it, as a result of this water is darker than in other seas. The surface water of the Black Sea is less salty and in terms of temperature is close to the air temperature: it warms up in summer and cools down in winter. There is no oxygen in the water of the Black Sea at a depth of more than 200 m, there are no animals and plants, but some bacteria live. Water at such a depth is very saturated with hydrogen sulfide.

”Using a physical map of Ukraine, find out which rivers flow into the Black Sea. Flora and fauna. There are many types of algae in the Black Sea. Among them there are microscopic algae - green, blue-green, brown, red, which are attached to the soil or any objects in the water. 121

The fauna of the Black Sea is very diverse (Fig. 109). Aurelia and cornerot jellyfish live here. Mussels are widespread among mollusks, oysters and scallops are found.From crustaceans there are crabs - stone and green, different types of shrimp. The waters of the Black Sea are rich in various fish, in particular anchovy, sprats, mullet, horse mackerel, mackerel, tuna, flounder, stingray, sharks, etc. In the Black Sea sturgeon fish are also found - sturgeon and sevryuga. There is a beluga - the largest of the sturgeon (its weight is more than 1 ton). This predator fish feeds on small fish, molluscs, crustaceans, insect larvae. Dangerous fish include the sea cat, or the common stingray. The Black Sea shark katran is the only representative of these predatory animals in the Black Sea. The shark reaches 150 cm in length, and its weight is almost 14 kg. This shark attacks humans and is considered safe. Fig. 109. Inhabitants of the Black Sea: horse mackerel (1), pintail stingray (2), stellate stingray (3), stingray (4), katran shark (5), needle fish (6), Black Sea kalkan (7), common dolphins ( 8), white-bellied seal (9) 122

Among the valuable species of the Black Sea fish is the Black Sea kalkan flounder. She is not like other fish. Her body is horizontally flat, adapted to the bottom way of life. The lower part of the body is white, on top it is dark gray, covered with bony tubercles. When the fish does not move, it is difficult to distinguish it from the dark sandy-silty bottom by its color and relief. In the waters of the Black Sea, fish of an amazing shape are found - the seahorse and the needle fish. Of the large mammals, common dolphins are common, and occasionally white-bellied tails can be seen. Seabirds - petrels, gulls, cormorants, terns - nest in areas of the open sea from the coast (Fig. 110). They feed, rest and sleep in the sea, go ashore only for nesting. Most of the Black Sea birds are pelicans, lesser petrels, seagulls, cormorants, terns - feeding. Fig. 110. Birds inhabiting the Black Sea coast: petrel (1), slender-billed (2) and Mediterranean (3) gulls, great cormorant (4), common eider (5), coot (6) 123

eat fish. And such ducks, like the common eider and the common gogol, feed on benthic mollusks. The swan and coot consume the algae growing in the bays, while the grebe feeds on small fish, shrimp and crabs. Protection of the Black Sea. The state of nature in the Black Sea is influenced primarily by the flows of rivers flowing into it, as well as the emissions of harmful substances that fall into the water as a result of shipwrecks and during the extraction of minerals. Most of the pollutants with runoffs are brought by the Danube, Dniester and Dnieper rivers. As a result, water “bloom” is observed in the northwestern part of the sea. The sea is also polluted by industrial enterprises, ports and municipal wastewaters of cities. The wildlife of the Black Sea and its coastline is protected in the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve. There are many species of waterfowl, wintering or resting during flights. On the Black Sea coast there are also natural reserves "Swan Islands", Danube, Karadag and "Cape Martyan". Vocabulary: peninsula island. Test yourself 1. Which countries are located on the Black Sea coast? Show them on the map. 2. What plants are found in the Black Sea? 3. What animals live in the waters of the Black Sea, and what - on its coast? 4. What determines the state of nature of the Black Sea? Make up several food chains that have formed in the Black Sea. Library of a nature researcher In winter, the Black Sea practically does not freeze, only a small area near Odessa for a short time 124

covered with ice. However, in the Byzantine chronicles it is recalled that in 401 and 762. n. e. Ponta, or the Black Sea, froze completely. Summarize The Black Sea is located in the south of Ukraine. Six states are located on its coast. The largest islands of the Black Sea are Dzharylgach and Serpentine. Besides the peninsulas, there are peninsulas. There are many types of algae in the Black Sea. The animal world is diverse. The wildlife of the Black Sea and its shores are protected in the Black Sea Biosphere Reserve.§ 39. SEA OF AZOV Where is the Sea of ​​Azov? What sea does it connect to? Show et and sea on the map. Features of the Azov Sea. The Azov Sea is one of the smallest in the world. It is 10 times smaller than the Black Sea. Its area is almost 40,000 km2. The Azov sea is shallow. Its average depth is 8 m, and the largest is only 14 m. Through the Kerch Strait and the Black Sea, the Sea of ​​Azov is connected to the World Ocean. The salinity of the water in the Azov Sea is lower than in the Black Sea. This is due to its shallow depth and significant influx of fresh water from the Don and Kuban rivers. Using the map, name the rivers of Ukraine flowing into the Sea of ​​Azov. In addition to fresh water, rivers carry a large amount of nutrients to the Sea of ​​Azov. The shallow depth of the Sea of ​​Azov contributes to the rapid heating of its waters. In winter, their temperature rarely drops below 0 ° С, and in summer it rises to + 28 ° С, in some places it reaches +32 ° С. The mild climate is conducive to relaxation on the coast of the Azov Sea. 125

The largest islands of the Azov Sea are Sandy, Biryuchiy and Turtle. Find the islands of the Azov Sea on the atlas map. Island Turtle of artificial origin. But the main and most interesting feature of the Sea of ​​Azov is the presence of a large number of spits on its coast. They consist of sand and pebbles accumulated during their movement along the coast by the current (Fig. 111). Flora and fauna. In the Sea of ​​Azov, there are red and green algae, aquatic flowers. 111. Precise Plants. Of the fish, pike perch, anchovy, sprat, sturgeon, stellate sturgeon, beluga, herring, flounder, mullet are common. Fish from the Black Sea enter the Sea of ​​Azov for spawning and feeding. Most fish are near the Kerch Peninsula. Small islands, peninsulas and spits serve as nesting places for many birds. The coast of the Azov Sea with favorable natural conditions and sandy beaches is an important resting place in Ukraine, there are recreation centers and sanatoriums. From the bottom of the Azov Sea, you can extract oil and natural gas. The mud of the salt lake Sivash is used for medicinal purposes. Protection of the Azov Sea. The main sources of pollution of the Sea of ​​Azov are industrial enterprises and ports of Mariupol. As a result of sea cargo transportation, the activities of the ports of the water are polluted with oil and petroleum products. A significant number of 126 are concentrated within the water protection zone of the Sea of ​​Azov.

solid household and industrial waste. The technological imperfection of the landfill arrangement leads to the pollution of surface and ground waters, creates a threat to the deterioration of the sanitary and epidemiological state and health of the population, causes a massive freeze of fish from oxygen starvation and poisoning with harmful substances. Excessive, in particular poaching, fishing has led to a decrease in the area of ​​sturgeon spawning, herring and an increase in the salinity of the sea. In recent decades, some of the small organisms that lived in the water column and were food for fish have disappeared. The number of fish decreased accordingly. This phenomenon resulted in an increase in runoff of untreated water from municipal and industrial enterprises, the intensive use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides by agriculture in river basins, pollution due to ship accidents. To preserve the typical and unique steppe natural complexes of the Azov coast of Crimea, the Kazan Tip Nature Reserve was created in 1998 (Fig. 112). There are animals and plants listed in the Red Book of Ukraine. In particular, Fig. 112. Kazantip steppe area, where a rare natural reserve Schrenk tulip grows. Glossary: ​​spit. Check yourself 1. With which seas does the Sea of ​​Azov join? 2. What are braids? How are they formed? 3. Give examples of braids using the atlas map. 127

4. Why is the water temperature of the Azov Sea higher than the Black Sea? 5. Describe the flora and fauna of the Azov Sea.Tell us how it is protected. Library of the nature researcher The Sea of ​​Azov at different times and among different peoples was called differently. Meots and Indians, who lived on its coast even before our era, called him Tamarunda - the Nurse of the Black Sea, the ancient Greeks - Meotida; El-Azov - Dark blue Moretatars - And the call is the end, the mouth (according to the location at the mouth of the Don). Summarize the results The Sea of ​​Azov is 10 times smaller than the Black Sea. The salinity of its water is lower. The largest islands of the Azov Sea are Sandy, Biryuchiy and Turtle. The flora and fauna of the Sea of ​​Azov amazes with its diversity. Since 1998, the Kazantip Natural Reserve has been operating. Educational project WATER BODIES OF THE NATIVE LAND. THEIR CONDITION AND PROTECTION Together with adults, take an excursion to the reservoir of the native land. Describe them by answering the following questions: • What water bodies are there in your area? • What are the most famous rivers in your area? Tell me about one of them. • Are there lakes in your area? What shape are they (round, elongated, crescent, etc.)? What kind of water do they have (fresh or salty)? What is the largest lake in your area? How is it used in business activities? • Tell us about the flora and fauna of the reservoir of your region. • Do people care about water bodies in your area? What measures for the protection of water bodies can you suggest? 128

§ 40. SOILS OF UKRAINE, AND X PROTECTION Remember the main property of the soil. What destroys the soil? Soil types. Soils cover the land surface of the Earth with a layer from several centimeters to 1-3 m and more. The nature of the Earth is varied, and the soil is also varied. While walking, pay attention to the soil in the forest, by the river, in the meadow, swamp, summer cottage. They are all different. The variety of soils depends on many factors, for example, the content of sand or clay in the soil, the amount of humus and water in it, and the temperature of the air. The more humus in the soil, the more nutrients it needs for the growth and development of plants. Water, like air, is in any soil, even in the driest in appearance. Dry soils are watered, then the plants grow and develop well. The hotter, the more water evaporates from the soil and more often it needs to be watered. If there is excess water in the soil, swampy soils are formed. Chernozems are widespread in our country. They are formed where there are many herbaceous and shrub plants, where it is warm enough and there is little rainfall. Under such conditions, humus accumulates in the soil. Chernozems got their name for their color, since they are rich in humus and fertile. Podzolic soils are widespread in the north of Ukraine. They are light gray in color and form where mixed and coniferous forests grow, and more precipitation falls than evaporates from the soil surface. As a result, the soil is too moist, so fallen leaves, needles and tree branches quickly form humus. However, a large amount of precipitation seeps into the soil, dissolves the nutrients that make up the humus, and carries them into streams and rivers. Therefore, podzolic soils are not very fertile. They need to be fertilized. 129

