Growing broccoli seedlings and caring for them at home


Not every gardener knows about such a variety of cabbage as broccoli, although in many countries this culture is widely used in cooking. Almost everyone can grow it on their site, taking into account the peculiarities and observing agrotechnical methods. Broccoli can be cultivated by seed or seedlings. Planting timing and variety selection depend on the region and how early you want to harvest.

Preparation of soil and containers

Broccoli, like any other variety, prefers nutritious and loose soil, through which moisture and air penetrate well. To prepare a soil mixture of the correct composition, it is necessary to mix rotted manure or compost with turf soil in equal proportions. In addition, fertilizers containing micro- and macroelements are added to the mixture. To do this, you can use wood ash at the rate of 1 tbsp. l. for 1 kg of soil.

The soil for broccoli seedlings should be nutritious and loose, for which they use sod land and rotted manure

In the process of preparing the soil mixture, you can replace the sod land with peat with the addition of sand. If there is no desire or opportunity to prepare the substrate yourself, you can buy a ready-made one.

To reduce the likelihood of infection of young plants with various diseases, it is not recommended to take land from the garden, especially from the place where crops of the cruciferous family (radish, radish, cabbage) were cultivated. The fact is that in such a land, most likely, there are pathogens characteristic of these plants (fusarium, black leg, gray rot, etc.).

Preparing the soil for growing seedlings also includes a disinfection stage. To do this, 2 weeks before the intended sowing of seeds, the soil is steamed in the oven at a temperature of + 200 ° C for 15 minutes. After the substrate has cooled, it is spilled with potassium permanganate (1% solution). For these purposes, you can use other drugs, such as Fundazol, Gamair.

For growing broccoli seedlings, both homemade wooden boxes, plastic containers, and special cassettes are suitable. If sowing in large volumes is planned, then such containers will be the best option. With a small number of landings, you can use plastic cups or bottles, pots, etc. The main thing is that there are drainage holes on the bottom of the containers. Before sowing seeds, containers are recommended to be treated with potassium permanganate.

Homemade boxes or special cassettes are suitable for growing seedlings.

Preparing broccoli seeds for sowing

Before sowing, broccoli cabbage seeds need processing, which is carried out in order to disinfect, accelerate germination and sort out poor-quality seed.

Sorting

For sowing, it is advisable to select only large seeds, but you can use medium ones. Small and damaged grains must be removed. Calibration can be done with a suitable mesh (about 1.5 mm). There is another way: the seeds are placed in a 3% saline solution for 5 minutes. All that remains on the surface is thrown away. Seeds settled to the bottom are considered suitable for sowing. After this solution, they are washed in clean water.

Seeds of broccoli cabbage are sorted before sowing, selecting only large and medium grains

Disinfection

To process seed material from various pathogens, it is soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate for 20 minutes, and then washed. Many gardeners use this method, but there is an equally effective method of disinfection - heat. To do this, the seeds are poured into a thermos and poured with hot water (+ 60˚C) for 25 minutes, after which they are washed with cold water.

For disinfection, broccoli seeds are placed in a potassium permanganate solution for 20 minutes.

Germination

You can germinate seeds both in ordinary water and in growth stimulants, for example, Heteroauxin, Kornevin, etc. It is possible to prepare a nutrient solution based on wood ash (1 tbsp per 1 liter of water), in which the seeds are soaked for several hours. After processing, they are washed, placed on the lower shelf of the refrigerator for a day, and then dried and proceeded to planting.

Seeds of cabbage are germinated in plain water or in growth stimulants for faster germination

Rules for planting broccoli seedlings

To get high-quality broccoli seedlings by the time they are planted in open ground, it is necessary to take into account the region in which it is planned to grow, as well as to properly plant the seeds. Let us dwell on these points in more detail.

When to plant

Gardeners of the Moscow region and the middle zone can safely grow almost any varieties of broccoli cabbage: both early and late. Among the most popular are Gnome, Vitamin, Tonus. Seedlings are sown for seedlings in late March or early April. In early May, broccoli can be sown directly in the open field if the spring is warm. Otherwise, the sowing is transferred to the middle of the month. Landing in the Moscow region can be done until early July. At a later date, there is a high probability that the crop will not ripen.

