Aronia is a fruit tree or shrub from the Rose family. It grows in wide areas in North America. In our regions, the name of the described shrub is "chokeberry". Despite the fact that the berry bunches are similar to mountain ash, chokeberry is a completely different type of plant. Chokeberry bushes are in the same demand among gardeners as the chokeberry.

The plant looks like a shrub or tree with a lush spreading crown. It will be an excellent decoration for your personal plot and will stand out from the rest of the vegetation with its bright red-yellow leaves. The value of the plant has long been known to many gardeners; chokeberry has a number of medicinal properties.

Aronia description

This perennial has a superficial rhizome and deciduous type of structure. The crown of a tree or shrub reaches a height of about 3 m. The surface of the trunk and branches is covered with smooth bark, painted in a reddish-brown hue, which acquires a dark gray color as the plant matures.

On the branches there are oval petiole plates with sharp edges. Their size does not exceed 8 cm. Leathery leaves have a mesh of translucent veins in the center. The inner side of the plate is covered with a delicate silvery hair. The foliage is predominantly rich green. When the ambient temperature begins to drop in the fall, the shrub turns purple-red, which makes it particularly attractive.

The budding stage opens in late spring, immediately after the foliage grows. The inflorescences resemble apple corollas and are combined into dense scutes with a diameter of about 6 cm. All flowers are bisexual and contain 5 petals and many long stamens with thickened anthers. The stamens are located slightly below the stigma ovary. The flowering period is 1.5 to 2 weeks. Closer to August, chokeberry fruits ripen. These are spherical, slightly flattened berries, covered with black or red skin. The diameter of the fruit is approximately 6-8 cm. The skin of the berries contains a whitish bloom.

The fruits are ready for harvest in October, when the first night frosts begin. Chokeberry berries are considered edible. The taste is sweet and sour with tart notes.

Planting and caring for chokeberry

Reproduction of chokeberry

Growing chokeberry from seeds

Aronia is excellently propagated by seed or cuttings. For the seed method of growing chokeberry, ripe healthy seeds are prepared. They are thoroughly washed and wiped through a sieve. Chokeberry seeds need to be stratified before sowing. First, the material is sprinkled with hardened river sand, slightly moistened and transferred to a bag, which is stored in the refrigerator in vegetable containers. The next year, after warming up the soil, the prepared seeds are sent to the ground. Pits for future plants are dug to a depth of 8 cm. Sprouted chokeberry seeds are carefully scattered over the holes.

When two strong leaves appear, the seedlings are thinned out, leaving a distance of 3 cm between them. Another thinning must be carried out after a couple of more leaves are formed. The interval is doubled. During the year, young chokeberry seedlings are left to grow in the same place, taking time to water and loosen. The next thinning is performed in the spring only next year.

Propagation by cuttings

Green shoots cut off no more than 15 cm long are suitable as cuttings. The leaves of the lower tier are removed. Only a third of the leaves should remain in the upper part of the shoot. Notches are made on the bark near the buds and at the bottom of the cutting. The shoots prepared in this way are released into a jar with Kornevin solution for two hours. Then they transfer the cuttings to a greenhouse, where they are planted at an angle. The potting mix is ​​prepared from garden soil and sand. The cuttings are wrapped with a piece of film so that they take root faster. The optimum temperature for growing chokeberry is in the range of + 20 ... + 25 ° C. As a rule, in less than a month, young seedlings will be strong and ready for independent development without film.

Aronia can be propagated with the help of layering, division, grafting and root shoots. Spring is considered a favorable time for such events.

Planting chokeberry in the open field

Planning for planting chokeberry outdoors is best done in the fall. Choose cloudy weather or evening time. Aronia does not require any special conditions for breeding. The plant will develop normally both in sunny areas and in partial shade. Rhizome grows well on sandy loam and loamy soil types. Even scarce low-fertile substrates, characterized by a weakly acidic or neutral environment, will not aggravate the situation. The close occurrence of groundwater to the surface does not affect plant growth. However, salt marshes have a negative effect on the development of seedlings.

The site is dug up and holes are made to a depth of 0.5 m. The bottom is filled with drainage, and the remaining volume is covered with a mixture of soil with humus, ash and superphosphate minerals. If excessive drying of the roots is observed, they are soaked in water for some time and processed with clay.

The root collar should protrude at least 1.5 cm above the ground when planting. When the seedlings have been strengthened in the ground, they are watered, and the area around is compacted and mulched using straw or peat. The width of the mulched layer is from 5 to 10 cm. The distances between individual bushes are kept at least 2 meters, since the branches are prone to overgrowth. At the end of the chokeberry planting, the shoots are cut off by a couple of centimeters, leaving 4-5 buds on each branch.

