Cherries - risk culture


How to bring cherries back to our gardens

Cherry. Variety Zarya Volga

Cherry - truly the national stone fruit culture of Russia. Europe knew little about cherries; they grew more cherries there.

The genius of A.P. Chekhov's cherry orchard has become a symbol of the tragedy of Russia. The fate of the cherry as a fruit crop turned out to be no less tragic. Cherry, like plum, has always been grown in places strictly beloved by it - on the high slopes of the right bank of the Volga, in the Vladimir region (alas, here it was simply cut down over time, making room for more profitable cucumbers for sale), in the South-West of the Moscow region, where her plantings are now buried under new buildings of endless boxes of houses. And when they began to try to plant cherries, regardless of its addiction to habitats, and, therefore, to specific growing conditions - elevated places with a runoff of cold air, with highly fertile light soils (sandy loam or loamy) and deep groundwater, she became capricious ... In addition, cherries require high doses of manure, and this has become a problem over time.

The most tragic thing is that at the beginning of the sixties, its already weakened (and primarily due to a lack of organic matter) plantations fell upon the merciless fungal disease that came from the West - coccomycosis. Gardeners began to notice seemingly unreasonable drying out of flowers, yellowing and dropping (up to 80%) of leaves, the appearance of brown spots on green fruits and their deformation, and gradually the loss of whole trees. The plague ravaged coccomycosis over cherry, practically destroying both individual trees in our gardens and entire plantations.

By the early eighties, scientists were able to create new, relatively coccomycotic-resistant varieties and rootstocks. There is a hope that the cherries will return to our gardens. But again a new and even more destructive plague came from abroad - a fungal disease - a monilial burn. The infection lies in the monilia fungus settling on the tree. Its spores infect not only the fruits and leaves, but also, which is especially tragic, causes the branches and the whole tree to suddenly dry out.

In a word, the cherry is in trouble. And even those trees that continue to be kept in our gardens practically do not bear fruit. There are several reasons for this. Firstly, cherry is characterized by insufficient frost resistance of flower buds, which can die in winter, and more recently, due to unstable weather, more often in spring. The leaves will bloom, but there will be no flowering.

No less typical damage to flowers is not complete, but only their generative organs and, above all, pistils. This is usually associated with spring frosts and return colds during flowering. Such flowers bloom, but due to damage to the pistils (take a closer look at the flowers - pistils beaten by the cold become brownish and even brown) fertilization is impossible, these flowers are barren, and they will not bear fruit.

All this is aggravated in conditions unusual for cherries, especially in the northern regions of its growth, in places with stagnant cold air and irresponsible planting of varieties with reduced winter hardiness.

But you shouldn't give up our national pride - cherries - especially in places favorable for gardening. You just need to very carefully select a frost-resistant variety and at least with an average resistance to these diseases. There are not many such varieties, for example, for the middle lane - these are Bulatnikovskaya, Malinovka, Molodezhnaya. The original Dobraya variety (a hybrid of cherry and bird cherry) is also suitable - it is very winter-hardy, with abundant and regular yields, albeit very small, black, with a bitter fruit, very suitable for various homemade preparations.

Cherry. Gurtyevka variety

The self-fruitlessness of many of its varieties belongs to the "flaws" of cherries. In order for a flower to turn into a fruit, a different kind of pollen must fall on its pistil. This may not happen for at least three reasons.

Firstly, the required pollinator variety may not be nearby, or for some reason its tree does not bloom; secondly, during flowering, pollen-carrying bees do not fly out of the hive due to bad weather and, thirdly, which is increasingly observed in our gardens, there simply may not be other varieties. Therefore, when choosing cherries for planting, they rely on self-fertile varieties.

In the absence of a pollinator variety, several of its cuttings can be grafted into the crown of the variety that needs it. To attract bees, it is advisable to sprinkle trees with a solution of honey at the beginning of flowering - 1 tablespoon per 1 liter of water, 100 ml of solution per 1 tree.

The area under the cherry trees should be well lit by the morning eastern sun. The planting scheme is 2-2.5x4-5 m. This arrangement provides good lighting and ventilation of trees, and, therefore, reduces the risk of their diseases.