In the Urals and Siberia, it is quite possible to grow broccoli even by direct sowing in open ground. However, a more reliable method is seedling. For these regions, you should choose early varieties and hybrids, such as Macho F1, Fiesta F1, Tonus. Seedlings in the Urals are mostly grown in unheated greenhouses. Sowing is carried out from 5 to 10 March.

For growing broccoli cabbage in the Urals and Siberia, it recommends using early varieties and hybrids

In the southern regions of Russia, broccoli seedlings are cultivated only in order to obtain super-early harvests. In general, it is much easier to cultivate a culture here, but, nevertheless, there are nuances that are due to temperature values. For the considered variety of cabbage, the most comfortable temperature is + 16-25˚С, and in the south it is quite hot for it. Therefore, in areas such as Astrakhan and Volgograd, broccoli has to be grown in the spring, until the hot season comes. To somehow remedy the situation, sowing with seeds is carried out in unheated greenhouses or at home, but early enough - in February. This allows you to harvest your crops before the hot season arrives.

If you adhere to the lunar calendar, then you should refer to the table, which indicates favorable and unfavorable days for sowing broccoli for seedlings in 2019.

Table: when to plant broccoli seedlings in 2019 (lunar calendar)

Sowing seeds

When the seeds and planting containers are prepared, you can start sowing:

  1. A layer of expanded clay is poured onto the bottom of the drainage container. Then the container is filled with soil mixture and moistened.

    Expanded clay is poured at the bottom of the planting tank, and then it is filled with a soil mixture

  2. Make grooves no more than 1.5 cm deep or small depressions when sowing in separate containers.

    In the prepared seedling box, grooves are made for sowing seeds with a depth of no more than 1.5 cm

  3. Spread out the seeds at intervals of 3 cm.

    Broccoli seeds are sown at intervals of 3 cm, and when sowing, several seeds are placed in separate containers

  4. Sprinkle with the same soil that is used for planting or with peat.

    At the end of sowing, the seeds are sprinkled with the same soil mixture that is used for planting.

After sowing, cover the containers with foil to retain moisture and place them in a warm place.

Video: sowing broccoli cabbage for seedlings

Caring for broccoli seedlings at home

The health and quality of plants, as well as the future harvest, depend on how correct the care of the seedlings will be. Therefore, the seedlings must be provided with appropriate conditions in which they will feel as comfortable as possible.

Temperature and lighting

Temperature regime is one of the main factors for the proper development of seedlings. After sowing seeds, containers with seedlings should be in a warm place with a temperature of + 18–20˚С. When seedlings appear, these values ​​must be lowered: in sunny weather to + 15–17˚С, in cloudy weather - + 12–13˚С, and at night the indicator should be about + 8–10˚С.

When growing broccoli seedlings, it is important to observe the temperature regime: in sunny weather up to + 15-17˚С, in cloudy weather - + 12-13˚С, and at night the indicator should be about + 8-10˚С

Video: what to do with broccoli sprouts

Broccoli is a light-loving crop. First of all, it should be borne in mind that seeds are sown for seedlings in March, when the daylight hours are quite short. Therefore, the organization of additional lighting will be required, as which you can use phyto- or LED lamps. It is believed that fluorescent lamps are not suitable for cabbage because of the different light spectrum. Young seedlings should be lit for 15 hours. The light source above the plants is placed at a height of 20 cm.

With a lack of sunlight, broccoli seedlings need additional lighting.

Watering

Any type of cabbage loves moisture, the lack of which leads to the death of plants. However, waterlogging of the soil contributes to the occurrence of dangerous diseases such as keela and black leg. This suggests that irrigation should be carried out as the topsoil dries up, and the room itself with seedlings should be periodically ventilated.

For watering broccoli seedlings, use only settled water at room temperature.

Broccoli cabbage is moisture-loving, therefore, the soil should not dry out, but you also do not need to fill in the plants

Picking

Seedlings dive at the age of two weeks. As a container, you can use any suitable size pots, cups, cut plastic bottles, etc. However, the most convenient option is peat pots, since plants from them do not need to be transplanted. Diving should be treated with special care to avoid root damage. Otherwise, the growth and development of seedlings will be slowed down.

Picking is the process of transplanting seedlings from a smaller container to a larger one, which contributes to the normal development of the aboveground and root parts.