Podzolic soils Gray forest soils Fig. 113. Diversity of soils In addition to chernozems and podzolic soils, on the territory of Ukraine there are also gray forest soils (Fig. 113). They are distributed mainly under areas of broad-leaved forests. The humus content in them is insignificant, so they are less fertile. Find out what other soils are typical for the territory of Ukraine with the help of the map of the atlas "Soils". See Figure 113. Indicate which soil is thicker-I- - thicker. Why? The value of soils. The soils are permeated with plant roots, which are given nutrients for growth, heat and moisture - this is their main purpose. They are the living environment of animals. The soil is inhabited by ants, beetles, field mice, ground squirrels, hamsters, shrews. Some of them are in the soil constantly, others only winter there, and some hide from the heat.In addition to animals, microorganisms live in the soil that cannot be seen with the naked eye. They decompose the remains of plants and animals, thereby forming humus. Soils are important for agriculture. Large yields of various crops are grown on fertile soils - 130

touring plants. Succulent grasses growing on soils are animal feed. Man consumes vegetable and animal food. Consequently, soils are of great importance for plants, animals and humans. Human role in soil conservation and improvement Soils are the most important natural resource that must be protected. It is necessary to properly cultivate the soil; during processing, it is loosened, watered or drained. Cultivation of cultivated plants from year to year reduces the amount of nutrients in the soil. Therefore, people constantly apply different fertilizers: manure, peat and minerals. Forest belts serve to protect the soil from being blown out by the wind, trap snow in the fields, as a result of which the soil receives more moisture. Before starting the construction or development of mineral deposits, carefully remove the fertile soil layer in these areas and transport it to another place. Glossary: ​​podzolic chernozem and gray forest soils. Check yourself 1. What types of soils are there? Which of them are common on the territory of Ukraine? 2. How do chernozems differ from podzolic soils? 3. What is the significance of soils for nature? 4. Explain why the soil needs to be protected. 5. Suggest the rules of the thrifty use of soils. 6. What soils prevail in your area? Using a variety of sources of information, prepare a story about salt marshes or peat bog soils. Determine how different soils hold water. Place funnels in two glasses. Cover the holes in the funnels with cotton wool. In one of them there is an embankment of sandy soil, and in the other - clayey. Pour the same amount of water into the funnels. 131

Compare which soil has passed more water. What soil holds water? Nature Research Library When fertilizing plants, remember that too much fertilization is dangerous. The water in such soil becomes very salty and "burns" the plant roots. Excess soluble salts are white deposits on the surface of the soil or around the edges of the flowerpot. The more illuminated the plant, the more often it needs to be fertilized. During the growth of the plant, fertilizer should be applied in small amounts. If growth has stopped, you can reduce the amount of its application. In winter, the need of plants for fertilization decreases, and in summer they need to be fertilized more often. Summarize The variety of soils depends on many factors: the content of sand or clay, the amount of humus and water, the air temperature. Chernozems, podzolic and gray forest soils are widespread on the territory of Ukraine. Soils are the most important natural resource and must be properly cultivated and protected. § 41. NATURAL ZONES OF UKRAINE. MAP OF NATURAL ZONES How many heat zones are there on the globe? Natural areas. You already know that the natural conditions of different regions of the globe differ significantly. In these differences, you can see the following pattern: natural conditions are gradually changing from the equator to the poles. For living creatures living on land, warmth and moisture are very important. Frogs do not live where it is dry, and camels do not live in a wet forest. A palm tree in the north can only be seen indoors, in a flowerpot, and everyone's favorite tree does not grow in the tropics. 132

Sunlight and heat, precipitation, winds create special conditions in different parts of our planet. Large areas of the globe, distinguished by their natural conditions, soils, flora and fauna, are called natural zones. Consider a map of natural areas of the world (Fig. 114). Name the natural zones in the order of their distribution from north to south. What have you noticed? There are no clear boundaries between natural areas. Natural areas change from north to south.The reason for their sequential change is the change in the amount of light, heat and moisture received by the earth's surface. The further north you go, the lower the Sun is above the horizon and the shorter and cooler the summer, the longer and colder the winter. The lowest position of the Sun is near the North Pole. The closer to the equator, the higher the Sun rises above the horizon and the longer and hotter the summer, the shorter and warmer the winter. Arctic and Antarctic deserts Tundra and! Sotundra Taiga GP Mixed forests I Forest-steppe and steppe I Deserts] Savannah Rainforests Fig. 114. Map of natural zones of the world 133

Natural zones of Ukraine. There are three natural zones within Ukraine: a zone of mixed forests, zones of forest-steppe and steppe. They also change from north to south. Think why. The names of the natural areas come from their characteristic vegetation. Each natural zone has the same weather conditions throughout the year, similar soils, flora and fauna. Natural areas are characterized according to the plan. Plan of characteristics of the natural zone 1. Where is located, boundaries. 2. Forms of the earth's surface. 3. Reservoirs. 4. Soils. 5. Plant and animal world. 6. Environmental problems. Protection of Nature. 7. Dependence of human activities on natural conditions.

”Look at the map of natural zones of Ukraine on the 2nd for the beginning of the textbook. Determine which natural area you live in. What color is it marked on the map? Using this map, describe according to the plan the natural area in which you live. Glossary: ​​heat zones natural zone zone of mixed forests zone of forest-steppe and steppe. Check yourself 1. What are natural zones? What influences their shift from north to south? 2. Name the natural areas of Ukraine. Show them on the map. 3. On the outline map of Ukraine, sign the names of the natural zones. Using various sources of information, prepare a story about the adaptation of animals to life in the zone of steppes or mixed forests (your choice). 134

Library of the Nature Researcher Natural conditions on planet Earth have been noticeably changed by man. In some places, vegetation has been almost completely destroyed and replaced by culture. The zones of the steppe and forest-steppe were particularly affected. Irreversible changes have taken place in nature: many species of plants and animals have been destroyed, soils have been depleted. To preserve nature, national parks, reserves and other protected areas are created. Summarize the results Natural areas are areas of the world that are similar to natural conditions. Natural areas change from north to south. There are three natural zones within Ukraine: mixed forests, forest-steppe and steppe. § 42. MIXED FORESTS (POLESIE) Find a zone of mixed forests on the map of natural zones of Ukraine. What are the forms of the earth's surface in the mixed forest zone? What body of water is there on its territory? The northern part of Ukraine is located in the mixed forest zone. It is also called the Ukrainian Polissya. The zone of mixed forests stretches from west to east for 750 km, and from north to south - up to 180 km. The surface of the zone is flat and well heated by the Sun. Summers are long and warm, winters are snowy and not very cold, with frequent thaws. There is sufficient rainfall in winter and summer. The largest rivers of Polesye are the Dnieper, Desna, Pripyat, Goryn. Find them on the map. In Polesie there are many lakes, wetlands, peat bogs, there are reserves of underground waters. In some places they are close to the surface of the earth. The soils here contain a sufficient amount of moisture, but there are few nutrients in them. Plants of mixed forests. In the zone of mixed forests, the most widespread are pine (Fig. 115) and oak-pine (Fig. 116) forests. In pine forests, ordinary pine grows, under the trees the soil is covered with mosses. 135

Fig. 115. Pine forest Fig. 116. Oak-pine forest Thyme (thyme), goldenrod, sedge, blueberries and lingonberries grow on the edges. In oak-pine forests, trees are arranged in two tiers: the upper one is pine, the lower one is oak. Undertrees - undergrowth of brittle buckthorn, European euonymus.Under the bushes there is a dense grass cover of bracken, purchased from the pharmacy, lily of the valley. There are also mosses. In a mixed forest in early spring, snowdrops, scrub, primrose, and sleep-grass are the first to bloom. Later -landish, double-leaved mine, oxalis. Clefthoof and starfish grow in the thicket of trees and shrubs. There are many mushrooms here. Animals of mixed forests. The fauna of mixed forests is very diverse (Fig. 117). This is facilitated by the conditions of inanimate nature (water, heat, light), a sufficient amount of food, different tiers of plants, where animals can hide from the enemy, build a dwelling. The forests are inhabited by squirrels, brown hares, foxes, roe deer, and wild boar can be found in the thickets. Occasionally there are bison, sometimes - a lynx and a forest cat. Valuable fur-bearing animals live near the river banks: nutria and muskrat. There are more than 250 bird species in the mixed forest zone. Middle: black grouse, wood grouse, hazel grouse, gray partridge, great-spotted woodpecker. In spring, starlings, wagtails, cuckoos, flycatchers return to mixed forests from warm regions. They feed on insects, of which there are many in the forest floor, under the bark of trees, on plants. 136

Fig. 117. Wild boar (1), forest cat (2), nutria (3), muskrat (4) Waterfowl and wading birds fly to swamps, meadows, lakes and rivers - swans, wild geese, cranes, white storks, wild ducks , waders (Fig. 118). Black stork, rare for Ukraine, nests here. In the forest, you can stumble upon an ordinary viper, a snake, a nimble lizard. Swamp turtles and frogs live near the water. In the reservoirs of Polesie there are more than 30 species of fish, including: carp, bream, crucian carp, pike, perch, etc. People use the nature of the mixed forest zone. In the forests, they carry out logging. Enterprises were built that produce paper, cardboard, furniture. Fig. 118. White stork (1), wild duck (2), sandpiper (3), black stork (4) 137

The lower parts of Polesie are occupied by peat bogs, bogs, some of which are drained by special machines. Reservoirs have been created here, peat-extracting industry is developed, and granite quarries are being developed. Sufficiently large areas are occupied by pastures and hay forests. Sheep and cows are grazed in the meadows. The nature of Polesie promotes the cultivation of potatoes, flax, winter rye, and beets. Developed gardening. Check yourself 1. Where is the mixed forest zone in Ukraine? What is it called? 2. What are the characteristic features of the seasons in the mixed forest zone? 3. What trees grow in mixed forests? 4. What shrubs, herbaceous plants grow in mixed forests? 5. What mammals and birds are found in mixed forests? 6. What animals live near water bodies and in water bodies of woodland? 7. How do people use the nature of the mixed forest zone in economic activities? 8. Make up several food chains formed in the mixed forest area. Prepare a message about any animal of mixed forests. Library of the nature researcher In Polesie, the desman lives, belonging to one of the most ancient groups of mammals (Fig. 119). The desman is an animal adapted to life in water. It can stay under water for 10-12 minutes. The animal spends most of its life in water or in coastal burrows. In the past, the desman was quite common in Europe. Now it is listed in the International Red Rice. 119. The descendent book. 138

Summarize the zone of mixed forests - Ukrainian Polesie - is located in the northern part of Ukraine. Natural conditions Woodlands are favorable for the life of plants and animals. Pine and oak-pine forests are widespread. The animal world of mixed forests is diverse: there are many species of animals, birds, fish, insects. People use the nature of mixed forests in economic activities. Study project WHY ARE FORESTS CALLED "LIGHTWEIGHT PLANETS"? Using different sources of information, find out: • What part of the land on Earth is forests? • How do forests affect the composition of atmospheric air? • What kind of forests are there in your area? • What territory do they occupy? • Do you carry out industrial deforestation in the area where you live? • What environmental protection measures are used to preserve forests? If possible, visit the forest with adults. Take a camera with you. During the tour, take pictures of landscapes, different trees, bushes, flowers, animals. Submit the received information in the form of a photo album "Our Forest" or prepare a presentation.In the spring, together with your classmates, hold the "Grow a Green Friend" campaign (planting seedlings of bushes, trees, flower seedlings). § 43. FOREST STEPPE Find a forest-steppe on the map of natural zones of Ukraine. What big rivers cross the forest-steppe? To the south of the Ukrainian Polissya lies the forest-steppe zone, or forest-ep. This is the name of the territory on which areas of forest and steppe alternate. The forest-steppe zone stretches for almost 1100 km. It covers the entire central part of the territory of Ukraine. Width 139

