Birth of the seas and emerged lands

Birth of the seas and emerged lands

"Then God said," Let the waters that are under the sky gather in one place and let the dry land appear, "and so it was." And God called the dry "earth" and the mass of waters called "seas." (Book of Genesis, 1, 9-10)

In the last issue of Helichrysum, in the Rubric: geology and environment, we have seen how the elements in the gaseous state formed the primordial atmosphere, separating themselves from the other components of the cosmic cloud, which from the beginning has kept the conditions inside indispensable for originating high temperatures.

Outside, after a few hundred million years, a progressive cooling process took place with two clear and irreversible consequences:

in the primordial atmosphere there was the condensation of water vapor and all those substances that were in a gaseous state, because at temperatures above their evaporation point;

on the surface, the material of the cosmic cloud in a fluid state (like lava) was solidifying with a differentiated process as the temperature dropped below the melting point of the various elements, thus creating the first fragile and thin earth's crust.

This is how 4 billion years ago the foundations were laid for all those physical phenomena that man has grouped by necessity into many disciplines such as Meteorology, Geology, Geography, Oceanography, etc.,(not to mention the further subdivisions that go under the name of "specializations"), forced to do so by limitation of his intellectual abilities. Fragmenting knowledge may seem at first glance to facilitate the achievement of truth, but in reality often getting lost in detail makes synthesis difficult for a general vision of the continuous becoming of Nature, characterized by a set of factors that interact with each other.

Unfortunately, there has been no witness from the beginning that could record the large and small events that were simultaneously the cause and effect of the mutations of the Earth. Fortunately, in the absence of chroniclers, everything has been preserved by Nature, not always in a clearly decipherable form, leaving it to man to bring out what has been written for a long time, freeing him from everything that has nothing to do with the Truth. But don't we risk throwing away the Truth too? What to do to avoid it?

It is the same principle that made Michelangelo say that the statues are already inside the block of marble, so the sculptor only has to remove the part of the marble that is foreign to it. But even here how many statues have been damaged or even destroyed?

Let's go back to the early days of the separation of the great kingdoms of the Earth: air, water and land, trying to decipher the scriptures of the Great Book.

Unfortunately, the "front pages" are hard to read and this was to be expected, as these are events that took place so far in thescale of the ages, that is, those great intervals of time in which the history of the Earth has been divided.

But the most striking thing is the observation that the first pages are nothing more than the diary of the first 4 billion years of the Earth, during which very few things have happened when compared to the great mutations, sometimes upsetting, not only for the crust. terrestrial and meteorology, but also for fauna and flora, which occurred in the following 500,000 years, that is, up to our days.

This was the time it took to throw the "foundations"on which to build the world we know.

It is estimated that the life of the Solar System, therefore also of the Earth, will be 10 billion years, so the Earth took 40% of its life to reach the "maturity necessary to welcome the explosion of life".

It is like saying that mankind passes maturity at the age of 30 before being able to face difficulties, changes and everything that leads him to realize what he potentially has within himself from birth.

For the Earth we believe that there is nothing shocking to believe that everything we notice up to now and what will happen in the future was already inherent in the universe at the time of the Big Bang.

Dr. Pio Petrocchi



How was planet Earth formed?

There Land was formed following a large explosion, which takes the name of Big Bang, which occurred about 15 billion years ago.

Following this explosion, a myriad of particles dispersed into space. These incandescent materials have joined together over time to form the stars and the various planets including the Land.

How old is the birth of the Earth?

There birth of the Earth dates back to about 4.5 billion years ago.

How did the earth's crust form?

Our planet was, initially, like an incandescent ball that began, little by little, to cool down to form the Earth's crust.

How were the seas and oceans formed?

The surface of the Earth was covered by volcanoes: the continuous eruptions were the cause of the formation of clouds of steam which caused rains that led to the formation of seas is oceans.

What is meant by the term Pangea?

Scholars claim that, about 200 million years ago, all the land that emerged formed a single large named mass Pangea.