When picking broccoli seedlings, plants are transplanted into a separate container for the normal development of the leaf and root parts

Containers with seedlings are pre-watered to make it easier to remove the plants. The rest of the process boils down to the following steps:

  1. The same soil mixture is used as a ground for picking as when sowing seeds, pre-moistening it from a sprayer.
  2. Make indentations for the plants.
  3. Using a special spatula or a flat wooden stick, the sprout is removed from the nursery and placed in a separate container, compacting the earth and sprinkling it.

Until the broccoli seedlings are accepted, you need to protect them from direct sunlight and ensure the temperature is + 20-22С.

Video: how to dive broccoli seedlings

Top dressing

The full development of young plants is impossible without additional nutrition. Seedlings can be fed 2-3 days after diving with nitroammofoska solution. To prepare the nutrient solution in a bucket of water, dissolve 1 tbsp. fertilizers. Pour 50 g of the substance into one container with the plant. After that, the temperature during the day is lowered to + 16-18˚С, at night it is maintained at the level of + 8-10˚С.

Hardening

Before planting broccoli seedlings in open ground, the plants must be hardened. They do this so that they get used to conditions as close as possible to open ground. The procedure begins two weeks before the cabbage is planted in the garden. First, the seedlings are taken out on a balcony or loggia for several hours. Gradually, the time is increased, and in the last days the plants are left overnight.

In order for broccoli seedlings to adapt to external conditions, a hardening procedure is carried out

Planting seedlings in the ground

Before planting broccoli seedlings in open ground, you need to decide on the site and the timing of the transplant.

Plot for seedlings

When choosing a site for broccoli cabbage, you need to take into account that the plant loves warmth and sun. The soil for planting seedlings should contain a sufficient amount of nutrients. Since autumn, for digging, the beds are fertilized with 40 g of ammonium nitrate, 30 g of superphosphate and 30 g of potassium chloride per m². You can also use organic fertilizers (compost, humus) at the rate of 2 kg per m².

For cabbage, soil with an acidity of pH 6.5–7.5 is suitable. If the indicator does not correspond to the norm, then the acidic soil is deoxidized with dolomite flour or lime (0.5 kg per 1 m²), and gypsum is applied on alkaline soils (0.2–0.5 kg per 1 m²).

When choosing a site for planting broccoli, it is worth considering what crops were grown on it before. Good precursors for cabbage are:

  • potatoes;
  • pumpkin;
  • peas;
  • beans;
  • carrot.

After crops such as tomatoes, radishes, radishes and other types of cabbage, broccoli should not be planted.

When choosing a site for broccoli, it is necessary to take into account predecessors, since similar pests and pathogens can accumulate in the soil.

When to plant

The culture in question can be cultivated almost throughout the entire territory of Russia. However, the timing of planting depends on the variety and the growing region. If we consider the transplanting of seedlings into the ground in the territory of the Moscow region and the middle lane, then the peculiarity of these regions is that the disembarkation occurs in the first half of May. At this time, there is practically no hot sun here, and plant transplantation will be successful. However, frosts for May are not uncommon. Therefore, it will be useful to cover the garden bed after disembarkation. As a covering material, you can use lutrasil, spunbond, etc.

To avoid damage to broccoli cabbage by recurrent frosts, it is recommended to cover the planting with a covering material.

With regard to the timing of transplanting broccoli seedlings into open ground in the Urals and Siberia, they fall in the third decade of May. You can continue disembarking until mid-June. As a result, the crop can be harvested in late summer and early autumn, and in order to get it faster, greenhouses have to be installed on the site. If you sow the seeds in March, then the seedlings under the shelter can be planted in early May, and the harvest can be harvested from mid-summer until early autumn.

How to plant

Until the seedlings are planted in open ground, there should be 5-6 true leaves on it. The transplant is carried out according to the 35 * 60 cm scheme in the evening hours or in cloudy weather. The process consists of the following steps:

  1. Shallow planting holes are made according to the size of the seedling root system.

    The holes for cabbage seedlings are made according to the size of the plant root system, taking into account the earthen coma

  2. Spill the wells with water.
  3. The seedling is removed from the planting container with a lump of earth and placed in the hole to the level of the first leaves.

    When planted in open ground, seedlings are buried to the level of the first leaves

  4. If the weather is dry during disembarkation, then watering is done again, then sprinkled with dry soil and lightly tamped by hand.

    After planting the seedlings, the plantings are watered, sprinkled with dry earth and compacted by hand

A layer of mulch is laid on top of the plantings, which will prevent moisture evaporation and will protect the roots from overheating and weed growth.