the zones are different. In the area of ​​the city of Glukhov reaches 330 km The surface of the zone is flat. The forest-steppe zone has warm summers and moderately cold winters. There is a sufficient amount of precipitation throughout the year - in winter everything around is covered with a thick layer of snow, in summer there are frequent showers, in some places with hail. Fertile chernozems are widespread in this zone. Such natural conditions are favorable for the development of the flora of forests and meadows, for the cultivation of agricultural crops. Plants and animals of the forest-steppe zone. Deciduous forests prevail in the forest-steppe. Grows oak, ash, linden, aspen, maple (Fig. 120, 1), wild pear, apple tree. Under the trees - undergrowth of hazel, wild rose, viburnum, black elderberry. There is a lily of the valley, a starlet, a broad-leaved kupena (Fig. 120, 2 -4). A favorable climate, a variety of trees, bushes, grasses that form different layers in the forest, a sufficient amount of food - all these are good conditions for different animals to live (Fig. 121). Roe deer can be seen at the edge of the forest. The forest is home to predators: the black polecat, ermine, weasel, forest and stone martens. Badgers live near cliffs or steep slopes. They feed on plant and animal food. Wild pigs are hiding in the bushes. They are active at night. 120. Maple (1), lily of the valley (2), starlet (3), broadleaf (4) 140

new time. In the forests there are forest mice, voles, hare, fox, wolf. The bird world of the forest-steppe is diverse. Among the birds of prey there is a golden eagle, a gravedigger. From spring to autumn, the voices of redstarts, tits, finches, goldfinches, and shrikes are heard. Woodpeckers (Fig. 122, 1) and nuthatches live here. At the edge of the forest, you can find the gray partridge and quail (Fig. 122, 2). In the forest litter, there are many insects on the plants. They are bird food. 121. Roe deer (1), black ferret (2), Fig. 122. Woodpecker (1), stone marten (3), badger (4) quail (2) Muskrat, nutria, otter, mink live in the backwaters of the rivers of the forest-steppe zone. Among waterfowl, ducks, marsh hen, corncrake, gray cranes, and red heron are widespread. Harrier and short-eared owl are guarding their prey (Fig. 123). A variety of grain crops are grown on fertile black soil: winter wheat, barley, millet. Significant areas are allotted for corn. Chernozems are favorable for growing sunflowers, sugar beets, and potatoes. 141

Fig. 123. Otter (1), mink (2), marsh hen (3), red heron (4), harrier (5), marsh owl (6) Orchards are widespread in the forest-steppe zone, giving generous yields of apples, pears, plums, cherries, apricot. Watermelons and melons ripen on the melons. There are vineyards. Check yourself 1. What natural zone is called forest-steppe? What territory does the forest-steppe of Ukraine occupy? 2. Name the signs of the seasons in the forest-steppe zone. 3. What plants grow in this area? 4. What animals live in the forest-steppe forests? 5. What animals and birds are found in the backwaters of the rivers of the forest-steppe zone? 6. How is the forest-steppe used in economic activities? 7. What natural factors contribute to the diversity of the animal world of the forest-steppe? Make up several food chains formed in the forest-steppe zone. Using various sources of information, prepare a report about any plant or animal in the forest-steppe zone. Library of the Natural Researcher The names of many rivers in the forest-steppe zone are still unsolved. So, the name of the Sula River probably means “wet 142

place "Vorskla -" white water ", because the coastal cliffs are formed by white sands and chalk deposits Psol -" meadow "," wet place "Ros -" moisture "," dew "Tyas-min -" stone ", because crystalline rocks in the river bed in some places come to the surface. Summarize the results The forest-steppe is located in the central part of Ukraine. The natural conditions of this zone are favorable for plants and animals. Forests are predominantly deciduous. The fauna is represented by numerous species of mammals, birds, amphibians, insects.On the fertile black soil of the forest-steppe, people grow grain, fruit and vegetable and berry crops. § 44. STEPPE On the map of natural zones of Ukraine, find a steppe zone. What forms of the earth's surface are there? What are the big rivers that cross the steppe zone? Show them on the map. To the south of the forest-steppe to the Black and Azov Seas, the steppe zone stretches for almost 500 km. The surface is flat steppe, with hills, ravines and gullies. The large rivers of Ukraine flow along the steppe zone to the seas: the Dnieper, Danube, Dniester, Southern Bug, Seversky Donets. There are large irrigation systems and many lakes in the Yugezons. The sun rises higher in the steppes, it gets hotter, because there is more heat than in the forest-steppe zone, but the moisture is much less. Most precipitation is in April-October. Summer in the steppes is hot and dry. The winter is cold and with little snow. Dry winds blow in summer. Dangerous weather phenomenon in the steppe zone is a dust storm. In winter, powerful winds blow snow from fields into ravines and gullies. The wind carries the top fertile layer of soil for hundreds of kilometers. The soils in the steppe are chernozems. Plants of the steppe. Herbaceous plants grow in the steppes (Fig. 124). In the spring, when there is enough moisture in the soil, 143

Fig. 124. Feather grass (1), steppe fescue (2), wormwood (3), tartar katran (4), steppe sage (5), spreading cornflower (6), the steppe is replete with tulips, forget-me-nots, violets. , narrow-leaved peony. After some time, feather grass, fescue, bluegrass meadow, fescue develop. Plants with pubescent leaves appear: wormwood, sage, mullein, bruises, etc. In summer, the herbs burn out from the heat, and their stems die off. However, the steppe at this time is surprisingly beautiful: yarrow, drooping sage, blackthorn, wolfberry, steppe almond and wild rose grow. In autumn, the steppe is gray and inhospitable. The wind carries in half, vitryahivaya ripe seeds, broken stalk Tartar, zopnik, cornflower spreading, called tumbleweed. Plants have adapted to life in the steppe. Many of them have narrow or finely dissected leaves, rigid or covered with hairs. This reduces the evaporation of water. Some plants, thanks to their long roots, get water from the depths. Others grow in spring when there is enough moisture in the soil. With the onset of heat, their fruits are already ripening, and the above-ground part dries up. Bulbs, tubers remain in the soil, out of 144

Fig. 125. Marmot (1), jerboa (2), weasel (3), ground squirrel (4) of which new plants will develop next spring. Currently, a significant territory of the steppe zone is occupied by agricultural land, therefore, its forbs survived in reserves, on small areas of steep slopes of river valleys and gullies. Steppe animals. Representatives of this natural zone have a yellow-gray color, which makes them less noticeable among the yellowed grass (Fig. 125). Many animals live in burrows where they hide and breed. And for some of them it is a place of winter sleep or hibernation, accumulation of food reserves. The steppe is inhabited by marmots, jerboas, mole rats. Sometimes you can see how near their burrows are, word-pillars, ground squirrels. Voles and European hares have adapted to life on the plowed steppes. Occasionally there are predators: fox, weasel, ermine, steppe ferrets and sometimes badger. In the holes of small animals reptiles settle - steppe turtle, steppe viper and eager lizard (Fig. 126, 1 and 2). Steppe birds - quails, larks, gray partridges, steppe tree tails - nest on 145

Fig. 126. Steppe viper (7), eager lizard (2), lark (3), gray partridge (4), red falcon (5) on the ground (Fig. 126, 3 and 4). They feed on plants and insects. Among the birds of prey, the steppe harrier, owl, and falcon are found (Fig. 126, 5). They hunt large birds for rodents. In the steppes, a huge number of insects: butterflies, beetles, locusts, dragonflies. Different plants serve as food for them. Insects, in turn, are food for birds, reptiles and amphibians.Since ancient times, people have cultivated fertile steppe lands. To prevent the plants from fading from drought, drip irrigation is used. Wheat, corn, vegetables and industrial crops are grown in the fields, as well as rice due to irrigation. Large areas are set aside for gardens, vineyards, melons. Steppe vegetation is a good food for domestic animals. Therefore, there are many farms here that breed cattle, pigs, sheep, birds. Fish are raised in reservoirs. Currently, almost all the steppes in Ukraine are plowed up. The human task is to preserve untouched areas of the steppe, at least in such reserves as Askania-Nova. 146

Check yourself 1. Where is the steppe zone in Ukraine? 2. What forms of the earth's surface are there in the steppe zone? What are the reservoirs? 3. Describe the seasons of the steppe zone. 4. What plants grow in the steppe zone? How did they adapt to life in the steppe? Illustrate the answer with examples. 5. What animals live in the steppe zone? How did they adapt to life in the steppe? Give examples. 6. How do people use the steppe in economic activities? 7. What are the relationships between plants and animals of the steppe? Make up several food chains formed in the steppe. Summarize the steppe stretches south of the forest-steppe to the Black and Azov seas. Summer in the steppes is hot and dry, cold and with little snow, there are often strong winds. Herbaceous vegetation prevails in the steppe zone. Animals are adapted to life in open spaces. People use the steppe in economic activities. § 45. CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS On the physical map of Ukraine, find the Carpathian Mountains. In what part of Ukraine are they located? What rivers originate in the Carpathians? In the west of Ukraine there are the Carpathian Mountains, which are also called the Ukrainian Carpathians (Fig. 127). The mountains consist of several ridges separated by mountain valleys. The Carpathians are young mountains, and their formation continues to this day. The Ukrainian Carpathians are mountains of medium height. The highest point of the Carpathians in Ukraine is Hoverla. Her height is 147

Fig. 127. Panorama of the Carpathians2061 m. There are no glaciers in the Carpathians, but the snow in the mountains lies for a long time. It often comes down in avalanches that block rivers and break trees. In the Carpathians, mild winters and hot summers. Most of all precipitation falls here in Ukraine. Many rivers originate in the Carpathians. The largest rivers: Dniester, Prut, Seret, Tisa. Some of them flow in narrow mountain gorges, forming waterfalls (Fig. 128). At the beginning of summer, when the snow melts in the mountains, and 128. Carpathian waterfall Fig. 129. Lake Synevyr 148

during heavy rains, rivers become full-flowing, flood coastal areas, and cause stones. Lakes give the Carpathians a magical beauty. The largest mountain lake is Synevyr (Fig. 129). Lakes Furious and Lipovetskoye are also known. There are swamps in the Carpathians. Plants of the Carpathians. In the foothills of the Carpathians, oak, white fir, hornbeam, aspen, Norway maple are widespread. Under the trees grow bushes of hazel, buckthorn, black elderberry, viburnum. 1 thick grass cover is formed by sedge, sage, woodruff. The higher, the cooler it gets. Beech forests are widespread in these places. They are very dense, so the undergrowth and grass cover are poor here. On the edges there is a warty euonymus, a warty euonymus, an elderberry, and from grasses - woodlands, wild garlic, and a raven eye. Spruce forests are even higher in the mountains. Twilight reigns here, but in some places the sun's rays through the canopy of trees reach the forest floor of individual shrubs - this is honeysuckle, red elderberry, mountain ash, juniper. The grass cover on these edges is formed by a hawk, oxalis, and various vidymkhov. Further, at an altitude of 1800 m, spruce gives way to mountain pine, alder, and juniper. In some places there are bushes of blueberries and lingonberries. Lots of green mosses. Even higher are mountain meadows - meadows. This is the kingdom of flowering plants: bells, daffodils, arnica.Above 1800 m - where it is much cooler, grayish-green grasses grow: fescue, sedge, rush and creeping shrubs. In the Carpathians, there are many rare trees and bushes: yewood (Fig. 130, 1), white fir, East Carpathian rhododendron. Herbaceous plants are protected: yellow gentian, forest lily, alpine bilotka (Fig. 130, 2-4), etc. 149

Fig. 130. Berry yew (1), yellow gentian (2), forest lily (3), alpine bilotka (4) Animals of the Carpathians. There are many different animals in the Carpathian forests. Roe deer, deer, wild pigs, martens live in the thicket of the forest. There is also a brown bear, a fox, a hare, a ferret, and a badger. The Carpathian squirrel and the Carpathian newt are found only in the Carpathians (Fig. 131). Fig. 131. Animals of the Carpathians: Carpathian squirrel (1), Carpathian newt (2) Many birds nest in the forests. Some of them are included in the Red Data Book of Ukraine: snake-eagle, golden eagle, black grouse, wood grouse, long-tailed owl (Fig. 132). 150

Raspberry harvest Gardening Russia no Hits: 448

Actinidia is a vine that naturally climbs along tree trunks or creeps along rocks and ground. In length, it can reach 15-35 m. In its natural range, it is found in the subtropical and tropical zones and in the temperate latitudes of East and Southeast Asia - in Vietnam, India, China, Korea, Indonesia and Japan. In the USSR, actinidia is widespread in the forests of the Far East - in the Primorsky Territory, Sakhalin and the Kuril Islands.