It was surrounded by the sea called Panthalassa.

Over time, Pangea broke up into large blocks of land that separated and formed the present continents.

What were the first forms of life on our planet?

The early life forms appeared in the water of the seas and oceans: they were small living beings unicellular, that is, formed by one cell.

What other forms of life did they later have?

Later they appeared on seabed the first multicellular organisms. It was about algae, sponges, starfish and jellyfish. They were all living invertebrates, that is without skeleton.

Later, always on seabed, the first vertebrate organisms developed, that is equipped with skeleton. They were molluscs, crustaceans and fish.

The life on the mainland appeared only later: they were born mosses and ferns, they spread scorpions, millipedes and insects and some amphibians they abandoned the water to live on the continents.

Subsequently the Earth became populated with dinosaurs, birds and mammals.

The last to make an appearance on Earth was theman.

How have scholars been able to reconstruct the various stages of life on Earth?

Scholars have been able to reconstruct the various stages of life on Earth thanks to the discovery of fossils.

The current face of the planet

This is argued by the study Global human influence maps reveal clear opportunities in conserving Earth's remaining intact terrestrial ecosystems, published in the journal Global change biology and conducted by an international group of researchers led by the National geographic society and the University of California. The researchers analyzed four recently made maps of the conversion of natural areas for anthropogenic uses.

Coronavirus. We must not be afraid of animals, but of what we are doing to their habitats


The Paleozoic was characterized by an impressive development of plant and animal life. While in the Cambrian the plant life was still completely linked to aquatic environments and represented almost exclusively by Schizophytes (Bacteria and Blue Algae) and by Calcareous Algae, in the Silurian there are remains clearly referable to terrestrial vascular plants. In the Devonian Psilophytes spread, already appeared in the Upper Silurian: to flora a Psilophyton, characteristic of marshy and peaty places, are added - already from the middle Devonian - different classes of Pteridophytes with spread of arboreal genera, whose specimens reached considerable heights and dimensions: Filicals, Lycopodials (Lepidodendron, Sigillaria), Equisetali (Annularia, Calamites), etc. The enormous development of the Pteridophytes has led to define the Paleozoic also as the "era of vascular Cryptogams". The colonization of the land by plants was the essential condition for the spread of terrestrial animal life. As for the fauna, the Paleozoic era represents the moment of the complete conquest of the seas by the Vertebrates (era of the Pisces) and of the progressive extension of these organisms also on the mainland with the Amphibians and the Reptiles, while for the dominant Invertebrates are the Graptolites and the Trilobites. Contrary to what has been seen for the flora, the fauna already in the Cambrian is present with numerous species of which over 60% is represented by Trilobites which have a vast geographical diffusion and appear in the facies more varied. Brachiopods are also abundant, while Echinoderms are scarce and Molluscs include only a few primitive forms of Gastropods and Lamellibranchs. Of importance is the presence of the Archaeocyatids which are the oldest organisms that build cliffs and occupy that habitat which will subsequently be dominated by the Coelenterates, starting from the following period, the Silurian. In this the most characteristic organisms are the Graptolites which have a wide geographical diffusion and have evolved very rapidly. Among the Molluscs, the Nautiloid Cephalopods are of considerable stratigraphic importance while scarcely represented are Ammonites, Lamellibranchs and Gastropods. Of this period are also the first definitely terrestrial organisms, that is Scorpions of the genus Paleophonus, found in the Upper Silurian of Sweden, and the first uncertain remains of marine vertebrates (Cyclostomes and Placoderms), which instead have considerable development in the following Devonian period where in addition to the Placoderms, the first representatives of the Actinopterygii appear, such as Cheirolepis, of the Crossopterygians as Osteolepis is Holoptychius, and of the Dipnoi, as Dipterus. The remains of the most ancient representatives of the Amphibians date back to the Upper Devonian, such as theIchtyostega, a primitive specimen of stegocephalus. Also in the Devonian the continental faunas are represented by the Euripterids, Merostomes Arthropods with large shapes: the GigantostraciEurypterus is Pterygotus. As far as the marine fauna is concerned, in the Devonian the Graptolites almost completely disappeared while among the Molluscs the Nautiloids are in decline and the Ammonites represented mainly by the Goniatites are in great development. In the Carboniferous the marine fauna does not show significant variations with respect to that of the previous periods except for the significant role assumed by the Foraminifera which for the first time became widespread and reached dimensions up to a few centimeters. They are represented by the Fusulinids, some genera of which had a benthic life, while others (Schwagerina) were planktonic. For the continental fauna the variety of representatives of the Arthropods increases: Ostracods, Myriapods, Arachnids abound, while Orthoptera and Neuropoptera are relatively widespread among the Insects. The Naiadids have a significant stratigraphic importance among the freshwater molluscs. Amphibians have a good diffusion, for the most part Labyrinthodons. Significant is, towards the end of the period, the appearance of the first Reptiles, with morphologically very similar forms to the Labyrinthodons (Eosauravus copei, of the Pennsylvanian of the United States). In the Permian the fauna shows few variations compared to the Carboniferous, except for the Foraminifera where in the Fusulinids there is a progressive extreme specialization that is a prelude to their disappearance at the end of the Paleozoic era. The Trilobites, already in decline since the Silurian, disappear in the lower Permian. Among the Vertebrates the Stegocefali Amphibians persist while the Reptiles present an extraordinary development with adaptive differentiation to both continental and marine environments, a premise to their vast diffusion in the subsequent Mesozoic era. Particularly significant are the Seimuriamorfi (forms of transition from the class of the Amphibians), the Rincocepali, the Protosauri, the Cotylosaurs, the Tecodonti and the Teromorfi.