Possible problems when growing broccoli seedlings

During the cultivation of broccoli seedlings, sometimes problems arise that, in one way or another, affect the growth and development of plants, and in the future, their quality. If young seedlings turn yellow, then this is a clear sign of a lack of nutrients in the soil or an excess of them. So, with a deficiency of potassium, the tips of the plants turn yellow. In addition, yellowing can be caused by infections in the soil that has not been treated before sowing.

Seedlings of broccoli cabbage are pulled out due to lack of light or non-observance of the temperature regime

If rotting of seedlings is observed, then this indicates infection with fungal diseases. If it is a black leg, then the plantings first turn brown, and then the lower part of the stem rotts and becomes thinner, which leads to the death of the seedling. Quite often, you can see how cabbage seedlings are pulled out. The main reason for this phenomenon is a lack of light, an incorrect temperature regime, as well as a high planting density. In this case, it is necessary not only to thin out the plants, but also to provide the necessary conditions for their normal growth.

Black leg is one of the main diseases of cabbage seedlings, in which the stem in the lower part rots, becomes thinner, which leads to the death of the plant

If the seeds did not sprout at all, then there are not so many reasons: poor-quality seed or non-observance of temperature and humidity. It can be concluded that the bulk of the problems that arise when growing broccoli seedlings are caused by improper soil and seed preparation, as well as non-compliance with the conditions for the normal development of plants.

Further care for broccoli

Taking care of your broccoli is easy. One of the features of the culture is the need to shade young plantings from direct sunlight. To do this, you will need to build a shading fabric structure. As for watering, they are carried out once a week, of course, taking into account the weather conditions. Do not allow both drying out and waterlogging of the soil. Plants are irrigated directly under the root, and also resort to spraying. The main thing is that watering should be carried out in the morning or evening hours.

The soil on the cabbage bed must be loosened after each watering or rain. This will promote better oxygen penetration to the root system and the setting of inflorescences. Loosening also helps to remove weeds, which not only attract harmful insects, but also increase soil moisture, which leads to the development of fungal diseases.

Loosening the soil in cabbage beds improves air exchange and helps fight weeds

Broccoli cabbage in the open field needs additional nutrition. During the growing season, 3 dressings are carried out:

  1. The first time fertilizers are applied 2 weeks after planting the seedlings (1 glass of mullein and 1 hour of urea per 10 liters of water).
  2. The second time the plants are fed 2-3 weeks after the first (1 tbsp. Ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water).
  3. The third time the plants are fertilized at the end of the summer period (40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters of water).

During the ripening of the inflorescences, the stem of the cabbage becomes weak. Therefore, the plants need to be helped by adding a nutrient solution, which is similar to the third feeding. In addition, it is necessary to respond in a timely manner to the appearance of pests and the occurrence of diseases, resorting to folk remedies or using bio- or chemical preparations.

Video: Caring for Broccoli Cabbage and Preventing Flowering

To grow quality broccoli seedlings, you need to create comfortable conditions for the plants. In many regions of the country, the cultivation of this variety of cabbage is possible by direct sowing of seeds in open ground. However, to get an early harvest, the seedling stage is mandatory. Compliance with all the rules and recommendations will allow you to grow strong seedlings and painlessly transfer the transplant to open ground.

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When to plant cabbage in the ground?

It will not be possible to plant all the cabbage in open ground at the same time: there are several types of this crop, and each of them has its own requirements, its own development calendar. You may have a variety of cabbage seedlings on your windowsill.

  1. White-headed, early, medium and late ripeness.
  2. Red-headed - heads of cabbage of intense red-violet color contain more vitamins than white cabbage.
  3. Colored - delicious fleshy peduncles are used for food purposes.
  4. Broccoli - stems with flower heads are used for cooking.
  5. Kohlrabi - they eat a thickened stem, which resembles a turnip in shape, and a stump in taste.
  6. Brussels sprout - a high stem, strewn with small heads of cabbage, children simply adore them.
  7. Savoy - pimpled leaves will decorate a plate with salad and herbs, because of their softness and strength, they are good to use for stuffed cabbage.
  8. Peking - the leaves are used for salads, they are not stored for long, so it is better to plant in several stages.
  9. Decorative - a rosette of leaves of different shades will decorate any flower bed.