Actinidia is a valuable vitamin plant. Berries have a pleasant taste with a pineapple aroma. They contain 8-17% sugars, 1.3-1.6% acids, 78-1000 mg of vitamin C per 100 g, 55 mg of vitamin P and 8.5 mg of provitamin A. In the bark of actinidia, cardiac glycosides and tannins are found. Berries are eaten raw and processed. They are used to prepare juices, jams, compotes, wines and other products. The fruits of actinidia kolomikta and argut are used in folk medicine in the form of a decoction as a general tonic for diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, metabolic disorders and anemia.

Actinidia bushes are decorative. They can be used for vertical gardening. The annual growth of adult plants is 2-4 m, which allows you to quickly get the effect of decorating outbuildings, booths, and various structures.

Actinidia significantly reduces soil moisture at the foundations of buildings, eliminates its accumulation in rainy weather. Vertical gardening reduces summer heat indoors, protects against dust. An additional decorative effect is given to actinidia kolomikta by variegated leaves, which turn white before the flowering of plants, then acquire a pale pink hue, and by autumn they become crimson.

Botanical description and biological features of actinidia

Actinidia is a liana, which under culture conditions has a length of 3-7 m, a stem thickness of 2-3 cm. Three wild-growing species are common in our country: actinidia kolomikta, actinidia arguta and actinidia polygamy. In addition, in the botanical gardens there are introduced species from abroad - actinidia purpurea and actinidia chinensis.

Actinidia kolomikta (raisins, raisins, small maximovnik, creeper, or taiga pineapple)

Reaches 15 m in length, 3-4 cm in diameter. The bark of annual shoots is olive-green or reddish, with numerous yellowish lenticels. On old branches, the bark is brown, flaky. The buds are almost completely immersed in the tissue of the towering pads, the leaves are ovate-oblong, shiny, dark green, in a lit place they are characterized by a variegated color. The flowers are white, rather large, fragrant. The plant is dioecious. On some plants only male flowers are formed, on others only female flowers. The female, usually solitary, flowers have well-developed pistils and small stamens. Male flowers are collected in two or three in the inflorescence of the hemiscule, where the stamens with yellow anthers are developed. Pollinated by insects or wind.

On female plants, in the absence of male plants, self-pollination is sometimes noted. The berries are dark green, oblong-rounded, ripen at the end of August. The pulp has a pleasant taste, aromatic. Fruit weight is about 4 g. Berries ripen at the same time and crumble. Harvest in vivo 5-8 kg per bush.

The largest liana growing in the USSR. Its height is more than 25 m, diameter is up to 18 cm. Leaves are round-ovate or broadly elliptical, dark green above and light below, color does not change. Greenish-white fragrant flowers bloom in June. The plant is dioecious. The berries are green, round, flavorful, juicy, sweet, weighing 2-10 g. Ripen at the same time at the end of September, do not crumble. Productivity 5-50 kg per bush.

Actinidia polygamy (pepper, or bitter raisins)

Unlike other species, its fruits have a pungent, scalding taste. It blooms in early June with large white fragrant flowers. The berries are orange, oblong, up to 5 cm long, 2 cm wide.

Liana 8-10 m long. The plant is dioecious. Grows wild in China. Berries are purple, cylindrical, oblong, weighing 10-12 g, do not crumble when ripe. The taste is sweet and sour, juicy. Productivity 10-12 kg per bush.

Liana 8-10 m long. Young shoots are reddish-brown or greenish, covered with hard brown hairs. The buds are almost completely hidden in swollen, hairy leaf pads. The leaves are large, pubescent, 6-17 cm long, 6-15 cm wide. The flowers are dioecious, orange-yellow, collected in a semi-umbilical inflorescence, with numerous stamens. Sepals are oblong-ovate, brownish, tomentose below, with five petals. Berries are round to ellipsoidal, very pubescent, 3-5 cm long, 3 cm in diameter, weighing 30-40 g, sweet and sour, very tasty, aromatic. The berries contain 9-10% sugars, 1.3% acids, 1.6% protein, as well as vitamins C, Bi and carotenoids. They contain iron, manganese, phosphorus and a special enzyme, actinidia.

Since the skin is abundantly covered with hairs, it is removed when the berries are consumed. Actinidia chinensis, as the most valuable subtropical species, has come under the special interest of breeders. In New Zealand, varieties called Kiwi were created, which then spread to Italy, USA, Germany, France, Yugoslavia and other countries.

With seed reproduction, all types of actinidia enter fruiting in the 4-5th year, with vegetative reproduction - in the 3-4th year. A plant that has entered fruiting has three types of shoots: generative, generative-vegetative, and vegetative. The function of generative shoots is fruiting. They are formed on the stems of the last year and are characterized by shortened internodes and a small total length (up to 10 cm). Vegetative-generative shoots are distinguished by the intensity of growth. They reach a length of 60-80 cm and, in addition to fruiting, have a supporting function.

Vegetative shoots are the basis of the vine. Regenerating annually and reaching a length of 2 m or more, they form the main stem and main branches. Vegetative shoots are formed from dormant buds on perennial wood. With intensive growth, they are constantly in motion and are able, when in contact with the support, to wrap it in a counterclockwise direction.

The root system of actinidia is branched with a dense network of overgrowing roots. Roots generally develop horizontally in the most loose, fertile layer 20-30 cm from the surface. In the vertical direction, they penetrate to a depth of 120 cm.

The plant has specific requirements for growing conditions. At a young age, partial shade is favorable for plants. However, in well-lit areas, the crop finishes growing earlier and is better prepared for wintering.

Actinidia kolomikta, as the most winter-hardy species, withstands frosts up to 45 ° C in natural habitat. However, in the European part, its frost resistance is lowered. Actinidia arg-ta and purple are less resistant to frost.Actinidia Chinese is a non-resistant species, it can be grown only in the subtropical regions of the Caucasus and Central Asia.

This culture is demanding on moisture, but does not tolerate stagnant waters, prefers fertile, loose soils with a slightly acidic reaction. Sandy soils, which dry out quickly, and clayey, waterproof soils are unfavorable for her.

IV Michurin was the first to start breeding actinidia. From actinidia kolomikt he bred the varieties Klara Zetkin, Pineapple Michurina and Krupnaya Michurina, from actinidia argut - Urozhainaya, Early and Pozdnyaya. Actinidia was selected at the Pavlovsk Experimental Station of the VIR and in the Central Republican Botanical Garden of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR. In Pavlovsk, from the seeds of the species of actinidia kolomikt, varieties such as Leningradskaya krupnaya, Dostoinaya, VIR-1, Leningradskaya early, Pavlovskaya, Pobeda, Urozhainaya, etc. were obtained. In Kiev, IM Shaitan carried out a hybridization of two species of actinidia - argut and purple. As a result, the following varieties were obtained: September (Emerald), Purple garden, Kiev hybrid, Kiev large-fruited and Figured.

This wonderful variety of actinidia is obtained by selection from the third generation Actinidia kolomikta Max. Sowing was carried out in 1924. Seed emergence was observed in 1925. The first fruiting occurred in 1931, in the 7th year of its growth. The shape of the berries varies greatly: they are on the same bush and are wide-oval, and oblong, and irregularly wide-blunt-conical, etc. Some berries have deep lateral seams that come from the attachment of the the seams cross the entire berry along the top and bottom, sometimes they are expressed only up to half of the berry. The surface of the berry is slightly ribbed. Color - dark green, monochromatic in ribbed grooves, it turns into light green. Fruits are dark green, broadly oval, weighing about 3 g. Sweet taste, with a strong aroma. Ripen in August at different times and crumble.

Productivity up to 5 kg per bush.

Fruits are light green, with a yellowish tinge, long, from cylindrical to elliptical, weighing 3-4 g. Sweet-sour taste, with a strong aroma, cause slight perspiration.

Ripen almost simultaneously.

The berries are green, round-cylindrical, weighing about 4 g. The taste is sweet and sour. They contain 1100-1160 mg of vitamin C per 100 g, 14.5-17.6% dry matter and 8.4-9.7% sugars. Ripens in early August.

The variety is quite winter-hardy and productive.

The berries are green, cylindrical, with light longitudinal stripes, weighing 3.3 g. The taste is sweet and sour. Ripen in the second half of August.

High winter hardiness, yield 1.8 kg per bush.

Berries are green, weighing up to 3 g. The taste is sweet and sour, with a strong aroma. They contain 17.9-20.8% dry matter, 10.9-11.9% sugars and 551-772 mg of vitamin C per 100 g. Fruits ripen in the second half of August.

Winter-hardy fruitful variety.

Elite seedling, selected by I. M. Shaitan from the introduced seeds of actinidia purpurea obtained from the Beijing Botanical Garden. The leaves are large, smooth, shiny, the leaf petiole is crimson. The plant is dioecious. The flowers are white, unisexual, large, with five to six petals, on a thin long peduncle, solitary, located in the leaf axils. Male flowers on separate plants are collected in a cluster of three. Blooms in early June. Berries are dark pink-purple, cylindrical, weighing 8-11 g. The pulp is dark pink, sweet. The fruits contain 9.6% sugars, 1.46% acids and 98.7 mg vitamin C per 100 g.

Ripen in mid-September.

Elite seedling, selected from the seeds of actinidia argut. Leaves are ovoid, pubescence is bristly along the veins of the leaf, the petiole is pink. The plant is dioecious. The flowers are white, seven-petaled, on a thin pedicel, open in early June. Berries are dark green, oblong-elliptical, weighing 7-10 g. The pulp is light green, juicy, tender, sweet.The fruits contain 17.6% sugars, 1.14% acids and 182.9 mg vitamin C per 100 g.

Ripen in early September. Productivity 8-10 kg per bush.

The variety was obtained by crossing the actinidia arguta with the actinidia purpurea. Shoots are gray with numerous white dots. The leaves are large, oval-elliptical. The plant is dioecious. Flowers are white, solitary, two or three in inflorescences. Fruits are green, with brown spots, weighing 10-12 g. The pulp is tender, sweet, reddish around the seeds and at the base of the stalk.

Ripen in early September.

Actinidia is propagated by seeds and vegetatively. The seed method is used for breeding purposes when breeding new varieties. Seeds isolated from ripe fruits are dried and placed in nylon bags. Seed stratification is best done at variable temperatures: 2 months. in wet sand at a temperature of 18.20 ° C, after ripening - 1.5-2 months. - at a temperature of 1.3 ° C. The prepared seeds are sown in seed boxes. Seedlings dive, and in the spring of next year they are planted in a nursery for growing.

Actinidia reproduces well with green, lignified cuttings and cuttings. Green cuttings are carried out in greenhouses or greenhouses with a fogging installation. Cuttings start at the beginning of July, when the intensively growing shoots begin to lignify. Cuttings are cut 12-15 cm long with two or three knots and planted in the substrate according to the 5-7X4-5 cm scheme. In the spring, the cuttings are planted for growing.