But how many continents are there today?

It almost seems like a rhetorical question, yet even today it is not easy to answer this very simple question: how many continents are there today? Nowadays, scholars are still divided on this concept, but not because it is difficult to identify and quantify the number of emerged and separated lands, but because it depends on what is the perspective from which the situation is observed. From a purely geographical and morphological point of view, the continents are understood as the emerged lands surrounded by the oceans: they are therefore identified 4 namely America, Antarctica, Europe-Asia-Africa (Eurafrasia) and Oceania. However, many disagree in stating that there are only 4 continents: to date, the most widespread model is that of 6 continents, which takes into consideration the number of lands inhabited by man and does not adhere to purely geographical criteria. In this sense, in fact, the continents would be America, Europe, Africa, Asia, Antarctica and Oceania. Europe and Asia, however, are not separate ...Keep reading

The footprint of man on 80% of the land emerged

If we exclude glaciers, four-fifths of the land masses show more or less profound signs of human influence: just 20% of the planet is saved.

If we talk about land, our planet is now almost completely colonized and transformed by man (anthropized): Excluding the most extreme environments, from the deepest caves to the peaks of the mountains, it is very difficult to find a corner of the earth's surface that does not bear the signs of human activity. To understand exactly how ubiquitous our footprint is on the planet, a group of researchers from the Davis headquarters of the University of California and other leading US research institutes conducted a comparative analysis on four different maps, drawn up between 2009 and 2015. , which show the extent of human influence on the globe. The analysis made it possible to calculate that barely 20% of the land is "free".

Ice excluded. The team, coordinated by Jason Riggio (National Geographic Society), combined the data of the four different maps and defined subdivisions of the earth's surface based on the presence or absence of man in particular, the researchers defined "areas with very low influence "all those areas in which man is absent (or in which indigenous peoples live) and which are not exploited for commercial purposes - the wilderness, therefore, and those where man is present, but not in an invasive and did not leave its mark. The calculation excluded that 10% of the earth's surface which is covered by ice, from Antarctica to a large part of Greenland, passing through the glaciers that still remain, and the result is that the percentage of the earth's surface where there is an "influence very low human "is between 20 and 30%.