Chokeberry care in the garden

Aronia is capricious in leaving, so it is important to follow certain rules. The shrub is sensitive to soil moisture and reacts sharply to lack of water. It is important to pay more attention to watering during budding and the formation of the ovary of berry bunches. If natural precipitation becomes insufficient, 2-3 buckets of water are added daily under the bushes. Crohn also needs periodic spraying.

When the shrub grows on nutritious soil, a one-time feeding during the year is enough for it. For these purposes, ammonium nitrate powder is used. Fertilizer is evenly distributed over the area until the soil is moistened. In addition, you can feed the chokeberry with rotted manure, superphosphate mineral fertilizers, wood ash or compost. From time to time, the area with seedlings is loosened and weeded, making room near the root circle.

Important measures for the care of chokeberry are spring pruning and removal of dry shoots so that the crown can form correctly. Too long root shoots are also cut off, preventing thickening of the branches. In September-October, rejuvenating shrub pruning is done. It should be borne in mind that the branches that have reached the age of eight do not yield crops. They are cut down to the base to make room for new root shoots.

The barrel is rubbed with a lime mortar. It is important to monitor the development of the shrub and prevent pest attacks in time. At first, prophylaxis in the form of spraying is carried out in the spring, when leaves have not yet begun to appear. Apply Bordeaux liquid. The next processing is performed as the foliage falls. If insects hit the bushes from neighboring plantings, the infected seedlings are immediately sprayed with an insecticidal preparation. Chokeberry is often attacked by aphids, moths and ticks.

Diseases pursue chokeberry if the plantings are heavily thickened. As a result, the leaves and fruits of the plant are affected by bacterial necrosis, viral spotting and rust. If it was possible to find traces of the disease, it is necessary to spray the seedlings with "Gaupsin" or "Gamair" in a short time.

Types and varieties of chokeberry with a photo

A few decades ago, the genus of the chokeberry bush included only two species forms, but to date, breeders have also managed to breed a couple of hybrids.

Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa)

The origin of the plant began in eastern North America, where the shrub is considered very popular outside the city. It is a stunted tree with branched trunks and dark green ovoid leaves. In the spring, new shoots are covered with flowering shields with a pleasant aroma. When pollination ends, black clusters of berries ripen in place of the inflorescences, the weight of which reaches up to 1 kg. They contain useful components and have a beneficial effect on human health.

Among the varieties of chokeberry, the following are distinguished:

  • Viking is an erect bush with drooping shoot tops, dotted with toothed leaf blades and black flattened fruits;
  • Nero - a variety that prefers to be in the shade, withstands harsh winters and is characterized by dark coloration of the leaves and large berries, rich in vitamins and other active substances;
  • Hugin is a medium-length shrub. The change of season is reflected in the change in the color of the foliage. The fruits are black and have a shiny surface.

Aronia red (Aronia arbutifolia)

The height of the shrub reaches from 2 to 4 meters. The leaves are oval in shape with long, sharp ends. The size of the plate is not more than 5-8 cm. By the beginning of May, shields are formed, consisting of small pink or white buds. In autumn, the ripening process of fleshy red fruits takes place. The diameter of the berries ranges from 0.4-1 cm. They reliably attach to the branches and stay on the bushes until deep winter.

Aronia Michurina (Aronia mitschurinii)

It was bred by the famous scientist Michurin. It was he who managed to get a hybrid black chokeberry variety, characterized by rich flowering and a bountiful harvest. There is a lot of nectar in the flowers, so the culture is an excellent honey plant. Berries are very useful due to the content of vitamins and minerals. The budding process lags slightly behind other plant varieties. The berries ripen in September before the frost comes.

The advantage of the Michurin chokeberry variety is abundant fruiting. One bush gives up to 10 kg of ripe delicious berries, which can be eaten both fresh and used for harvesting. It is better to choose a site for growing chokeberry in open areas. The substrate must be drained and nutritious.

Properties and uses of chokeberry

Healing properties

Chokeberry fruit is rich in nutrients. These include compounds such as catechins, flavonoids, pectins, and sucrose. In addition, the tissues of berries contain many trace elements and vitamins.

The collection of fruits is done by hand. Chokeberry berries are cleaned of leaves and branches, dried and used as blanks for conservation, freezing or preparation of alcoholic tinctures. Healing potions are cooked from the fruits of chokeberry, juices are squeezed out and wine is made. It is known that the use of products containing traces of chokeberry helps in the fight against a number of serious diseases: atherosclerosis, scarlet fever, eczema, measles, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure.

Chokeberry berries have a diuretic, choleretic and tonic effect, stimulate the immune system, remove toxins, heavy metals and pathogens that interfere with the normal functioning of the body. Berry juice effectively heals open wounds and burns.