Propagation by lignified cuttings gives more stable results, especially in an amateur garden, if there is no irrigation system. Annual shoots with a thickness of at least 5 mm are harvested in November - December, before severe frosts. Store in a snow pile or in a basement. Shoots can be immediately cut into cuttings 15-20 cm in size and buried in the soil until spring. Cuttings are planted on ridges with fertile soil or in nurseries. The distance between the rows is 20 cm, between the plants in a row -7-8 cm. You can grow them at the place of rooting.

Depending on the conditions and the number of seedlings, horizontal and arcuate layering can be used. Horizontal layers are laid at the beginning of the growing season, using well-developed annual stems for this purpose. They are pinned into a groove in loose soil. As soon as the shoots grow 8-10 cm, they are spud up half their length. As it grows, hilling is repeated, bringing a layer of moist loose soil at the rooting site to 15 cm. The main conditions for successful rooting of cuttings are a sufficiently moist and loose soil. In the spring of next year, the rooted layers are separated from. mother plant and planted for growing, but you can leave it in place.

If a small number of seedlings are required, arcuate layering can be made. In this case, a strong one-year shoot is bent and laid in a hole, leaving the top of the stem outside, from which one seedling is obtained. For planting in a permanent place, two-year-old seedlings are usually used.

When choosing a site for laying actinidia, one should take into account the requirements of this plant to environmental conditions. Light and medium loams are most favorable for it. The site should be well lit, as this helps to accelerate the ripening of the shoots. In an amateur garden, it is better to plant actinidia from the southern or southwestern side of the building. An increased temperature background is usually created here with good lighting, which ensures favorable growth and development of plants.

For planting actinidia, pits are prepared 60x60 cm in size and 50 cm deep, or they dig trenches. 8-10 kg of organic fertilizers, 200 g of superphosphate and 70 g of potassium sulfate are applied to one pit. When grown on a trellis, it is recommended to make a distance between plants of 1.5 m. For a bush form in a backyard garden, a 2X2 m pattern is sufficient. For good pollination, you need one male plant for five females.

In the conditions of the Non-Black Earth Zone, the best time for planting actinidia is early May. Two-three-year-old seedlings prepared for planting are installed on a mound of fertile soil in the center of a previously prepared hole, spread the roots and covered with the upper fertile layer of soil, making sure that the root collar is at the level of the soil or 2-3 cm below. After compaction, the soil around the stem is watered, and the trunks are mulched with peat or humus with a layer of 3-5 cm.

Caring for the plantings of actinidia consists in maintaining the near-trunk strips or circles in a weed-free state, loosening, fertilizing the soil. Excessive nitrogen fertilization can cause prolonged growth of shoots and reduce winter hardiness of plants. For actinidia, it is enough to apply 3-5 kg ​​of organic fertilizers per 1 m2 once every two years. Mineral fertilizers are applied annually. In the fall, they give 40-50 g of superphosphate and 15 g of potassium chloride for digging, and in the spring -20-30 g of ammonium nitrate per 1 m2. They dig up the soil shallowly, since the roots are located in its surface layer at a depth of 10-20 cm. In the spring, plantings are loosened to a depth of 10-12 cm, and in the fall they are dug up to 15-18 cm.

Like any berry crop with a superficial root system, actinidia responds well to spring mulching of the soil with peat, manure or humus after loosening with a layer of up to 10 cm. In a dry period, plants need irrigation.

For the successful growth and fruiting of actinidia, supports are needed, which are built in the first years after planting. For a vertical trellis, you can use wooden or concrete pillars up to 2 m high or metal pipes with a diameter of 5-7 cm. Between the pillars, a wire 3 mm thick is pulled in three to four rows.

When grown on a trellis, the plants are formed in the form of a fan and horizontal cordons. In the fall, in the year of planting, the plants are cut into two to four buds, leaving two stems. At the beginning of their growth, one main shoot is chosen and directed vertically along the trellis. As it grows, it is tied to a trellis. All other shoots appearing at the base are removed. In the 2nd year, lateral shoots depart from the main stem, of which the two most powerful are selected in the middle part and sent in opposite directions. The length of these horizontal shoots is limited by pinching. In subsequent years, shoots of subsequent orders of branching are formed on horizontal stems. It is recommended to replace the main stems every three to four years.

Actinidia berries ripen at different times. In the North-West of the Non-Black Earth Zone, the ripening period lasts from mid-August to the first ten days of September. The berries are harvested in one or two doses 8-10 days after the first ripe fruits appear. Harvested unripe fruits are laid out in a thin layer in a dry room, protected from sunlight, for ripening. During this period, the room should be well ventilated to avoid strong extraneous odors that can spoil the marketability of berries.

Pests and diseases of actinidia In the North-West of the Non-Chernozem zone, no pests and diseases with noticeable harmfulness have yet been found, therefore, no preventive chemical treatments should be done in backyard and collective gardens.

Serious harm to young actinidia plants can be caused by cats, which gnaw the bark and buds at the soil surface, dig in and damage the roots. Cats seem to be attracted by the specific odor emanating from plants damaged by planting or grooming in spring.

For protection from rodents, the plants can be fenced with a metal mesh in the first years after planting.

Composition and distinctive features of the high-mountainous bee product - serpentine honey. Useful properties and contraindications of honey

This type of honey is collected by bees from a plant such as Crowned Serpukha. This is a high-mountainous product that has many useful properties. It is mined in Altai. Mainly on the Zeya-Bureinskaya plain.Since the product is collected in ecologically clean conditions of the Far Eastern region, it is very popular.

Sickle honey is saturated with useful substances. There are about 300 of them, together with ash-type components. The product from the Far East is especially valuable. It absorbs all the value of plants that grow in ecologically clean conditions. It is also known for its medicinal and medicinal properties.

The crowned type of plant can be found in large numbers in Altai. Honey from this area is especially popular and highly valued. Serpukh nectar is used in the treatment of many diseases and pathologies. It relaxes and soothes well. Every person will like the unusual taste.

The value of honey is known in medicine. Each such product has a wide range of medicinal properties. It is used for the treatment and prevention of diseases of the digestive, nervous and endocrine systems.

Sickleback honey from the Far East has been popular since ancient times. It was used by the Slavs and was considered a unique variety. The characteristic confirms this. Its special taste and shade distinguishes it from other varieties of honey products. The bees collect the mountain product from more than 40 melliferous plants. Therefore, he has an extraordinary taste.

Color Light, greenish tint
Taste Pleasant, rich, with a hint of astringency
Smell Fragrant, floral, light
Crystallization 3 months after pumping out
Structure Vitamins, trace elements, amino acids, proteins, glucose, sucrose
Calorie content 300 kcal / 100 g

Due to its unique composition, it is widely used in medicine, cosmetology, cooking and desserts.

Treatment of diseases

The honey product is widely used in the treatment of various pathologies and diseases. Has a healing effect in case of disorders of the digestive system, viral, infectious diseases. Has anti-inflammatory, sedative, bactericidal effect on the body.

It is useful for children to improve immunity, develop the musculoskeletal system. Systematic use is a good prevention of atherosclerosis. Provides the body with a daily intake of vitamins and minerals.

How fake

It is easy to forge such a variety. Any herb can be provided as a natural product. In order not to be faced with a counterfeit, a certificate should be required, which indicates the region of honey collection. This significantly affects the cost and quality of the delicacy.

Serpukh honey has properties to strengthen the body, improve metabolic processes. Contraindications include individual intolerance. If a person suffers from food allergies or hay fever, they should not be allowed to take this strain. Also, you can not use it if you are hypersensitive to this plant.


Since the product has beneficial properties, it is recommended to take it at the first symptoms of colds and flu. Improves the general condition of the body, relieves inflammation, produces a bactericidal effect. In addition, it strengthens the immune system and increases the body's resistance to viral diseases. In this case, it is useful to take tea with honey and lemon.

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

The usefulness of this variety is noted for gastritis, ulcers, colitis, pancreatitis, and inflammatory processes. Fasting honey water is an effective prevention of constipation. Cleans the body of toxins and toxins. It is good to take with pumpkin seeds. This combination has an anthelmintic effect. In its pure form, it is recommended to take on an empty stomach to reduce the manifestations of heartburn, gastritis. Improves digestion and prevents the development of urolithiasis.

Diseases of the cardiovascular system

Serpukhovy honey has beneficial properties on the functionality of the cardiovascular system. Strengthens the walls of blood vessels, helps to normalize blood circulation. It is a prevention of varicose veins, thrombosis, atherosclerosis.As an auxiliary therapy, it is used during the rehabilitation period after strokes and heart attacks. Recommended for people with iron deficiency anemia and for its prevention. Especially in the first trimester of pregnancy.

Diseases of ENT organs, bronchial asthma

For diseases of the respiratory system, it is useful to take the product for rinsing and as a drink. Eliminates inflammation in the throat, helps in the treatment of tonsillitis, laryngitis, pharyngitis. Eliminates irritation. Effectively helps with stomatitis, gum disease. Indispensable in the treatment of cough.

For people with bronchial asthma, the product can be used after a doctor's recommendation. Since the flower of a unique plant is involved in the collection of nectar, it can provoke another attack. Asthmatics are prohibited from many varieties of honey due to the high risk.

Skin diseases

Collecting sickle nectar has a positive effect on the condition of the skin. Effectively helps with dermatitis, pathologies, dry skin. Reduces the manifestations of chronic diseases. Eliminates rash, blackheads. It moisturizes the skin well and saturates it with useful elements.

Restoring the nervous system after stress

Any kind of honey product is an antidepressant. The floral scent itself has a relaxing effect. If you add to warm milk with butter, you can get rid of insomnia and cure a cold faster. Herbal teas with such a delicacy have a pleasant taste and calm the nervous system. Pure application restores vital energy.

Disease prevention

The honey product tends to have healing properties. It is taken to boost the immune system. Helps prevent the development of diseases of the digestive system, urolithiasis, vascular pathologies, iron deficiency anemia. Children are given to increase their appetite. Also, in combination with herbs and pumpkin seeds, it has an anthelmintic effect.

Adults are used to prevent stress, viral, infectious, bacterial diseases. The product is an antidepressant and helps with various emotional disorders. An excellent analogue of sugar for healthy and dietary nutrition.

Sickle honey useful properties are widely known in cosmetology. It is added to various cosmetic products. For example: shampoos, soaps, shower gels, balms, creams, lotions. Has a moisturizing effect.

It is known to slow down the aging process and the appearance of wrinkles. Makes the body beautiful inside and out. Daily use has a good effect on the condition of the skin.

Face masks

In this case, the product can be taken in its pure form. Apply a thin layer to cleansed skin for at least 30 minutes. After that, wash off with warm water. To eliminate blackheads and cleanse the skin, the honey product is mixed with activated charcoal. It is pre-washed into powder. Apply such masks 2-3 times a week

Hair masks

A honey mask with yolk will help to strengthen the hair and prevent hair loss. It is applied to dry hair. After 30 minutes, they are washed in the usual way.

Body honey

In this case, the treat is added to the bathtubs. Can be used as a lotion. After that, the skin becomes soft and silky.

Before going to massage the nectar is diluted with oil for better application to the skin. It has a relaxing effect.

The main contraindications include: allergies, individual intolerance, composition. It should be used with caution in diabetics and asthmatics.