The planting pit digs wide (up to 2–2.5 m in diameter), but shallow - up to 40 cm. It is filled with well-rotted manure (preferably with earthworms) or compost mixed with ash (1–2 kg) and sand - 2- 3 buckets.

All the same, the named diseases, most likely, cannot be avoided. Therefore, start fighting them at their first manifestation. Experts from the Timiryazev Academy, based on their experience, recommend using the copper-containing preparation chorus for spraying. The first processing is carried out immediately after flowering, then two more times with an interval of two weeks and another 2-3 times after harvest. To form a foam, which keeps the preparation from washing off, soap (30 g per 10 l of water) is rounded into the solution. Processing is carried out from 10 to 12 hours on dry leaves. Spray carefully, especially the underside of the leaf, but in moderation so that the solution does not drain from the leaves.

In late autumn, cherry tree trunks are mulched with semi-rotted manure or compost. But just make sure that the mulch does not come into contact with the tree trunk in order to avoid podoprevanie bark. At the same time, to protect the bark from possible sunburn in the spring, tree trunks are wrapped in two layers of white paper or whitewashed.

Cherry does not like pruning, remove only branches that are clearly dry and clearly shading the crown.

Protecting the berry crop from birds

If the trees are small, with the threat of frost during flowering, it is advisable to cover them with some kind of sheet, non-woven material, and on top with a film. Just leave 2-4 slots in the shelter so that pollinating insects can get under the shelter. And when the berries begin to attract birds, cover the trees during the ripening of the crop with a fine-mesh net.

Modern gardeners planted cherries, like apples and pears, as grafted plants called seedlings. But for a long time there has also been a fairly simple way of its reproduction - by shoots. The shoots are shoots formed from the buds on the roots, which is why it is also called root shoots, root suckers and even just suckers. But with this method of reproduction, it is necessary to clearly know: productive trees give little growth, and lean ones - a lot. This is why the growth of unproductive trees is most often dropped on the market, littering our gardens with barren trees.

But do not give up this type of reproduction, just look at which trees the growth is taken from, or even better - dig it out yourself in the spring. To do this, at some distance from the offspring, chop off the root coming from the mother tree with a shovel, leave the offspring in place, do not dig it out. Over the summer, the chopped off offspring will grow roots, and in the fall you will transplant it to a permanent place. In a permanent place, you can plant an offspring from an unproductive tree, and then graft it with any variety you like.

You can inoculate in any way in the spring or by budding (budding) in the summer. Cherry budding, unlike apple tree, is done not using a T-shaped cut, but in the butt.

Dear gardeners! The return of cherries to your gardens will only be possible with the right variety you choose and with the strictest adherence to the techniques of its cultivation. Success to you!

Irina Isaeva,
Doctor of Agricultural Sciences,
Moscow


When to plant seedlings in 2021 according to the Lunar Cadendar

The moon calendar, on which gardeners are very often guided, is compiled based on the lunar phases. For example, on the growing moon, water accumulates in the seeds and roots, and on the waning moon, the roots grow better.

The year 2021 gives the most favorable terms for sowing seeds for seedlings and thinning plants, in February it is the 4th day, the period from 7 to 9, from 12 to 14, from 17 to 25. February is perhaps the most favorable month. In March - 3, 5, 8, the period from 15 to 22 and from 25 to 28. In April - 3, 5, 8, 9, the period from 18 to 22, the period from 25 to 28. In May, this is the 2nd number, the period from 5 to 7 and from 12 to 17.

According to the lunar calendar, the optimal periods for planting, picking, and transplanting seedlings in March are 1, a favorable period from 3 to 5, 8, as well as periods from 13 to 15 and from 19 to 28. In April it is 1, as well as 3, 5, 8, 13, 19 and the period from 27 to 28. In May, favorable dates: 1st, 3rd, 5th, 13th, as well as periods from 15 to 17 and the number, dates - 20, 24, 28 and 29. In June, this is the 2nd, 3rd, 8th, as well as the period from 11 to 13 and 16 numbers.

