How to make a pond in Russia - expert advice



Plants of natural reservoirs

All natural bodies of water are surrounded by thickets of coastal vegetation, which grows in a strip along the banks of rivers, lakes and ponds. The only exception can be the leeward side, which is devoid of large plantings.

Different types and forms of aquatic plants are grouped or arranged in stripes depending on the direction of the current or depth. Along the coast, as a rule, there are dense thickets of reeds or reeds with hard leaves. Fish prefer to live among plants with softer stems and leaves.

The species composition of underwater plants in natural reservoirs can change quite significantly over time, since some of them deplete the soil, release harmful substances into the bottom, and then die. They are also influenced by climate or weather changes, anthropogenic impact, and environmental pollution.


Garden of simple and beautiful people

We have heard a lot about Dobele: a quarter of a century ago, a friend lived there. He still moans bitterly about how he stoked the stove and boiled the diapers. Linen in those days was dried on the street - they pulled ropes across the entire courtyard and hung out for public viewing. The mother-in-law scolded the young mother for the poorly washed sliders:

- Why are you disgracing me in front of the whole city? I am here, all the same, I am listed as a respected person. Still a war veteran. And you have swaddling clothes with yellow stains!

In a word, the girl has endured a lot of suffering. And the world would rather go off the rails than hear from her a kind word about Dobele and its inhabitants.

Dobele big city

We arrived in Latvia in the middle of summer: take a break from the landscape-planting season and look at local parks. They settled near Riga at Martiniš and Inga. It was they who prepared for us a garden and entertainment program, where the city of Dobele was listed as a special point. Is there a city there now? And there is something to see?

In the tourist guide, local sights were drowned in a palette drenched in sunny caramel, scattered with apples and a cloud of lush lilacs. Among the ruins, monuments, museums and churches recommended for visiting were private estates. For a population of as many as eleven thousand souls - as many as four gardens open to visitors to the city for viewing!

But more of the gardens were surprised that Dobele has its own Tourist Information Center! Just like in Haifa or Budapest!

One-eyed streets?

In a friend's memories of thirty years ago, the city emerged as lopsided houses, with tiled roofs slumped to one side. At the houses, along the curves, like a one-eyed cyclops, streets, he remembered huge heaps of firewood and coal dumped in disorder. The small gardens, although they were green in beds, looked untidy and semi-legal, as is the case in villages where the owners arbitrarily grab half-abandoned troubles.

Actually, Dobele himself in those days did not pull the title of the city. It was not so completely useless, rather - an ordinary large village with the initial shoots of Latvian civilization.

I wonder: how has it changed in thirty years? Did viewing unsightly kitchen gardens with fences made of poles stuffed with stakes demanded the creation of an official Information Center? And what, without him, ordinary tourists cannot figure it out here?

Tidbits

However, we did not consider ourselves to be traditional tourists: after all, our Latvian friends organized our leisure time. Clever Inga felt the importance of the moment: after all, there are much more gardens in Latvia than the time at our disposal, so I prepared thoroughly for the trip to Dobele. She phoned the owners of all the estates and calculated the time of the visits to the nearest minute.

The first on the travel list, as is usually the case - in order not to miss tidbits, were the most trump households: the "Stone Garden" of the Stelmacher family and the "Picturesque Garden" of the Kluga family. Finally, it seems like how much time is left, we were in the modest "Garden of practical and beautiful ideas" of the Benkis family.

But I want to start my story about Latvian garden design from this small area. And I am sure that if someday a walk of fame opens in Dobele, the Liga family and Aivar Benkis, and this will surely happen, will take an honorable place there.

Horseradish pond

in a practical and beautiful garden

At the entrance to the garden, the owners were waiting for us: light, like a ray of sunlight, miniature and sociable chirping Liga. And Aivar is a solid man, at first glance unsociable. Of these, every word is under torture and only with a red-hot iron.