All species have different frost resistance: the most resistant to cold is Savoy, the most thermophilic are colored and broccoli. In open ground, cabbage seedlings can be planted, depending on the species and variety, 1-2 months after germination. Planting is recommended at that "age" when 2 true leaves will develop well, and the third and fourth are just beginning to appear. Should the seedlings overgrow a little, and the heads of cabbage will not be dense enough and, moreover, uneven.

Cabbage is not afraid of low temperatures, but in cold weather, instead of a head of cabbage, you can get a flower stalk with seeds. In central Russia, early white cabbage, kohlrabi, cauliflower, broccoli and Savoy cabbage take root well in early May, late white cabbage, red cabbage, Brussels sprouts - at the end of May. In the Urals and Siberia, a different calendar of gardening works, the terms need to be shifted by 1-2 weeks. The optimum temperature for planting seedlings is from + 15⁰ to + 18⁰. Look at the forecast for your area, in the southern regions you can plant in early April and grow 2 harvests of early cabbage over the summer. The greater the distance from warm areas, the later the seedlings should be planted in open ground.

According to folk signs, cabbage must be planted when the bird cherry blossoms, which in the central regions and in the Urals portends a strong cold snap. Sit a little on bare ground: if you quickly freeze and want to lay a warm rug - the ground has not yet warmed up, if you are comfortable - it's time to plant. You can look at the lunar calendar, just keep in mind that astrologers take into account too many nuances. As a result, in a whole month there are only 2-3 suitable days. Where is the guarantee that on these dates you will be able to go to the country house, and the weather will be favorable? If you approach the recommendations without much pedantry, then it is better to plant seedlings in open ground on the growing moon, and it is advisable not to do any work on the new and full moon. There are unspoken rules that on Wednesdays and Fridays you do not need to plant and sow anything, and it is undesirable to dive and replant cabbage on Thursdays.


The nutritional value

Broccoli has a high nutritional value. The vegetable is rich in many beneficial substances, contains:

  • vitamins, especially from group B, A, C, PP and folic acid
  • salts of iron, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and calcium
  • a lot of protein
  • fiber.

Broccoli is not only tasty, but also a very healthy plant. It is worth including it in the diet, especially for people who want to lose a few pounds of weight. An important argument in favor of consuming these vegetables is their low calorie content, which is about 30-35 kcal for every 100 grams of broccoli.

The vegetable is recommended primarily for pregnant women. Asparagus is eaten in different ways: boiled, stewed or raw, after blanching, in salads (the most valuable in this type). It is successfully frozen and does not lose many nutrients.

Broccoli varieties differ in plant height, inflorescence size and color, number of lateral inflorescences, their size, yield and growing season. All varieties included in the state register are available for cultivation throughout Russia - in the south, in the middle lane, in Moscow and the Moscow region, in Siberia, in the Urals, broccoli is grown indoors.


Growing cabbage from seeds

How to sow seeds

The quality of cabbage primarily depends on the sowing material, so be responsible when buying seeds and before growing cabbage seedlings, think about why and when you want to get it - do you need an early vegetable with tender leaves for salads or strong dense heads of cabbage for winter storage and salting. The choice of variety and sowing time will depend on the intended purpose of the cabbage you grow.

Widely cultivated by amateur gardeners, white cabbage, without which not a single borscht can do, there are early varieties that are suitable only for eating in the summer, mid-ripening ones that can be eaten fresh in the summer, or can be salted for the winter, and late varieties that most suitable for long-term storage.

Sowing early varieties of cabbage for seedlings is carried out from the first days of March to the twentieth days of the month, seeds of mid-season varieties are sown from March 25 to April 25, and late cabbage is sown from early April to the third decade of the month. From the moment of sowing to planting seedlings in open ground, it usually takes 45-50 days.

If you have decided on your desires and purchased the seeds of the right varieties, it's time to think about compiling soil for seedlings. Professionals recommend preparing the soil mixture in the fall, so that you do not have to extract ingredients from under the snow in winter. Mix one part of humus and turf soil, add ash at the rate of 1 tablespoon per kilogram of soil and mix well. Ash will act as an antiseptic and a source of macro- and microelements, preventing the appearance of black leg on cabbage seedlings.

You can prepare a mixture of a different composition, based on peat, for example - the main thing is that it is fertile and breathable. Never use garden soil from the area where cruciferous crops were grown for growing seedlings, as it is likely that it contains pathogens that can infect the seedlings.