Adults are advised to take 20-30 g of the product 1-2 times a day. Safe dosage for children is 1 teaspoon per day.

The finished product is stored in a wooden, glass, earthenware container with a sealed lid. In this case, the room should be dark and cool.

A kilogram of honey for 280 rubles or for 900 - feel the difference? And it turns out, not only in price, but also in taste.Moreover, the price tag is not at all an indicator of quality. A lot of money can be spent on food flavors and colors. What is better expensive honey, the AP correspondent tried to find out. We took several purchased samples to the laboratory. And they were unpleasantly surprised: most of them turned out to be not the products of bees at all, but rather humans.

There is only one name for such honey - "linden", and it is in quotation marks. Since at a fabulous price in Blagoveshchensk they sell not honey, but, how to put it mildly, honey-containing products. Moreover, they announce to buyers a whole list of its useful properties. For example, “clover honey” has hemostatic properties, “royal velvet” honey is used for neuralgia and headaches, and “bee bread with honey” (for 2 thousand rubles!) Improves cerebral circulation.

The other day, at one of the markets in Blagoveshchensk, we are queuing up for awfully expensive (we hope, delicious) honey brought from another region, and we see the following picture. A sleek middle-aged woman, clearly above average income, tries on the above products.

“I have long wanted to taste your honey,” she admits to the seller. - My daughter saw an advertisement and all her ears were buzzing about him, she says, good.

- Of course, good, - the seller echoes her. - We are a very well-known brand, our honey is very useful. You can take it from the liver, it is collected in the mountains, or for women - varicose veins are probably familiar - and winds the promoted product like caramel on a wooden spatula.

The lady surrenders under the onslaught. Takes 150 grams of both. She leaves happy, clutching a paper booklet, which describes the useful properties of the other twenty varieties. She was not alarmed by the vigorous "honey" spirit rushing from the open containers, nor the strange pearlescent color of the honey itself, nor its suspicious consistency - solid bubbles, as if they had been beating for a long time with a mixer. Advertising is truly the engine of trade! But Amur honey is right there, next to it, after a couple of counters, and its price is three to four times lower. For 300 rubles, given for 300 grams, that Annunciation could buy a kilogram of Amur fragrant honey.

In general, what kind of miracle honey is this and is it really necessary to eat it? The photographer and I purchased this promising product to take to a laboratory in the Central Annunciation market. As it turned out, the honey of this manufacturer had already been tested there. Moreover, the specialists became interested in him on their own initiative, since initially there was no identifying information on the containers with the products.

“We conducted a laboratory chemical analysis of honey, determined the content of water, sugars, oxymethylfurfural in the tested samples, the diastase number (an indicator of honey activity) and compared the results with the indices of natural honey provided for by GOST,” says Anna Dolgoruk, veterinarian of the laboratory of veterinary and sanitary examination. - So, out of 16 samples, only 6 (!) Could be considered honey. The remaining 10, even with a stretch, we could call honey-containing products, since they did not find a single pollen grain. In artificial honey, pollen grains are absent and in small quantities there are fake ones. The only indicator that was normal for everyone was humidity, but it is not difficult to bring it to normal. We cannot dispute the conclusion of the institution that issued the permit for the sale of this honey. Although the composition of the products under study is definitely not honey. But advertising goes on, sellers have dispersed all over Russia. And the old women give their last money for low-quality honey.

According to the specialist, even the outwardly studied honey resembled a sweet homogenized mass whipped into foam. In nature, such pearlescent honeys simply do not exist. As well as honey does not smell of some kind of chemical reagents.

“Honey has bactericidal properties, and we made solutions that stood for four days,” the veterinarian continues.- In those samples where there was no diastase at all, but only sugar and additives, blue-green mold quickly developed. In addition, the seller states that there is no oxymethylfurfural (artificial sugar) in his products, that the sweetness is natural. But we found its content as much as 19 units. This means that there is a lot of artificial sugar in supposedly natural honey.

Serpukh honey is given out for linden tree

Unfortunately, some Amur producers also keep up with the newcomers and sell to customers not lime honey, but "linden". And under the guise of buckwheat honey they sell flower honey, adding burnt sugar to it.

“There is no buckwheat honey as such today, because they began to sow Canadian buckwheat varieties, which are self-pollinated, and bees do not even sit on them,” notes the owner of a large apiary Yuri Vaichaites. - In order for buckwheat to secrete nectar, it needs high humidity and a temperature of at least 24 degrees. And last year it rained all summer. So, for buckwheat, burnt sugar is clearly given out.

The linden last year, according to the beekeeper, did not bloom at all - the color was crumbling. As a result, even the beekeepers did not taste it on a spoonful of honey. By the way, it was noticed that linden gives honey almost once every four years, it also needs certain climatic conditions. Therefore, all linden honey on the market now is serpentine. There was no May honey in 2010 either, because there was a drought and no nectar was released by plants and the bee was hungry. But they collected a lot of taiga and flower honey.

The bee does not sit on the plantain

- I am familiar with the honey in question, I was present at exhibitions, demanded documents, - says a beekeeper with 30 years of experience from the village of Sadovy Blagoveshchensky District, Yuri Vaychaites, - and was very surprised: samples for honey were taken in Moscow back in November, the certificate was issued in Krasnoyarsk in February, and they have been trading with us since April. How this is possible - I can't even imagine. Further, the seller said "plantain honey." I have been dealing with bees for 30 years, an apiary of 100 families, and over the years I have never seen a bee sit on a plantain. Or it is indicated "cedar honey", but a bee can only carry propolis from a cedar, cedar does not emit nectar! Honey "velvet" - well from where? We have Amur velvet, Ussuri velvet, I have never met any other velvet either in nature or in literature. In short, there is a real "linden". I do not understand where the inspection services and the Ministry of Agriculture are looking, what is happening on the market today ?! And what kind of stupid people we have that take a low-quality product for 900 rubles?

The main thing is order in the documents

Anyone who knows even a little about honey, he immediately understands that honey has not been smeared with honey. At least a third of the editorial board of the AP, having tasted the brought samples, said: something is wrong here. But what exactly, the journalists, layout designers and proofreaders could not understand. But experts from the supervisory authorities unanimously claim that everything is in order with honey. Because the seller is ALL IN ORDER WITH THE DOCUMENTS! They cannot question official papers, if they are properly executed. The laboratory got the Rosselkhoznadzor to check the seller. Checked, and then - everything, the threshold.

- The seller presented us with documents that confirm that the honey is of quality, that a veterinary and sanitary examination has been carried out, - comments the state inspector of the veterinary supervision department for animal health, safety of products of animal origin and laboratory control of the Rosselkhoznazdor administration in the Amur Region Alexey Kalgin. - In general, Form No. 2 documents are issued for the period until the end of the sale of products. Until the seller has finished selling honey, he can show them to us and thereby confirm its quality. Therefore, there are no violations of the law on the part of this seller.

Here's a paradox: until someone from Amur residents is taken away with food poisoning, the controlling services are powerless.

Undoubtedly, bee products are a great gift from nature to people. Bees, these indefatigable workers, give a person not only honey, but also other unique products: royal jelly, beeswax, propolis, bee venom, pollen, bee bread, bee moron. But, if you do not mind, then we will talk today about honey.

For a long time, the Slavs mined honey, knew all its types and medicinal properties. The people involved in the extraction of honey were called beekeepers. The extraction of bee products required a lot of skill, effort and dexterity.

It is known that the higher the diastase number, the more valuable honey is. Today it is strictly regulated for each area. This became a sad necessity, since during the industrial production of honey in the USSR, as a result of the feeding of bees with sugar and other abuses, the northern bees practically died out. In southern bees, the diastase number is several times less (usually does not exceed 10%) than in northern bees. For example, in the Central Russian bees that are still preserved in the Perm Territory, this number exceeds 50%!

There are a huge number of types of honey: dandelion, chestnut, crescent, sunflower, linden, burdock, cranberry, etc. Honey can be less accurately classified according to the area from which it was collected by bees (these are more popular names): field, mountain, taiga, meadow, forest, flowing, steppe. I will tell you only about some types of honey.

Linden honey and its properties.

This type of honey is distinguished by a floral linden scent and a light amber color (sometimes even completely colorless). Six months later, such honey crystallizes, acquires a light yellow hue and a fine-grained structure (large crystallization is rare).

Linden honey has strong antibacterial properties and is an excellent "healer" for coughs, colds, asthma, bronchitis and even skin diseases. Can be used as a diaphoretic and expectorant. Contains crystals of calcium oxalate, therefore it is very effective in the treatment of intestines, stomach, kidneys and gall bladder. It is often used as a general tonic for vascular and heart diseases. For eczema and burns, it can be used topically (accelerates healing).

Linden honey is used in the treatment of childhood seizures, mumps, measles and tuberculosis (in combination with goat milk).

Buckwheat honey and its properties.

Buckwheat honey has a darker color: from dark yellow to dark red and brown. It crystallizes quickly, has a spicy aroma (sometimes it even tickles in the throat). It is believed that this type of honey is the most healing one.

In terms of amino acid content, it is much superior to light varieties, contains a large amount of trace elements (a lot of iron, magnesium, copper) and protein substances. The high content of vitamins and minerals makes it possible to treat vitamin deficiency. It is used in the treatment of anemia, anemia, nervous diseases, hypertension, measles, radiation sickness, scarlet fever and as a general tonic. Being an excellent antiseptic, it is used for trophic ulcers and purulent wounds.

Cranberry honey and its properties.

Cranberry honey is rare (there are almost no cranberry bogs left), it has an almost red color and a unique aroma. It is slightly less sweet than other varieties.

Honey collected by bees from cranberry flowers is used in the treatment of colds and flu, glomerulonephritis, cystitis and chronic acute nephritis and other diseases. Used as a diuretic.

Because cranberry honey is quite difficult to find, you can get out of the situation by preparing cranberry juice with the addition of other varieties of honey.

Any natural honey is useful (of course, if you have no allergic reactions to it) and has its own distinctive properties. Remember the main thing: natural honey is always sweet. If honey has a sour, sharp taste, then it is either not natural or spoiled.

You can read about interesting historical and scientific facts about honey in the next article.

Honey is a valuable product that must be stocked up for the winter. But it's hard to understand: are we buying? In fact, it is very simple to determine the quality of honey - by the aftertaste, says the Khabarovsk beekeeper Galina Sinitsyna. From real honey in the throat there is always a slight "feather". In some varieties it is stronger, in others it is weaker, but it is always present. However, in the arsenal of merchants there are also such tricks that an ordinary buyer does not even know about.

Galina Sinitsyna, Khabarovsk beekeeper

- In the spring and until the end of June, do not delude yourself that you are buying good spring honey, - calls on Galina Aleksandrovna Khabarovsk. - They sell at this time, somewhere before June 20, old honey. It is reheated and it becomes liquid. And although it is passed off as fresh, it is no longer honey. Due to the high temperature at which it is heated, all the beneficial properties are lost. One sweetness remains. I know such beekeepers, such cunning people work at Dormidontovka, she told our publication.

The next thing to look out for is density. Decent beekeepers will never pump honey until the bees seal it with wax. Because until the honey is sealed, it is syrup. And there is still a lot of water in it. Bees fan them with their wings so that excess moisture evaporates. At the same time, the fermentation process continues in it. And only when the nectar reaches its condition, the bees skewer it. Therefore, if you were sold liquid honey, it means that it was pumped out unripe.

All of the above is especially true for a summer like this year. Due to the cold June, due to the high humidity, the honey came out late. If the summer is sunny, there is little rain, honey ripens earlier. And for buyers, the weather should also serve as a kind of signal.