The League cheerfully threw up its hands, opening up the property in front of us, as if pushing the boundaries and cordially inviting us to go inside. She spoke Russian with an accent, choosing her words carefully. But when it comes to plants and the garden, it has been repeatedly tested by experience, we understand in any language.

- Well, you've come to a completely different vegetable garden! - A little embarrassed, exclaimed the hostess. As if we had not passed a couple of blocks, but at least crossed two or three state borders.

- You were where the stones are and where the pond is. Those gardens are famous and their plants have long been planted. Everything is different with us. And our kindergarten is small - we live and work here. Rather, we are working not only here, but here too, ”the League crumbled with laughter and waved its hands clean, like a crystal ringing of a bell.

And I imagined how these people, after working a day at some enterprise, rush home. Then they, sort of like in the second shift, plow on their hundred square meters until dark.

I remembered my childhood and Russian orchards. As soon as the sun was hot, almost all our neighbors at once, like migratory birds, picking up bundles with simple household belongings, migrated to their dachas: weed, sow, plant, fertilize.

Those were good times: nettles to the waist, bulk apples with worms and overripe, like a girl Tamara from the second entrance, raspberries from the belly in handfuls from a bush. And on an old mossy pear that creaked like a hut on chicken legs - a radio station with Uncle Remus's tales.

And what happened about the League and Aivar?

It turns out that they used to have a dacha, where they went on weekends and after work. And then they themselves lived and worked in a big city. The garden fed the family well: they did not buy fruits and vegetables at all, the greens were always fresh, and they were preserved for the winter. In short, we lived well! Until the troubled times came: the country began to fall apart and riots began.

- Nothing has become sweet! We'll come, and all the tomatoes have been removed. And the onion with the root is pulled out. Further more. Tired of bending your back in vain - the whole crop was plundered. And we abandoned that section.

A familiar picture, isn't it? Everything is exactly like in Russia.

But the League and Aivar could not stand to live long without land. Twelve years ago, they sold a city apartment and bought this site, although it was then in a completely ditched state.

- Stones, glass, nails - we dug up every piece and took out four large trailers of garbage, - the head of the family joins in the conversation, as soon as they talk about hard work. Actually, all the time that we were walking in the garden, he was busy with the housework, not allowing himself to rest for a minute.

“We built the garden ourselves, without architects,” continued the League. - We do not have the opportunity to invite specialists. Inga said that you are a designer. So, we started without you. We invented everything ourselves and did everything ourselves. Are you likely to find a bunch of errors now?

- How did you choose the plants? By what principle?

- By the principle: what we like, - the League and Aivar were amicably surprised by the question. Indeed, what other principles can there be if people make a garden for themselves, for the soul? - We have a lot of conifers: more than seventy varieties. And you know, it turns out they grow so fast!

- Some of the tips that we read in magazines did not suit us at all. For example, designers write: you need to plant everything along the fence. And we have a dog, she needs to run.

- The pond was made here because it grew in this place. how to call it that correctly in Russian? And the League hesitated, choosing the words. Reinforcements hurried to the rescue:

- In Russian it will be abusive, - the spouse put in a weighty word, - but very true: horseradish grew here! And so we were exhausted with him, what we just did not do to lime. I had to build a reservoir.

However, there was a place for horseradish in Ben'kis's garden: now it is earing, where it should be - next to the greenhouse in the backyard.

- I see a lot of summer people in the garden. Do you love them? Diversify each year?

- Yes, we do, - agrees the League. - Only not us, but nature. Last winter was harsh with us: frosts, freezing rain and no snow at all. Many plants died. So we change the design.

The Benkis family manor is called "The Garden of Practical and Beautiful Ideas" because everything here is made by their hands and, which is very important, from improvised material. An old stove barbecue stove, a bench around an old tree, a woodshed with an apartment for a dog, a storage cellar for supplies, a pond instead of horseradish thickets, flower beds and coniferous compositions.

Liga and Aivar show guests by personal example how a garden can be made. There would be a desire to change life for the better - and everything will certainly work out.