Cabbage cultivation begins with heating the seeds for 20 minutes in water at a temperature of about 50 ºC, after which they are immersed in cold water for 5 minutes in order to increase the immunity of the seed to fungal diseases. Then the seeds are immersed in a growth stimulant solution for several hours - Humat, Epin, Silk, etc. True, there are varieties whose seeds cannot be wetted - carefully read the instructions attached to the seed bag.

Water the soil abundantly before sowing and do not moisten it anymore until germination occurs. The seeds are sown to a depth of 1 cm, then the container is covered with foil or paper on top so that moisture from the topsoil does not evaporate, and the crops are kept at a temperature of 20 ºC.

Growing seedlings

Seedlings appear already on the 4-5th day, after which the film or paper is removed, and the temperature is lowered to 6-10 ºC and the seedlings are kept under these conditions until the first true leaf appears. To do this, it is best to place a container with seedlings on a glazed loggia, and usually a week is enough to achieve the expected result. After the leaf appears, the temperature on sunny days is increased to 14-18 ºC, on cloudy days it should be in the range of 14-16 ºC, and at night - 6-10 ºC.

Caring for cabbage seedlings at this stage provides plants with access to fresh air, but seedlings must be protected from drafts. In addition, the seedlings need additional lighting with a fluorescent or phytolamp: its daylight hours should be at least 12-15 hours a day.

Avoid drying out or waterlogging the soil - this can be avoided by regular loosening of the soil after watering. A week after the emergence of shoots, the soil is watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate at the rate of 3 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water, or with a weak solution of copper sulfate.

Pickling cabbage

One and a half to two weeks after the emergence of seedlings and the formation of the first true leaf, the plants dive, providing the seedlings with a large area of ​​nutrition. An hour before diving the cabbage, the soil with seedlings is watered abundantly, then each seedling is removed along with an earthen lump and, shortening its root by a third of its length, is planted in an individual cup (best of all, peat-humus), burying it in cotyledon leaves.

Picks can be avoided if the initial sowing of cabbage seeds is carried out in an individual container - when transplanting seedlings into open ground from personal pots, the root system of seedlings is not so injured, and by the time the seedlings are planted on the garden bed, it will already develop to a decent size. If you grow seedlings in peat-humus pots, then you can plant seedlings in the ground directly in them.

Planting cabbage in the ground is preceded by a two-week hardening, the purpose of which is to prepare the seedlings for development in new conditions. The first two days in a room with seedlings for 3-4 hours open the window, providing for the protection of the seedlings from drafts. Then, for several days, the seedlings are taken out for an hour or two on a balcony or loggia under the sun's rays, from a direct hit of which the seedlings must first be covered with gauze.

After a week, watering is reduced, the seedlings are taken out to the balcony and kept there until they are planted in the ground.


Planting cabbage seedlings

When to plant cabbage seedlings in the ground

A couple of weeks before planting cabbage seedlings in the garden, you need to start hardening procedures: the seedlings are taken out into the open air under the sun's rays - on a balcony, veranda or garden. At first, they are kept there for no more than an hour, but daily the duration of the hardening procedure is increased, and by the time they are planted in the ground, the seedlings should be carried out in the air around the clock.

  • Watering the seedlings is reduced a week before transplanting to the garden, but the seedlings should not be allowed to wither. A day or two before planting, a hardening top dressing with a high potassium content is carried out. The seedlings planted in the garden should be stocky, strong, with 6-8 leaves and a well-developed root system. Early cabbage is planted from late April to early May, mid-season varieties are planted in late May or early June, and from mid to late May it is time for late varieties.

    How to plant cabbage seedlings in the garden

    The area set aside for cabbage should be well lit. The soil must be prepared in advance: cleaned of weeds and plant residues, dig up with the introduction of 6-8 kg of rotted manure or compost and 100-200 g of wood ash for each m².

    In the photo: Growing cabbage seedlings in an egg box

    White and red cabbage is planted according to the following scheme:

    • early varieties and hybrids - 30-35x40-45 cm
    • mid-season cabbage - 50-60x60 cm
    • late varieties - 60-70x70 cm.

    For the ripening of the main heads, broccoli are planted according to the scheme 20-30x50-60, and for the development of lateral shoots according to the scheme 40-45x60 cm.