Contraindications

Aronia is contraindicated in people suffering from cardiovascular diseases such as angina pectoris and hypertension. Not recommended for use with bowel and duodenal diseases. Due to its high vitamin C content, chokeberry should be eaten with caution even by healthy people.


A site about a garden, a summer residence and houseplants.

Stamp forms, especially of ornamental plants, have been in great demand and popularity in the world for quite some time. This trend is also gaining momentum in our country: many gardeners - amateurs and professionals - try to either surprise the blurry looks of their neighbors, or simply to please themselves and their loved ones and plant this simple miracle on their site - a stem. They are on sale, but they are not cheap there either. It is another matter to create a stem by yourself, especially since it is not difficult, and using irga and chokeberry, it is also inexpensive.

OUR REFERENCE

A stem is an artificially formed tree with an even trunk, freed from unnecessary branches, with a height of about one meter.

Such a tree looks like a trunk sticking out of the ground, the top of this trunk is a crown, usually in the shape of a ball. Standard trees are very beautiful, and thanks to the high and even trunk, they are more stable, less sick and look aesthetically attractive.


Description of chokeberry

Aronia melanocarpa or Aronia is a chokeberry, which is a fruit representative of shrubs or trees from the Rose family. From the Greek language, the name of this culture is translated as “benefit, help”. This shrub is native to North America.

Aronia refers to a hardy, deciduous variety of shrubs that are highly branchy. The maximum height is up to 3 m. Young specimens are distinguished by a compact crown, but over the years its diameter reaches up to 2 meters.

Shoots of young trees are characterized by a brownish-red hue, which eventually turns into a dark gray. Leaves of simple, elliptical configuration. Their length is up to 0.08 meters, and their width is up to 0.05 meters. The upper part of the leaves is leathery, characterized by a rich dark green color; closer to autumn, they become coral purple.

Flowers are snow-white or pink, anthers are purple, form corymbose inflorescences. Blossoming can be enjoyed in May-June. The fruits of the tree are black, the weight of one berry is up to 1.5 g. Fruits ripen in September or the second half of August.


Useful properties of chokeberry

The berries of chokeberry have a valuable medicinal value and fully justify the name of the plant chokeberry, from the Greek aros, which means "help".

Berries contain organic acids, sucrose, invert (non-crystallizing) sugar, tannins and pectin substances, antibiotics, vitamins (champion in vitamin P), trace elements (a lot of iodine, iron and manganese), flavonoids (quercetin, rutin, hesperidin), amygdalin ( improves metabolism), catechins and leukoanthocyanins (substances for the prevention of cancer).

Chokeberry berries prevent thrombophlebitis and sclerotic disorders of the cerebral vessels, if they are constantly consumed.

Chokeberry juice is useful for zero acidity of gastric juice, for hypertension, in the treatment of radiation sickness.

Medicines from it are recommended for glomerulonephritis (kidney disease), diabetes mellitus, allergies, measles, rheumatism, weeping eczema.

Tibetan medicine uses the plant to treat goiter. But its use is contraindicated in such diseases of the stomach as peptic ulcer and gastritis with high acidity.

Aronia (chokeberry, as it is more popularly called among the people) is harvested for the long winter in the form of jam, compote, raw jam, juice or wine (very tasty and original), the berries dry well.

To fully satisfy the body in bioflavonoids, it is enough to consume 50 g of dry berries per day.


CARE FOR STAMP IRGA AND ARONIA

The next year, in early spring, before bud break, it is advisable to cut off the growths, so that 3-4 lower buds remain on the shoot, this will stimulate branching. In the future, care is no different from that of ordinary seedlings of these crops.

The only thing that needs to be done is, once a season, in early spring, to cut off the root shoots, which can be formed by the common rootstock. This method is simple, but thanks to it, you will get an excellent full-fledged standard seedling of beautiful and valuable crops in the third year.

Standard forms of both chokeberry and irgi can grow in any part of the garden. They will be beautiful as fruit crops on its borders, magnificent as decorations in the middle of the lawn, however, in this case, the near-trunk strips should be clean of grass and mulched with humus or peat.

The layer of mulching material usually does not exceed 9-10 cm. The mulching layer, especially for plants grown on the lawn, is very important, it promotes the accumulation and, more importantly, the retention of moisture in the soil, and also reliably protects the plants from weeds. In hot periods, the mulch layer does not allow the soil to overheat much, and in winter it protects the roots from hypothermia.


Aronia red

Characteristics of culture

Aronia red, or arbut-leaved - deciduous shrub up to 4 m high with a wide spreading crown. Leaves are green, leathery, obovate or elliptical, pointed at the tips, serrate along the edge, petiolate, up to 8 cm long, equipped with non-falling stipules, arranged alternately. Fall foliage becomes orange-red or red-burgundy. The flowers are small, pale pink or white, five-petal, up to 1 cm in diameter, collected in short corymbose inflorescences.