The garden is the mirror of the soul

I remember the girl who frightened Dobele with horror. Her mother-in-law, tortured by her daughter-in-law's bungling, told how the mother "missed" the baby: he fell while the unfortunate parent was asleep. And he lay midnight between the wall and the bed, all blue with suffocation.

According to mom, the old woman is, of course, to blame - who else!

Whining and suffering without making any effort is probably easier than taking responsibility for personal happiness into your own hands? And you don't need to go far: you can start with small things - put in order the house-yard, garden-vegetable garden.

By the way, for that girl everything is still, as if a quarter of a century has not passed: she is tormented in mud and junk. But, I think, to great luck for Dobele - now in another country.

It has long been noticed by us: what kind of people, such gardens.

Liga and Aivar Benkis were not afraid of difficulties and everything worked out. Dobele was lucky with people - now it is a small, but thriving city. And the Tourist Information Center is not idle.

And about garden design - a solvable problem. You can order a design project to specialists and implement it yourself on the site.

For example, contact us - we will do it! For nonresidents, we have remote design, via the Internet.


Juniper Bonsai Styles and Shapes

Bonsai has many styles. Their difference lies in the shape of the trunk and the bend, protruding roots. Young seedlings are the easiest to bend, so there are many more opportunities for creativity. Any style can be transformed on the fly. There are no strict requirements for conformity to a certain form.

The following styles are distinguished:

  • multi-barreled. Several trunks are shot from one root. Moreover, their number must be odd.
  • classic upright. The tree is given a perfect straight trunk, which tapers towards the top
  • wrong erect. The trunk has a slightly curved shape
  • cascading. The style helps to mimic a mountain plant that falls from a sheer cliff.
  • a tree that was bent by the wind. The trunk is tilted at an angle, and the branches grow to one side
  • curved fit. At the base, the trunk is strongly curved, the branches repeat its shape
  • brittle tree. The main trunk of a bonsai is divided into two parts. At the same time, the deep wound remains open and without bark
  • semi-cascading. Resembles a plant hovering over a steep cliff
  • literary. The oldest style, which has a long, interestingly curved barrel. It resembles a calligraphic sign in shape. The crown branches out in width and has the correct shape
  • exposed roots. Bonsai depicts a frequent natural phenomenon, when the soil is washed out and reveals roots, which after a while become overgrown with bark.


Useful tips for mushroom pickers

For the successful cultivation of mycelium and the harvest of mushrooms, the following rules must be observed:

  • The ideal substrate is sawdust from deciduous trees.
  • The color of the used sawdust should be white or yellow, this will serve as a guarantee of their freshness.
  • The substrate should have a fresh odor, without any admixture of rot.
  • When transporting mycelium, the required moisture content must be maintained within 30-45%. The same conditions must be observed inside the plastic bag in which the oyster mushroom is grown.
  • It will take about 300 grams of mycelium to be put into one block bag measuring 35 X 75 cm, you need to know this in order to accurately calculate the required amount of material. It is highly undesirable to buy for future use or thaw an excess amount of mycelium due to the short shelf life and loss of sowing qualities.
  • When producing mycelium and planting it in a substrate, strict sanitation rules must be followed to avoid pest infestation: containers, tools and hands must be disinfected.

In general, if you follow the rules and technology for growing oyster mushroom mycelium, and then the mushroom itself, you can achieve good results with not a very large investment of funds and efforts. With an attentive attitude to the process, even a beginner can handle it.

As I already wrote in my article Introduction to mushroom growing, the main cost of growing mushrooms in the basement of the house will be the purchase of mycelium. From an economic point of view, this issue can be solved in two ways: the first is to find the mycelium in the forest yourself, the second is to buy it. And then make grain mycelium. It doesn't matter what kind of mushrooms you are going to grow, let it be oyster mushrooms, champignons or shiitake.