On other dates, you should not sow seeds for seedlings, make a pick, or transplant into open ground. The lunar calendar does not advise doing this, since the seed will sprout for a long time. These are not complicated, but at the same time important rules for growing seedlings.

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Garden treatment with Bordeaux mixture

We have already written about the Spring garden processing. And today we will tell you more about the Bordeaux mixture. So, summer residents often ask: Why treat the garden with Bordeaux mixture?

Processing a spring garden with Bordeaux is the main protective measure against fungal diseases. Often pome and stone fruit crops are affected by scab, coccomycosis, moniliosis and other fungal diseases. To protect apple trees, pears, cherries, cherries, gardeners carry out blue spraying in early spring with a 3% Bordeaux solution.

When to spray with Bordeaux liquid

It is necessary to spray the garden with 3% Bordeaux liquid before bud break. The exact dates will depend on the weather conditions. The sooner the snow melts and the warm weather sets in, the earlier the garden processing time will shift.

Re-treatment with 1% Bordeaux liquid is carried out in the garden when buds appear on the trees.

Bordeaux garden processing rules:

  • do not spray in windy weather,
  • do not process Bordeaux in wet weather,
  • in gardens where trees are not resistant to fungal diseases, the treatment with copper preparations should be regular,
  • spraying with Bordeaux must be carried out in a protective suit, glasses and a respirator.

How to prepare Bordeaux mixture

Bordeaux mixture is a powder for preparing a working solution. Bordeaux mixture consists of 2 preparations: lime and copper sulfate.

Usually Bordeaux mixture is sold in stores in boxes with instructions for preparing the solution.

How to prepare a 3% Bordeaux liquid solution

For a 3% Bordeaux solution, you need to take 300 g of copper sulfate and 400 g of lime. In separate plastic containers, vitriol is diluted in 1 liter of water and lime in 9 liters. As soon as the crystals of copper sulfate dissolve, you need to pour a blue solution of copper into the milk of lime (dissolved lime) in a thin stream.

Remember: you need to pour copper sulfate into the lime solution, and not vice versa!

With a solution of Bordeaux 3% concentration, trees must be treated before bud break!

How to prepare 1% Bordeaux liquid solution

To prepare a 1% Bordeaux solution, you need to take 100 g of copper sulfate and 150 g of lime per 10 liters of water. Copper sulfate is dissolved in a separate container and then poured into the milk of lime in a thin stream.

Treatment with 1% Bordeaux solution is carried out during the growing season of plants.


Felt cherry problems

It would seem that felt cherry is good for everyone.It blooms so elegantly that you will admire, the fruits are sweet, unpretentious, winter-hardy ... But it has drawbacks, because of which this culture is not very popular with gardeners.

First of all, this is the fragility of plants: 8-12 years - and the cherry grows old, having managed to give only 3-4 harvests. Therefore, the farm cannot be limited to one or two plants, you need to have several of different ages and periodically replace the aged.

The second disadvantage of felt cherry is its very early flowering, which often coincides with frost, which leads to loss of yield. And the point here is not only the likelihood of frost damage to flowers, but also in the absence of conditions for pollinating bees.

The third problem is the possible damping out of the root collar. To avoid this, they try to plant felt cherries in an elevated place, without stagnating spring waters. Sand and ash are introduced into the root zone.

Felt cherry is easily propagated by seeds, while retaining, unlike most crops, almost all varietal characteristics. And yet it is advised to plant not own-rooted plants, but grafted onto winter-hardy rootstocks in a given area, compatible with cherries, for example, VVA-1.

Yes, felt cherry can withstand temperatures down to -40 ° C. But if in the middle of winter thaws give way to cold snaps, the fruit buds of the plants may suffer. This is especially true in low-lying orchards on clay soils. If the plants have suffered in both you and your neighbors, this is precisely the reason.

Examine the plants carefully, assess the condition of the bark. Treat with one of the anti-stress drugs, feed. Let's hope things go well.