- This year, - says Galina Aleksandrovna, - we pumped the first honey only at the beginning of July. And he was not enough, he had enough to feast on and treat his loved ones.

You can find out real high-quality honey by the light "feather" in the throat.

Another vendor trick is the variety of varieties. For example, at one of the Khabarovsk city exhibitions, the seller called buyers "cherry" honey. To get one, you need to plant a hectare of one cherry and put it in the middle of the hive. And where did you see hectares of cherries in the Khabarovsk Territory?

To the question "How then is pure lime honey obtained?" the beekeeper told the following.

Before taking the bees to the linden, be sure to pump out all the honey from the hives. And when linden blossoms abundantly, bees are not distracted by other plants. It happens, and twice during the flowering of linden, honey is pumped. But this year there is no pure linden honey. Linden blossomed poorly, but at the same time, Aralia bloomed well. And the honey turned out to be half aralia, half from other flowering plants and linden.

Sometimes buyers are faced with the fact that the purchased honey foams. This is because the honey was sold immediately after pumping out. You can't do that. After the honey extractor, honey must be kept for at least a week in order for it to cool down. And only then sell.

But which honey is better depends on taste preferences. For example, Galina Sinitsyna loves serpukh honey. Serpukha is a tall grass that looks like cornflowers in flowers. In the Khabarovsk Territory, its vast thickets. Serpukha honey turns out to be yellow-brown-green, fragrant, sharp. But if you are offered fresh serpentine honey at the beginning or in the middle of summer, this is definitely a hoax. Because this herb blooms at the end of summer.

In general, there cannot be a wide variety of varieties in the Khabarovsk Territory. Nobody makes cultural plantings for apiaries in our country, as, for example, in Altai fields are sown with sainfoin. To collect buckwheat honey, there must also be fields sown with buckwheat. In the Khabarovsk Territory, bees work on wild plants.

And although the Far Eastern lands are exceptionally rich in melliferous plants, experts distinguish two main ones. Linden trees bloom in July, and bees collect up to 75-90 percent of honey on them.And then the hives are taken out to the late summer forbs - at this time, the main bribe is given by the grass of the serpukha and the bush of the lespedets.

It turns out that a buyer who wants to buy good honey needs to focus on the second half of summer and autumn.

And in no case should you buy honey from apiaries that stand along highways. All harmful substances from exhaust gases, deposited on flowering plants, in bee goiter "migrate" to honey. But we want to buy a useful product.

Correspondent of the newspaper "Khabarovsk Pensioner", presenter of the author's page "Our House" in the newspaper "Khabarovsk Express" and a regular author of the newspaper for summer residents "Solnyshko". Three times, in 2011, 2012 and 2013, she became the winner of the All-Russian competition of journalists for the best media coverage of social and pension topics. I am convinced that in order to finally “live well in Russia”, we all need to learn how to obey the laws, and not fight them.

Official medicine is showing interest in folk remedies that increase a person's ability to resist viruses and bacteria. Healers from China and Siberia have long known about the immunostimulating properties of Crowned Serpukha.

In the meadows and forest edges, near the marshes, you can find a purple flower, unprepossessing at first glance. The people know him as a gourd, dope or hare paws. The official name of the herbaceous plant from the Asteraceae family is crowned serpukha.

The flower is common in Central Europe and Central Asia.

He is known in Ukraine, Siberia, Kazakhstan, Mongolia, China, Korea and Japan. Favorite growing places: forest, steppe, wet meadow, bushes, forest edges, slopes of mountains and ravines.

  • An adult plant is a bush that rises 140-190 cm.Its diameter is 100-150 cm.
  • Young serpukha consists of 12-34 erect stems, which are branched towards the top.
  • Each shoot is knotty and naked, with pronounced grooves.
  • Leaflets consist of separate pointed segments. There are from 3 to 7 pairs of them. From above, naked, dark green in color. At the bottom, the shade of the segments is slightly lighter.
  • Graceful baskets crown the ends of the stems. They are relatively large (2-3 cm wide).
  • Lilac-purple flowers are pleasing to the eye from July to September.
  • Fruits are smooth brownish achenes.

Crowned serpukha is loved by bees. The resulting honey has a golden green tint. It is a fragrant and pleasant treat. In Siberia, 80-100 kg of honey is extracted from 1 hectare of growing plants.

Crowned serpukha is a perennial, widespread in the forest-steppe zone and the northern part of the steppe.

Traditional medicine uses gourd herb to treat it. Pronounced effects from the use of infusions and decoctions of the plant:

  • Antiemetic
  • Choleretic.
  • Antifebrile.
  • Astringent.
  • Anti-inflammatory.
  • Sedative.

Preparations made from serpuha are recommended for:

  • Jaundice.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Anemia.
  • Vomiting.
  • Hernia.
  • Hemorrhoids.
  • Malignant tumors.
  • Epilepsy.
  • Mental disorders.

Broths with the above diagnoses are taken orally. If you are concerned about inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, larynx (tonsillitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis), then the tincture is used for rinsing.

Lotions are made from the prepared medicine for cuts, abrasions, long non-healing wounds.

Positive dynamics is observed due to the pronounced anti-inflammatory effect. Scientists have tried to explain the healing properties of serpukha by studying its chemical composition. The subject of research was the aerial part of a flower grown in the Tomsk region.

The results showed that it contains:

  • Flavonoids.
  • Phytoecdysteroids.
  • Chlorophyll.
  • Ascorbic acid.
  • Amino acids.
  • Vitamin K.
  • Carotenoids.
  • Hydroxycinnamic acids.

Ecdysteroids are of particular interest to physicians. It is known that these compounds increase immunity, improve the body's ability to adapt to new conditions.Crowned Serpukha successfully helps with various diseases, since it contains many useful elements.

To take advantage of the beneficial properties of serpukha, you can grow it in your summer cottage. For this, the collected seeds are sown before winter. The similarity of the plant is rather poor. You should not regret the seed, it is better to use it with a margin. Bushes will do well in loamy, moist soil. They don't like shadows. It is worth choosing a sunny or slightly shaded place.

Harvest the grass, waiting for the flowering period.

The roots are dug up in the fall. Raw materials are dried under a canopy in the air or in a warm room with good air circulation. A layer of material on cloth or paper - no thicker than 3-5 cm. Coarse parts of shoots are removed from the finished grass.

The effect of the use of Crowned Serpukha will be noticeable with the correct preparation of the broth.

  1. Grind 2 tablespoons of raw materials. Place in a thermos. Pour in 1 cup of boiling water. Let it brew for 3 hours. Drink infusion of 1 tablespoon 3 times a day, not earlier than 30 minutes before meals. The remedy prepared in this way helps with nervous disorders.
  2. Take 1 teaspoon of pre-crushed parts of dry rhizome. Place in an enamel bowl, add 1 glass of hot water. Place the container closed with a lid in a water bath for 30 minutes. After drain. Add boiled water so that you get 200 ml of the finished broth. The liquid is stored in a cold place for no more than 48 hours. With diagnosed anemia, take 1 tablespoon of the extract 3-4 times a day.

It is not difficult to plant a flower in the garden yourself and use its healing properties.

Crowned serpukha is a gift of nature that should not be neglected. You can speed up the healing process by preparing a decoction from a garden-grown plant.

Burdock honey, despite its not quite serious name, has many medicinal properties and just a very pleasant taste. It is extremely difficult to find such bee nectar on the shelves, although burdock is found literally at every step.

Such a low popularity and rarity of burdock honey is not at all evidence that this variety is somehow worse than others. The thing is that the thorny plant does not grow in large "colonies". Let's talk about the benefits of this bee nectar further.

From warm May days until the end of August, on wastelands, road sides, fields, on the outskirts of vegetable gardens and orchards, near river banks, you can find lilac-purple burdock flowers. This plant is found everywhere in our country: in the European belt, in the Urals, in Western Siberia and the Far Eastern region.

Why, despite such a widespread occurrence, is pure burdock honey extremely rare? As already noted, it is difficult to find large crops of burdock, therefore, its nectar and pollen are part of the herb honey. Monoflora product can be purchased only in Chuvashia, Udmurtia, Kostroma and Pskov regions - that is, in the northern Russian regions.

Burdock honey differs from its other "brethren" by its unusual color for bee nectar. On the shelves, you can find light green and dark olive varieties of the product. Burdock honey has a rather sharp aroma with spicy notes.

Freshly harvested burdock honey is characterized by increased viscosity, and, having crystallized, it sharply thickens, so you can't even turn a spoon. The grains in honey are very large, light, as a result of which the crystallized nectar becomes whitish or slightly greenish, in sharp contrast to the liquid product.

Like other varieties of bee nectar, burdock honey is a useful product and is widely used in traditional and non-traditional medical practice. Of course, its healing qualities are due to the characteristics of the plant itself.

For example, burdock oil extract is very often used for brittle hair.Regular use of burdock oil makes hair healthier, stronger and shinier. Burdock honey, like oil extract, is used for nourishing and vitamin hair masks.

Burdock root infusion is a well-known and widespread diuretic. Burdock honey has the same property, which can be used to treat edema. The product will also benefit in diseases of the gallbladder, helping to improve the outflow of bile.

It is believed that due to its cleansing properties (removal of toxins and toxins), burdock honey helps to get rid of excess weight. And this is despite the fact that bee nectar is a fairly high-calorie product.

Burdock sweetness is actively used in case of difficulties with bowel movement. Also, burdock honey can be used in the treatment of liver diseases, using it in small quantities - no more than three to four tablespoons.

In addition, some scientists are convinced of the anti-cancer activity of burdock honey. The substances included in its composition slow down and stop the growth of cancer cells. This allows the use of honey delicacy in the complex treatment of oncological diseases.

There are not so many popular recipes with burdock honey in open sources, but several methods of treatment with the help of this bee nectar can be distinguished.

  1. Stagnation of bile. If the cause of this condition is stones in the bile ducts, traditional healers advise preparing a remedy from 150 ml of olive oil, 50 ml of lemon juice and 2 tablespoons of burdock honey. Use a mixture of 1 tsp. half an hour before the first meal for 3 weeks.
  2. Hepatitis. In case of inflammatory processes in the liver structures, 25 grams of burdock honey is diluted in a liter of boiled water, this volume of liquid is drunk during the day.
  3. Edema with hypertension. Burdock roots are crushed (50-60 grams will be needed), poured with a liter of boiled water and put on low heat until half of the liquid evaporates. After cooling, add a little burdock honey to the broth. Drink 100 ml three times a day.
  4. Baldness, slow hair growth. Burdock honey is heated a little and in a warm form is applied to the hair along the entire length, additionally rubbing it into the scalp with massaging movements. To increase blood circulation in the upper layers of the skin, honey is mixed with vodka or pepper tincture. In this case, hair loss can also be prevented or slowed down.

Despite the numerous useful reviews about these methods of treatment or hair care, all experts strongly recommend that you first consult with your doctor in order to avoid possible negative consequences.

Thus, burdock flower honey is a rather rare variety of waste products of bees. You can buy such a tasty and healthy delicacy from beekeepers from Chuvashia and Udmurtia, otherwise on the shelves there are polyflora herb varieties with small splashes of burdock nectar and pollen.

Cucumber honey light yellow or amber, pleasant taste and aroma. Bees prepare it from nectar collected from cucumber flowers.

Dandelion honey from bright yellow to dark amber color, very thick and viscous, quickly crystallizes into a coarse-grained mass. It has a strong odor and a pungent taste. It is prepared by bees from the nectar of a widespread dandelion weed.