After looking at the information on various forums, I found out that they are starting to grow mushrooms from the mycelium of the following species:

  • grain mycelium
  • mycelium on agar
  • mycelium on sticks

First, I’ll explain what it means to find mycelium yourself. To do this, you need to go to the forest, find the desired mushroom that you want to cultivate. Basically, this mushroom can be a noble White mushroom. Then a 2 mm part of the mushroom is cut out with a sterile knife and tweezers from the middle of the leg. Sterility can be achieved by dipping them in alcohol. This will be our initial mycelium, which will then grow in the grain.

Sequential operation when adding a part of the fungus to a sterile nutrient medium

On the Internet, they sell mainly grain mycelium and on sticks. But it is expensive to buy on grain and it is not known how good it will be. Therefore, I decided to buy oyster mushroom mycelium on sticks, and sow the grain with these sticks, thereby getting a high-quality grain mycelium.

So, let's move on to the very process of growing mycelium. For this we need grain, it is better to take oats or wheat.

  1. It is necessary to take the pots, pour the grain into it, and fill it with water so that it hides the grain. To increase sterility, add 100-200 grams of hydrogen peroxide per 10 liters to the water
  2. Then boil the grain for 40 minutes.
  3. After that, it is necessary to drain the water and dry the grain. To do this, you can use the device shown in Figure 1. Also, for best results, you can add chalk and plaster in a ratio of 1 to 100.

Figure 1 Drying of grain when growing mycelium. 1 - wooden box, 2 - fan, 3 - fine mesh, 4 - grain

  • After the grain has dried out, it is transferred to liter jars. In order not to infect it with mold, you need to treat your hands with a 1-3% solution of hydrogen peroxide and use a quartz lamp, which can be bought or made from a choke and a DRL lamp (carefully breaking the lamp bulb on the street). Also, a quartz lamp can be used for drying grain.
  • Then the grain must be sterilized for a little over an hour. Pour water into a large saucepan and put our cans. Close with aluminum foil or polyethylene lid. When boiling, make sure that the water does not wet the lids.The picture below shows the growth of the mycelium of the fungus.
  • Let the grain cool slightly and proceed to the next step.
  • Next is the most important stage and it can play a decisive role in the growth of mycelium. Since there are many microorganisms in the air. It is recommended to add mycelium on a stick or from the mushroom to the grain with a quartz lamp, or over a fire, or in a micro-laboratory in the figure below (how to do it, read the following articles). Be sure to treat tools with alcohol or peroxide solution. One stick is introduced into the jar.
  • After that, the jars must be placed in a dark room (possibly in a cabinet) at a temperature of 17-23 ºС
  • After the mycelium of the fungus grows, it will be possible to sow the substrate
  • And then harvest a good harvest of mushrooms

    Traditionally, at the end of the article, there is a useful video on how to properly prepare grain for mushroom mycelium. I think it will be very useful, it shows how the grain is positioned during drying, what devices to use

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    Today we will talk about how you can independently obtain, grow or breed high-quality mycelium of oyster mushrooms at home. We will also consider a description of the methods for the production of oyster mushroom mycelium with our own hands with visual photos and illustrations. We will find out what tools and substrate are needed to obtain oyster mushroom mycelium

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    Getting oyster mushroom mycelium at home is the dream of any mushroom grower. Nowadays it is not difficult to buy it. However, it is not always possible to find a company that is 100% responsible for the quality of products. The fact is that such organizations work mainly with wholesalers and practically do not have time to monitor quality in such conditions.

    You can learn about the "inoperability" of the product only when the bags with the substrate turn green. And the cultivation of oyster mushrooms takes a certain amount of time and 40% of the costs go to the substrate. In this case, mushroom growers, not trusting unknown producers, grow mycelium with their own hands.
    Oyster mushroom mycelium at home can be grown on grain or wood. Cereal mycelium is obtained by plating mother cultures on a cereal grain substrate. This kind of production is more common.

    In the second case, the mycelium is located on wooden sticks. This type is suitable when stump mushroom production is used. Mycelium grown on wood is less susceptible to disease and has a long shelf life.