ON A NOTE

When choosing seedlings, keep in mind that 14 varieties of felt cherries are included in the State Register. Of these, the early ripening period and the most winter hardy is Okeanskaya Virovskaya. Varieties Tsarevna and Smuglyanka Vostochnaya are distinguished by the short stature of the Okeanskaya virovskaya and Natali bush, on the contrary, the tallest.


The main varieties of ordinary cherries

Cherry Seedling number 1

The variety is bred by free pollination from the common sour cherry variety. Differs in yield, resistant to coccomycosis (fungal disease affecting leaves). A tree of medium size, with a rounded crown, fruits about 3 g with a yellowish, juicy pulp of a sour-sweet taste. The juice is light, the stone is small. Fruits appear 3 years after planting. As a rule, cherries bear fruit in late June - early July. This variety is partially self-fertile (cherry trees are cross-pollinated, so other suitable varieties must grow with the cherry).



Cherry
Novodvorskaya

This variety has a spherical crown, medium-sized tree, large fruits. The pulp has a pleasant sour taste, the fruits are juicy, tender, with dark red pulp. The juice is bright, the stone is small, well separated from the pulp itself. Differs in yield, but moderately resistant to coccomycosis. Fruits ripen in mid-July. Partially self-fertile.



Cherry Wreath

This variety is obtained by pollination of the Novodvorskaya variety. The crown is of medium density, narrowed upwards, a tall large tree. Fruits are medium, round in shape. Pollinated by varieties: Novodvorskaya, Seyanets No. 1, as well as varieties of cherries North, Zolotaya Loshitskaya, Narodnaya. The pulp is dark red. The taste is juicy, tender, sweet and sour. Dark red juice, the stone is small, well separated from the pulp. The first fruits appear 3 years after planting, ripen in mid-July. Winter hardy. After three years it bears fruit annually, but moderately resistant to fungus.



Cherry Asterisk

Partially self-fertile variety, derived from seedlings of an indefinite Michurin variety. Very tall, large tree, crown of medium density, narrowed upwards. It blooms early, the fruits ripen at the beginning of July. Pollinated by varieties: Seedling No. 1, Wreath, as well as some varieties of sweet cherries. It has large rounded fruits. The taste is very delicate, juicy with dark red pulp, has a refreshing sweet and sour taste. Dark red juice. The fruit bone is large, it separates well from the pulp. A very productive variety. Begins to bear fruit 4 years after planting. Resistant to fungus, winter hardy.



Cherry Lyubskaya

Blooms late; fruits ripen in late July - early August. A low-growing tree, but highly self-fertile. Sufficiently large fruits, bright red, taste satisfactory. Begins to bear fruit as early as 2-3 years after planting. It has an average yield, medium winter hardiness, is highly susceptible to fungus.



Cherry Glubokskaya

Derived from local common cherry. It has a spherical crown and the thickness of the tree is average, so is the height. Self-sterile grade. It blooms early, fruits appear on the 10th of July. Winter-hardy variety. It is pollinated by varieties Seyanets No. 1, Griot Ostgeimsky, as well as varieties of sweet cherries. Dark red large fruits have a sweet and sour taste, the flesh is tender and juicy. Winter-hardy variety, also very resistant to fungus, very productive, bears fruit for 4 years after planting.



Cherry Nord Star

Bred in the USA, a highly self-fertile variety. Small trees with a small crown. Blooms late; fruits ripen in mid-July. Rounded, medium-sized fruits are slightly flattened, dark red in color with juicy, sweet and sour pulp. The small bone can be easily separated from the pulp. Fruiting already 2-3 years after planting. Very highly winter-resistant variety, well adapted to the fungus. Bears fruit annually.



Cherry in Memory of Vavilov

Derived from undefined cherry seedlings. A very large tree with round fruits. The fruits ripen in early July, the pulp is dark red, very juicy, well separated from the stone. Pollinated by varieties of Seedling No. 1, varieties of sweet cherry. Bears fruit for 4 years after planting. Winter hardy, very productive, resistant to fungus.



Cherry Dawn of the Volga region

Hybrid variety from varieties Krasa Severa and Vladimirskaya, medium size with a spherical crown. Bears fruit for 4 years after planting. The fruits ripen in early July, have a juicy dark red pulp, sweet and sour taste. The yield is good, it tolerates the winter well, it is not susceptible to fungus.