Sow honey white, weak aroma, pleasant taste. It is prepared by bees from the nectar of golden-yellow flowers of the sow thistle weed. First-class sow honey bees produce from the nectar collected from the numerous purple-red flowers of the sow thistle weed. Fresh honey of white or light yellow color, with a pleasant taste and delicate aroma. It crystallizes quickly, turning into a fine-grained cream-colored mass.Recommended for postoperative patients, the elderly and children, it is indicated as a valuable nutritious product in case of depletion. White or light yellow sow honey, aromatic, pleasant to the taste. Belongs to the top-notch. Bees produce it from a perennial plant - a field sow thistle that grows along the banks of rivers and lakes, vegetable gardens and crops in many regions of Kazakhstan. Sow thistle is ubiquitous weed, and where there are thickets, bees provide themselves with a productive bribe. Sow thistle blooms from mid-summer to September. However, in connection with the increase in the culture of agriculture, the role of sow thistle as a melliferous plant is becoming less and less.

Honeydew honey occupies a special place. Its main feature is that bees do not produce it from the nectar of flowers, as usual, but from sweet secretions or plants, or aphid insects, scale insects, leaf beetles, scale insects, etc. The latter, feeding on plant sap, secrete excrement that falls from the leaves of trees into in the form of sweet drops. The birth of the very name "honeydew honey" owes precisely to this natural process of vital activity of insects. Apiaries located in the mountain-forest zone produce honeydew honey quite often and in large quantities. For example, in 1963, beekeepers of apiaries of the mountain-forest zone of East Kazakhstan registered the weight gain of the control hive up to 8 kilograms of honeydew per day.

Honeydew honey is usually dark in color, thick and viscous, has a weak aroma and an unpleasant taste, reminiscent of the taste of burnt sugar. Honeydew honey belongs to poor quality varieties and therefore completely unsuitable for wintering bees. In honeycombs, it usually remains unsealed. Honeydew honey is rich in amino acids and a wide range of minerals, which are quite useful for the human body. Read also other articles of the site about honeydew honey.

Sunflower honey golden in color, with a weak aroma and tart taste. Crystallizes quickly. During crystallization, it becomes light yellow, sometimes even with a greenish tint. Bees can collect 50 kg of honey from 1 hectare of blooming sunflower. Sunflower honey is golden or light amber in color, sometimes with a greenish tint. It has a weak aroma and a pleasant tart taste. It crystallizes very quickly, falling out into coarse-grained crystals of a light amber color, resembling ghee. During long-term storage, it settles with the formation of crystals of glucose and liquid fructose, which can sour.

Bees make this honey from the nectar collected from the golden yellow flowers of sunflower, the most important oilseed crop and the main honey plant of the autumn harvest from most regions of Kazakhstan. Under favorable climatic conditions (temperature + 22 + 30 ° C, calm weather and sufficient moisture in the soil), the control hive in the first two weeks of sunflower flowering shows from 2.5 to 4 kilograms per day, and on some days - up to 8 kilograms. Sunflower productivity is 20-40 kilograms of honey per hectare.

Motherwort honey very heavy, light yellow in color, with a specific taste. Bees collect nectar from the pale purple flowers of the motherwort honey plant, or heart grass.

Rape honey from white to intense yellow, with a weak aroma and sugary taste, thick concentration, quickly crystallizes. It dissolves poorly in water and sour quickly during long-term storage. Bees prepare it from the nectar of rapeseed flowers. From 1 hectare of a flowering plant, you can get 50 kg of honey.

Mignon honey belongs to the category of high-grade, has an exceptionally pleasant aroma, and can compete with linden in taste. This honey is prepared by bees from the nectar of scent mignonette flowers, which is a good honey plant. From 1 hectare of blooming mignonette, you can get 200 kg of refined honey.

Rowan honey reddish in color, with a strong aroma and good taste. During crystallization, a coarse-grained mass is formed.Bees make honey from the nectar of rowan flowers. From 1 hectare of flowering mountain ash, you can get up to 40 kg of honey.

Sickle honey light with a greenish tinge, has a delicate aroma and a characteristic sharp taste. It crystallizes slowly, therefore it is suitable for wintering bees.

Bees collect it from the violet-purple flowers of the Crowned Serpukha, a perennial plant, which is distributed mainly in the mountain-forest zone of East Kazakhstan. Valuable honey plant of late summer flow. Blooms from late July to September for 3040 days. Nectar productivity of serpukha is 30-220 kilograms per hectare.

Bruised honey belongs to the first-class honeys. It is light or light amber in color. Has a weak aroma and pleasant taste, usually thick in consistency. Crystallizes slowly, forming a fine-grained cage.

Bees extract this type of honey from the nectar of blue-violet or bright blue flowers of a common bruise or blush. Summer honey plant is distinguished by drought resistance and a long flowering period - up to 40-70 days. During this time, under favorable conditions, it is capable of producing up to 20-60 kilograms of marketable honey per bee colony. The productivity of the bruise is from 300-530 kilograms of honey per hectare.

Saussure honey light amber or amber color. It has a specific aroma and a pleasant, but peculiar pungent aftertaste. Tasters, giving it an organoleptic assessment, usually disagree - some classify it as first-class honey, others as inferior. Crystallizes very slowly. The cage of saussure honey is fine-grained, taking on a characteristic white color with a greenish tint. Honey has such a specific aroma that bees, collecting nectar from Saussurea flowers, the main honey plant that provides bribes, lose their familiar landmarks and often give up their burden to any hive that comes their way.

The source of obtaining saussure honey is a perennial plant of the mountain-forest and high-mountain (subalpine) zones of Southwestern Altai - Saussurea, or broadleaf bitter. Among the local population, this honey plant is called squirrel, or brush. Refers to the late summer honey plants of the main flow. The nectar secretion of flowers does not last long - 10-15 days, but
high intensity, allowing, under favorable conditions, in a short time to receive up to 50 kilograms of marketable honey per bee colony. The weight gain of the control hive reaches 5-7 kilograms per day. The productivity of Saussurea is 110-130 kilograms of honey per hectare.

But as noted, honey collected from flowers of a certain type of plant is still rare. More often we have to deal with polyfloral honeys - meadow, steppe, mountain-steppe, mountain-forest and other varieties, that is, with a bouquet in which the nectar of two, three or more plants is collected. In this case, the specific aroma, taste and color of honey of such varieties is determined, as a rule, by the main leading melliferous plant.

Ripe honey greenish-yellow in color, has a faint aroma, but a pleasant taste. Not suitable for long-term storage. It is prepared from the nectar of golden-yellow flowers of the rape, which can yield up to 40 kg of honey from 1 hectare of flowering melliferous plants.

Tobacco honey has a shade from light to maroon. It has an unpleasant tobacco aroma and the same bitter aftertaste that makes the throat tickle. For these qualities, tobacco honey is almost never used in human nutrition, but it is used in tobacco factories for flavoring manufactured products. Suitable for wintering bees. Refers to rare varieties.

In Kazakhstan, tobacco is cultivated mainly in the Alma-Ata region and from the point of view of beekeeping it belongs to autumn honey plants. Blooms from July to October. The nectar productivity of tobacco is low - only 5-10 kilograms of honey per hectare - and depends on the state of the weather.Beekeepers noticed that bees collect nectar from tobacco no longer in quiet, as usual, but in windy weather.

Pumpkin honey golden yellow in color, pleasant to the taste, crystallizes rather quickly. It is prepared by bees from the nectar of large golden pumpkin flowers, which can yield about 30 kg of honey from 1 hectare.

Phacelia honey light green or white in color, has a delicate aroma, pleasant to the taste. Belongs to the best varieties. After crystallization, it resembles a dough. It is made from the nectar of phacelia flowers, which is considered a good honey plant. From 1 hectare of flowering plants, you can get 150 - 500 kg of honey. Phacelia honey - one of the best varieties. Bees collect its bluish phacelia flowers, which is one of the most valuable melliferous plants. When fresh, it is colorless; upon crystallization, it acquires a pasty consistency and has a dark yellow or brown tint. This honey has a delicate aroma and a pleasant tart taste. It is successfully used as a dietary product for gastrointestinal diseases.

Freshly pumped phacelia honey is colorless, but over time it acquires a white or light green hue. It crystallizes very slowly, therefore it is considered one of the best varieties for wintering bees. The crystallized phacelia honey resembles a dough. It has a pleasant delicate taste and delicate aroma, for which it is classified as a high-grade honey.

The source of such honey is tansy phacelia (an annual plant from the aquatic family). It is sown in almost all regions of Kazakhstan. Refers to the valuable sowing honey plants of the summer bribe. Phacelia blooms 40-45 days after sowing and blooms for 3545 days. It is resistant to frost and therefore, at different sowing times, it can provide a continuous flower conveyor for the apiary throughout the summer and autumn seasons. Phacelia nectar productivity, depending on agricultural technology and climatic conditions, reaches 150-300 kilograms per hectare in the northern and eastern regions.

Cotton honey light, has a weak, peculiar aroma and delicate taste. Crystallizes very quickly. The cage is white, fine-grained. With prolonged storage, it is noticeably stratified into glucose and fructose. Cotton is the main melliferous plant in the fall in the south of Kazakhstan. The nectar is secreted by flowering and extra-flowering (sub-flowering, near-flowering and leafy) nectaries. However, honey collected from flowering nectaries does not differ from honey obtained from non-flowering nectaries. The daily weight gain of the control hive during the flowering period of cotton can reach up to 3.5 kilograms. Productivity per hectare of cotton is 10-30 kilograms of honey, and on irrigation - at least 300.

Thyme honey transparent, with a noticeably perceptible light green or bluish tint. Crystallizes slowly, turning into a light amber fine crystalline mass. It is very rare in its pure form. Thyme (thyme, Bogorodskaya grass) is a semi-shrub 20-25 centimeters high with small pale purple flowers that have a specific pleasant smell. The plant is demanding for heat and rainfall. In favorable years, bees collect nectar from it, from which honey, unique in taste, is obtained.

Blueberry honey possesses an exceptional aroma, pleasant taste, reddish color. Prepared by bees from the nectar of blueberry flowers.

Sage honey light amber or dark golden color, has a delicate pleasant aroma, tasty. It is prepared from the nectar of sage flowers.

Esparcet honey belongs to valuable varieties. It is light amber in color, transparent like a crystal. Pleasant, delicate aroma and taste. Slowly crystallizes into a white fat-like mass with a creamy shade. It is prepared by bees from the nectar of pink or red flowers of a perennial fodder plant of sainfoin or vicolor, growing in the wild.
Esparcet honey belongs to the valuable varieties of honey, It is produced by bees from the nectar of pink or red flowers of the host plant sainfoin. Fresh honey has a color ranging from pale pink to golden yellow, crystallizes in small crystals. When shrunk, it is a white solid mass with a creamy tint, resembling fat in appearance. This honey has a subtle, delicate aroma and a moderately sweet taste. The healing properties of sainfoin honey have not yet been sufficiently studied, but it is known that, with regular use, it helps to improve blood circulation and strengthens capillary vessels, is recommended for impotence, and also has a diuretic and diaphoretic effect.

Apple honey light yellow color, very delicate aroma, pleasant taste, crystallizes quickly. Made from apple blossom nectar. From 1 hectare of a blossoming apple tree, you can get about 20 kg of honey.

Watch the video: Large - leaved linden tree Tilia platyphyllos L.

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