A bad flu. Another percentage between 48 and 56% is that occupied by areas with low human influence, that is, those where our activity is present but still manageable (for example the countryside areas where livestock and subsistence agriculture is still practiced) . What remains is instead highly anthropized. It is also interesting to discover the distribution of these areas: most of those with very low influence are cold, arid or at very high altitudes, while only 10% of grasslands and forests show little or no human presence. The goal of this mapping is not just curiosity: the salvation of the planet also passes through the conservation of our ecosystems, and the first to act on are, according to the authors, precisely those with low human influence.

INTERVIEW | Medicamentosa: the flooding of the emerged lands

Flood, the EP of Bruno Mari, aka Medicamentous is a concept dedicated to the dystopian vision of a flooding of the emerged lands as the next vision of this planet Earth that is slowly dying under a bio-chemical and social collapse. There are numerous musical rehearsals that in this period turn their attention to social problems of various kinds and ours Medicamentous is not far behind. Flood it is made up of shameless 80s sintering, with these digital matrices ranging from funk to more relaxed and dreamy lysergic visions. As a watershed between these two worlds we find the single We will have wings and gills of which we have also presented the launch video. A video that in its aesthetics will surely divide the public and the critics but which in it, as a worthy border line between the two main faces of this work, contains all the recipe and the stylistic code of Flood, from the use of voices to the 80's groove choices. And the sensations it leaves are truly lysergic. Have a good listening ...

Let me start from an ecological aspect. The FLOOD. The drowned ending of this land emerged. In your opinion, what role does music play in raising awareness of the social issue?
Music for me has had a very important role in raising awareness on certain issues and certain arguments. I grew up listening to Dylan, System of a Down, Ministri, Teatro degli Orrori, De Andrè… many artists who also formed me from a social point of view. From this point of view, my music is not particularly powerful. More than a sensitization, I see the uncovering of a very personal sensitivity on fears and hopes regarding natural disasters.

And specifically, what are the music of Bruni Mari and of this new Ep trying to do? As long as you somehow embrace my point of view from which to start the analysis ...
Here, what I try to do is more than anything else to see this issue in a different way from the rational and negative way and to try to dream of a world in which climate change is not just a damage but a kind of opportunity. In a certain sense, our being part of nature means that we will adapt, in one way or another. The important thing is to be aware of it. This EP is also an awareness, I think.

Yet your music is more inspired, perhaps, by the sensations, memories, trauma that such a revolution would produce. So a record more about man and spirituality than geological and political issues ... right?
That's right, I don't go straight to the issue. I face my feelings and my drives. Which could be those of other human beings of my time.

A curiosity: a writing totally free from patterns and points of reference which communication channel does it use? That is: if I saw something else while listening to a song that you may have dedicated to a place dear to you? Because it could happen ...
Yes, in this regard I don't think it's an easy record to internalize, because it's very personal. However, I believe that it is beautiful and curious how the pieces change in the ears and in the heads of others and therefore I have no problem letting them change into something else. The communication channel is audiovisual, and even in live shows I suggest images through video projections.

We know the name and aesthetics of Bruno Mari. Of Medicamentosa we know the sound and the writing. Who do you look like who?
Medicamentosa has been Bruno Mari until today. This disc is meant to be a point of detachment, to separate the two entities. Of course, I will still do pieces with Medicamentosa but more and more inclusive towards other artists and other musicians.

Let me tell you that the video of We will have wings and gills she is blatantly amateur. It is not a criticism but a way to ask yourself: is this intentionally so?
Yes, it is deliberately so. I started from the idea of ​​making a video like Don't stop til you get enough of Michael Jackson. The idea was that 30 years ago a video like this could have seemed innovative, fascinating. Absolutely not today. This is the idea behind Vaporwave, the irony towards the idea of ​​the future in the past. In the video I also ironic about my figure, clumsy and unsightly, the opposite of MJ. And it is so beautiful. It's mine".

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