    Mycelium is the basis of mushroom growing technology. Growing it takes place in three stages:
    Uterine mycelium. Reproduction in special laboratories from spores that are stored in test tubes. Abroad, each batch is subjected to the strictest control for compliance with the strain. Breeding work is not carried out in Russia and the CIS countries.
    Reproduction of most fungi is carried out by spores, but another type of vegetative propagation of fungi is also possible - by pieces of fungal tissue.
    Intermediate mycelium. This is the next step, during which the stock culture is transferred from test tubes to a certain nutrient medium. In other words, it is a culture for growing seed mycelium.

    Sowing mycelium. It is used for sowing the substrate on which the mushrooms grow directly. However, it is very often used as a mother culture for the production of mycelium obtained abroad. Grown on grain of cereals.

    The best quality mycelium is obtained in laboratory conditions, but how to cook it yourself at home? If you do not have the equipment for organizing the work of a scientific laboratory, then home production can be carried out where there is gas, water and electricity.

    You can prepare mycelium at home, but before doing this, you need to purchase special equipment: test tubes, tweezers, thermometer, pipettes, agar.

    At the stage of preparing the room and equipment, it is necessary first of all to take into account the fact that there are from 5,000 to 20,000 microorganisms per 1 m2. And the first priority for the mushroom grower is how to prepare sterile equipment and ensure the hygiene of the workplace.

    There are two ways to make mycelium at home. The first way is full cycle. A mother culture is grown from the spores or a piece of the fruiting body, from which it is possible to obtain the intermediate mycelium and grow the seed culture.

    The uterine mycelium is obtained from a part of the fruiting body. Fresh oyster mushroom is cut into two parts and a piece is cut from the top of the leg. Before replanting in a nutrient medium, a piece of the fruiting body is dipped in hydrogen peroxide to ensure sterility. After that, a piece of mushroom is placed over the flame in a test tube with a nutrient medium. The tube is closed with a cork burned over a fire. The cork must not be placed on the surface of the table, so you must hold the cork and test tube with your hands at the same time.

    The tubes are left in a dark room with a temperature of 240 degrees Celsius. After a couple of weeks, the mycelium, created by hand, can be transferred to the substrate.

    You can also make a nutrient medium for growing a mother culture with your own hands. For this, potato glucose agar, wort agar, oat agar, carrot agar and a number of others are suitable. The culture medium is poured into test tubes and sterilized. Then the tubes are set in an inclined position so that the medium has a large surface area. After it has solidified, a piece of oyster mushroom is introduced into the test tube.

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    The next stage is breeding oyster mushroom mycelium. For growing intermediate oyster mushroom mycelium, cereal grains are often used. To do this, take high-quality grains and boil them in two parts of water for 15 minutes. After that, the grains are dried and mixed with gypsum and calcium carbonate.

    The glass container is filled by two-thirds with the obtained grains and sterilized. Several pieces of the culture medium are transferred to the processed grains.

    The intermediate crop will grow in two to three weeks. You can store mycelium for 3 months at a temperature of 0 to 20 degrees. If necessary, you can pack it in plastic bags.

    The developed viable intermediate mycelium of oyster mushrooms has the appearance of a lush white bloom with a pleasant mushroom aroma. Similarly, the technology of growing intermediate mycelium is grown and sowing. In other words, the intermediate material is used for seeding new containers. For a one-liter jar, 1 spoon of intermediate mycelium is enough.

    This type is used for sowing a substrate on which oyster mushrooms will grow in the future.

    To start growing mushroom mycelium, you need to find a suitable room in order to organize your workplace there. This area should be clean and easy to clean. It is necessary to maintain the necessary humidity in it. The optimum humidity is 60-70%. Too high humidity can lead to the risk of developing harmful microorganisms. You also need to maintain the optimal temperature - from 20 to 24 ° C. The minimum area of ​​the room is about 1.5 m2. However, the room should not be too large, as this will make it difficult to keep it clean.