How to prune cherries correctly?

For the process to give a result, it is necessary to correctly delete unnecessary branches. There are several types of procedures: sanitary, anti-aging, shaping and others. Each of the types is carried out for a specific purpose at a specific time.

Spring formative pruning

The stages of the shaping procedure carried out in the spring season are different for plants of different ages.

Annual seedlings. The planting stock needs to be adjusted to the height of the center stem.

She is left:

  • 70 cm - in the south of Russia
  • 60 cm - in the regions of the middle lane
  • 40 cm - in the north of the Russian Federation.

If the height after cutting is more than a meter, the crown will be in an inflated position in the future. That is, the crop will have to be harvested in the future at a minimum height of 2 meters. The stem should be formed exclusively in the spring, leaving at least 6 strong buds (for the further development of skeletal branches), the upper part is cut off. The side branches are not touched.

Biennial trees. Leave up to 4 strong shoots on the trunk. The rest are cut completely under the stem. The left branches are shortened to 50 cm. Their arrangement should be even. You also need to cut off the central trunk, leaving 4 buds, from which skeletal shoots of the II level will develop.

Three-year-old seedlings. You will need to complete the process of laying branches of the II-level., And also prune the lower one.

Pruning 3-year-old cherries in spring:

  • trimming all branches of the 1st tier to the length of the weakest
  • removal of shoots of the 1st tier, which began to grow deeper or vertically
  • pruning unnecessary branches of the 2nd level 15 cm shorter than branches of the 1st level
  • cut off the top of the trunk, leaving up to 6 strong points after the last shoot of the 1st tier. They will develop into tier II skeletal branches.

Four-year-old trees.

The formation of the cherry crown ends in the fourth spring after planting:

  • cutting off the top of the trunk after the 3rd level in the place of a weak shoot
  • cut off skeletal branches of the 2nd and 3rd tier to 80 cm, for the 1st tier - leave 60 cm
  • abnormally growing shoots cut off everything.

Features of summer care for the cherry crown

During the hot season, experienced gardeners perform two circumcision procedures:

  1. During the period when the ovary appears. Excess ovary is removed, sanitary pruning is carried out. Sick branches are cut off, as well as those that are not growing properly.
  2. After receiving the harvest, sanitary pruning will again be required, which looks like a cut of damaged branches, cutting out tops. Some gardeners use ropes to pull the tops to the correct angle rather than cutting them out.

Pruning to increase fertility

Several techniques for removing branches and their parts in order to increase the yield of sweet cherries:

  • Cut off all vertical shoots. More nutrition will flow to the horizontal fruiting leads.
  • Replacing trimming by bending. Tie the trunk and malformed shoots to the peg with a rope. After 2 years, there will be a stiffening and acceptance of the correct growth angle. Then the stake must be removed.
  • Use a saw to make several small cuts over the kidneys. Due to this, growth will slow down, and lateral shoots will begin to develop.

Pruning that prevents the cherries from pulling up

Sometimes the horticultural culture begins to stretch up intensively. Harvesting in this case becomes more difficult. Experienced gardeners carry out a special procedure that leads to the creation of a bowl-shaped crown. First, branches that are too raised are cut off, and also grow into the crown.

Such a process will provoke the growth of external branches, the angle of which in relation to the skeletal branches will correspond to the norm. Cutting vertically growing cherry branches will create a wide crown and start the process of accelerating tree growth.

Pruning old wood

Measures for cutting and rejuvenating an old plant should be performed in the absence of rain, frost. It is necessary to cut off all growths that have appeared during the previous 4 years, remove broken, damaged branches.

The places of the cuts are most often covered with garden varnish. With a large area of ​​wounds, you will need to apply a film on them. A correctly done procedure will provoke the growth of young branches, after which the yield is likely to increase.

The term and method of pruning cherries depends on the purpose of the procedure, the age of the tree, and the region where the garden culture grows. A vital activity for a tree requires accuracy and correct approach.


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