    Seedlings of Brussels sprouts are placed in a row at a distance of 60-70 cm with a row spacing of 70 cm

    Kohlrabi seedlings are placed in the garden in this way:

    • early ripening varieties according to the scheme 25-30x35-40 cm
    • mid-season according to the scheme 50x40-50 cm
    • late - 50x60 cm.

    Savoy cabbage is also planted depending on the ripening time:

    Cauliflower is planted in a checkerboard pattern 30-40 cm apart or according to the scheme 20-30x50-60 cm.

    Choose a cloudy day, dig holes on the garden bed at the right distance, pour at least a liter of water into each one, put the seedlings taken out of the container along with an earthen ball into the holes, bury them in the first real pair of leaves and water. The first few days, it is necessary to protect the seedlings from direct sunlight and spray the seedlings with water every day after 17 hours.

    From a short-term sudden drop in temperature, cabbage seedlings are covered in several layers with cardboard, newspapers or film. However, this is done so that the covering material does not come into contact with the seedlings: there must be an air cushion between the thermal insulation and the seedlings. To achieve this, metal arcs or a wooden frame are installed above the seedlings, and covering material is laid on top.

    If the temperature does not drop below -3 ⁰C and there is no wind, you can spray the cabbage with warm water from a fine spray. In sunny weather, you can water the soil under the cabbage: the sun will heat the moist soil, and at night the earth will give warmth to the seedlings.

    In spring, young cabbage is well protected by a heat curtain of smoke, but this method is harmful to the environment and works only in calm weather.

    There is such a method, but it is quite laborious. You need to dig up a head of late or mid-season cabbage along with the root, remove all leaves from it, except for two or three, adjacent to the stump, and store it in the cellar. To eliminate the likelihood of decay, the stump is sprinkled with chalk.

    In spring, the stump is cut out so as not to damage the growth point and petioles of adjacent leaves, plant it at an angle of 45 ⁰ and cover it with foil or sprinkle it with straw to protect it from frost. The stump is transplanted to a permanent bed in mid-May, when its roots grow.

    When the flower arrows reach a height of half a meter, you need to tie them to a peg. Seed pods begin to be cut as they turn yellow. The seeds are removed, dried and stored until spring sowing for seedlings.

    Of the varieties of red cabbage, Pomegranate, Kalibos and Redbor are frost-resistant. Of the varieties of white cabbage, such qualities are inherent in late-ripening Zimovka, Geneva, Aros, Kolobok, Jubilee, Crumont, Monarch and Türkis, as well as Dutch hybrids Lennox, Bartolo and Marathon.

    If we are talking about growing cabbage in regions with a cold climate, then in Siberia, for example, early white cabbage varieties Vesnyanka, Nadezhda, Polyarnaya and Vyuga grow well. Such hybrids as Dumas and Zarya have proven themselves quite well. From mid-season varieties, Sibiryachka, Podarok, a hybrid variety Belarus, and from later varieties - Dobrovolskaya, Amager and Gribovskaya showed themselves better than others.

    By wilting leaves, cabbage seedlings react to the inconsistency of conditions with the requirements of the culture. For example, leaves can wither from both too high and low indoor temperatures, and at different stages of development, seedlings need different temperatures.

    Seedlings will behave in the same way in insufficient light: developing plants need 12-15 hour daylight hours.

    As for moisture, after sowing cabbage in a well-moistened soil, the first watering is carried out only after the emergence of shoots. In the future, regular soil moisture is required, and it should be sufficient, but not excessive.

    Refresh the conditions for growing cabbage seedlings and analyze what you are doing wrong. Eliminate the cause, and the leaves of the seedlings will gradually restore turgor.

    You may have planted poor quality seeds. The sowing material must be calibrated, that is, to separate light seeds that will not germinate from full-weight ones. Seeds suitable for sowing must be disinfected and preferably germinated.

    If the seedlings appear slowly and unevenly, then most likely you did not properly sow: you have unevenly distributed or planted the seeds too deeply. Perhaps the reason is inappropriate or poorly processed substrate.

    Seed germination is also influenced by the temperature and moisture level of the soil. When sown in a too wet and cold substrate, the seeds suffer from a lack of oxygen and can simply rot. Sowing seeds in too warm soil can also negatively affect germination. And do not forget that there must be drainage holes in the seedling container for the free outflow of excess water.

    Hilling cabbage strengthens its stem and stimulates lateral root development. If the cabbage is not huddled, a tall stem develops, and in the absence of a branched root system, the plant loses its stability.