    It is important to remember that dust is the main source of harmful microorganisms. therefore, dust must be dealt with by all means and wet cleaning as often as possible. For the same reason, it is better to equip the room with artificial ventilation with an air filter.

    To grow mushroom mycelium, you need a table over which you need a light source. It is highly desirable that water be supplied to the room.

    The very process of growing mushroom mycelium begins with placing the culture of the desired type of mushroom in a nutrient solution. To do this, take healthy mushrooms and place them on potato-glucose agar or malt extract agar. This culture medium is first dissolved in boiling water in a flask.

    The calculation of the nutrient medium is as follows: 10 ml (one pipette) per one Petri dish. Then the nutrient solution is placed in test tubes and sterilized in a beaker in an autoclave or oven for 20 minutes at a temperature of 120 ° C. The test tubes are capped and wrapped in foil to protect from moisture.

    While still hot, the nutrient solution is poured into Petri dishes, measuring 10 ml with a pipette. It is necessary that the solution is distributed evenly over the bottom of the bowl.

    It should be noted that when performing these works, sterility should be observed. The table must be wiped with a 2% solution of sagrotan. All work must be performed with tools that are sterilized or heated several times on a burner (alcohol lamp) or treated with a disinfectant solution. In general, work should be done as quickly and orderly as possible.

    For better preservation of the mycelium, it is placed on agar slant. To do this, a sterile nutrient medium is placed in test tubes and melted in a water bath (you need to take 5-6 test tubes). Then the tubes are placed at an angle with the neck up and in this position the culture medium should solidify. This solidified nutrient medium is called agar slant. Next, using an inoculation hook (after sterilizing it), take pieces of the nutrient medium with mycelium growing on it and place it on slant agar. Subject to sterility, after about three weeks, the mycelium will begin to develop on the agar slant.

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    The final stage of growing the mycelium of the fungus is to obtain the mycelium. To do this, take grains of cereals (you need grains of the highest quality) and fill them with water at the rate of two parts of water for two parts of grains. The resulting mixture is boiled for 15 minutes, after which it is laid out on a clean towel or thick cardboard to dry the grains. Then 1.3% gypsum and 0.3% calcium carbonate are added to the grains. The resulting material is placed in a three-liter jar (you can use jars of a different volume) for about 3/4 of its volume.

    In the middle of the jar, insert a wooden stick into the grain mixture to form an inoculation channel. The jars are wrapped in foil, covered with a suitable lid and sterilized in this form in an oven or autoclave for 2 hours at a temperature of 120 ° C.

    After sterilization, the jars are cooled and placed into the inoculation canal using an inoculation hook 3-4 pieces of culture medium with germinated mycelium. After three weeks at room temperature, the grains are overgrown with mycelium and thus we get the final product - grain mycelium.

    The mother culture (mycelium) is obtained as a result of sowing spores, excretion from a part of the fruiting body and as a result of selection work. The following are recommended as nutrient media for the cultivation of higher basidiomycetes:

    - wort-agar: for its preparation, take 1 liter of beer wort 7-8 ° according to Balling, add 20 g of agar-agar and cook until it is completely dissolved. Hot wort-agar is poured into test tubes (approximately 1/3 of the volume), closed with cotton-gauze plugs and sterilized for half an hour at a pressure of 1.5 atmospheres and a temperature of 101 ° C. After sterilization, the tubes are placed on the table in a strongly inclined position, so that the medium does not reach the cork by 3-4 cm and, when solidified, has a large surface

    - oatmeal agar: oat flour - 30 g, water - 970 ml, agar —15 g. Oatmeal is boiled in water for 1 hour with stirring, then filtered through a Gause filter

    - carrot agar: carrot extract - 400 ml, water - 600 ml, agar - 15 g, pH = 6.0. Crushed carrots are mixed with water in a ratio of 2: 5, boiled for 30 minutes, filtered. In addition to the above examples of culture media, there are a number of others. The most commonly used is wort agar. After the medium has frozen, a mother culture, spores, or a part of the fruiting body of the fungus are introduced into a test tube under sterile conditions.


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