Fruits are round, juicy, red, up to 1-1.2 cm in diameter, have an astringent and tart taste. Red chokeberry blooms, or arbut-leaved in mid-May for 2-3 weeks, the fruits ripen in August-September. The culture enters fruiting in 3-4 years after planting, annually the plants give abundant yields (up to 9-11 kg from one adult bush), suitable for making various drinks and canned foods.

The subtleties of growing and planting

Like other members of the genus, chokeberry red, or arbut-leaved, blooms profusely and gives good yields of berries in sunny or slightly shaded areas. In the shade, the culture practically does not bear fruit. Soils for successful cultivation of crops are preferred drained, moderately moist, rich in humus. It is undesirable to plant plants on dry, salty and waterlogged substrates with a strongly acidic pH reaction. The optimal level of groundwater occurrence is 1.5 m. Otherwise, red chokeberry is undemanding.

Red chokeberry is propagated by seeds, dividing the bush, green and lignified cuttings, root suckers, layering and grafting. In the latter case, rowan is used as a stock. When sowing seeds, the seeds are preliminarily stratified (within 90-120 days at a temperature of 1-3C). All breeding methods are effective, but most often gardeners propagate the culture with green cuttings and dividing the bush.

When planting chokeberry with red seedlings, the pits are prepared in advance, at least 2-3 weeks in advance, during which time the earth will have time to settle. The top layer of soil removed from the pit is mixed with organic fertilizers, for example, compost, humus or rotted manure. Positively young plants will respond to the introduction of complex mineral fertilizers, and this will also accelerate the survival process. The size of the planting pit: depth - 40-50 cm, diameter - 60-65 cm. The distance between plants plays an important role, optimally - 2-2.5 m, with denser plantings, chokeberry is often affected by pests and diseases. This rule does not apply to decorative species intended for landscaping household plots.

The general condition of the shrubs depends on the quality of care. One of the most important maintenance procedures is pruning. The first pruning is carried out immediately after planting, the shoots are cut shortly, leaving shoots about 10-15 cm long above the soil surface. 3-4 buds are left on the shoots, this is an important condition. A year later, small shoots, weak and underdeveloped shoots are removed from the plants. From the zero order, four strong and healthy shoots are left, from which skeletal branches are formed. In the third year, thickening and weak shoots are removed from the bushes, leaving five strong shoots.

Skeletal branches, which do not branch well, are shortened by 1/3 part, and in highly branched branches, only the tips are shortened. By the fifth year after planting, the chokeberry should have about 15-20 skeletal branches. Further pruning consists in removing old and thickening branches, as well as root growth. Every spring, damaged, frozen and dry shoots are cut out (regardless of their age).

In addition to pruning, red chokeberry needs regular watering, fertilizing with organic and mineral fertilizers. Top dressing can be carried out both in spring and autumn. Spring feeding is preferable. Without fertilizing, the plants will not die, but they will not please with abundant flowering and a good harvest of berries. Systematic loosening and weeding of weeds are important for the plant, the first procedure is carried out 3 times during the growing season, the second - as needed. Shelter is not required for the winter, with the exception of the northern and northwestern regions of Russia. They insulate not only the bush, but also the root system.


ARONIA - GROWING PLANTING AND CARE 6 TIPS FOR GARDENERS

ARONIA - BEAUTY WITH USE

In our summer cottage association, almost everyone in the garden can find black chokeberry. A multi-stemmed, deciduous, fast-growing shrub with a spreading crown is not only beautiful, but also has a lot of healing properties.

TIP: To get a strong growth next year, you need to cut the bush, leaving 4 lower buds.

The plant is unpretentious, grows well on any soil and is not afraid of frost. Looks great as a hedge.

Landing

She planted Aronia in the fall, in October, choosing a sunny place for her.

The planting pit is 50 cm deep and in diameter (I did not add any fertilizers to the bottom). She buried the root collar by 1.5 cm. After that, she poured a bucket of settled clean water under the seedling and mulched the tree trunk circle with sawdust.

Watering and pruning

To make the berries large and juicy, I water the plant abundantly once a week. Chokeberry fertilizing is not needed, otherwise it will begin to actively increase the green mass, and there will be practically no fruit.

In the early years, I cut out thickening shoots (no more than 12 should remain). After 7 years old branches will have to be disposed of. And after another 3 years, it is better to completely cut the bush, leaving hemp 20 cm high.

To your health!

After the first frost, I collect chokeberry berries and dry land. In winter, to strengthen the immune system, I regularly prepare compotes and fruit drinks from them.

Attention! You can not use the fruits of the bush for gastritis, ulcers, hypotension, increased blood clotting, thrombosis and thrombophlebitis.


Watch the video: Aronia by Exen u0026 more VERIFIED Extreme Demon - 144hz


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