    They begin to spud cabbage three weeks after planting seedlings in open ground or in a greenhouse, when the plants take root and grow. In the future, this is done as the stem grows, usually once every two weeks. Usually this procedure is combined with loosening the soil or applying top dressing.

    To sow cabbage in open ground, you first need to warm up the soil: set the arc in early April on the garden bed and stretch the film over them. Then sowing can be carried out in mid-April. It is impractical to use agrotechnical fabric for shelter, since the soil under it warms up more slowly.

    If you are not in a hurry, you can sow cabbage in May, when the soil warms up naturally. And such early ripening varieties as kohlrabi and Chinese cabbage are sown until the beginning of July on the vacated areas after harvesting early vegetables.

    Before sowing, you need to calibrate and disinfect the seeds, after which you should hold them in a damp cloth until they swell, but no longer than a day: cabbage seeds peck quickly, and this should not be allowed.

    Usually, seedlings are distinguished by their leaves. In seedlings of white cabbage, leaves are openwork, and in seedlings of early varieties they are larger and lighter than in seedlings of later varieties. The leaves of cauliflower seedlings are smaller and rounder than those of white cabbage. Savoy cabbage leaves are pimply or are collected in an accordion.

    It is possible to distinguish seedlings of different types of cabbage only by visual comparison. Therefore, it is best to purchase seedlings from trusted sellers. You can find people in the market who have been selling their own seedlings for years. Usually, their seedlings are marked, and a seed bag is attached to each box. These sellers are interested in regular customers and will not mislead you.

    Not all varieties of cabbage are equally beneficial for lagomorphs. For example, they shouldn't eat red cabbage because it causes them to have bloating, stomach cramps, and other digestive problems. With caution, they should also feed Chinese cabbage: in large quantities, it acts on rabbits as a laxative.

    Lagomorphs eat white cabbage and kohlrabi with pleasure, and kohlrabi can be given with leaves. But rabbits cannot eat cabbage stump from white cabbage, only leaves. But sauerkraut in small quantities is useful for them.

    You can feed the rabbits with kale or kale. However, any of the varieties of this vegetable should be introduced into the diet gradually.

    There are many reasons for shooting Peking cabbage:

    root damage during transplanting or during loosening of the soil

    climatic conditions unsuitable for the variety

    too long daylight hours

    sudden changes in temperature

    growing on the site after cruciferous crops

    deficiency of nutrients in the soil

    low cold resistance of the cultivated variety

    To avoid shooting, you need to follow these rules:

    fertilize the soil a month before sowing

    sow seeds in early spring or late summer directly in open ground or in peat cups

    grow resistant to shooting varieties - Dutch hybrids Manoko, Taranko or Bilko

    plant cabbage in partial shade or arrange sun protection for it in the afternoon.

    This symptom appears for various reasons. For example, due to a lack of phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, boron, copper or zinc, as well as an excess of nitrogen in the substrate, which blocks the intake of phosphorus. Moreover, only old leaves can react to a lack or excess of some elements, and only young leaves can react to a lack of others.

    Air temperatures above 30 ⁰C can cause leaves to curl, but as soon as the heat subsides, the leaves will straighten. Seedling leaves also react to insufficient moisture in conditions of low air humidity and high temperatures.

    Causes such a reaction and attack of pests - aphids or whiteflies.

    Find out the cause of the phenomenon, eliminate it, and the leaves of the seedlings will restore their previous appearance.

    It is necessary to fight this pest of cruciferous crops from the moment of its appearance, but since cabbage quickly absorbs poisons and toxins, it is extremely undesirable to treat it from fleas with chemical agents, especially early ripening varieties. It is better to deal with flea beetles with folk remedies that have an insecticidal effect. A good result is given by weekly spraying the plantings with a decoction of tomato tops, vinegar, ash or tobacco solution. You can simply sprinkle the wet leaves of the seedlings with wood ash mixed with tobacco dust.

    Mid-season and late varieties, if necessary, are sprayed with solutions of the preparations Karate, Decis, Aktara, Bankol or Aktellik.

    You can protect planted seedlings from pests if you keep them from the moment of planting under a non-woven material: fleas damage only tender young seedlings, and when they get stronger and their leaves become dense, fleas will no longer be able to harm them.


  • Watch the video: How to Grow Broccoli - Complete Guide - Seed to Harvest


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