Description of Victoria grapes, planting and cultivation features

There are many grape varieties with characteristic features. For beginners, it is better to grow unpretentious varieties that react painlessly to mistakes in the cultivation process. Victoria grapes, even with non-observance of agricultural technology, gives good yields, and with the right approach to cultivation, they are able to thank them with decent quality berries.

The history of growing the Victoria grape variety

The Victoria grape was developed several decades ago. The variety was obtained by Russian breeders as a result of crossing the following grape species: Vitis amurensis and Vitis vinifera with the Seiv Vilar 12–304 variety. Victoria is an early table variety. To better understand what this grape is, it is worth taking a closer look at its characteristics, planting and care features.

Description of the Victoria grape variety

Victoria grapes are conventionally divided into several varieties that belong to the same group:

  • Pink Victoria. The fruits are characterized by a purple-pink color and large size. The bushes are distinguished by their fruitfulness, they have an average height. It is possible to harvest up to 60 kg of the crop from one shrub.

    Pink Victoria has a purple-pink color and large berry sizes

  • White Victoria. This variety is early ripening. The grapes are characterized by good resistance to major diseases. The fruits are yellow-green in color and medium in size. The weight of the bunches is about 500 g. A distinctive feature of the grapes is their high frost resistance (up to -27˚C).

    Belaya Victoria has a yellow-green color, medium size and is resistant to major diseases

  • Romanian Victoria. Despite its early ripening, Victoria of this variety does not ripen evenly. As a result, one bunch may contain white, pink and yellow berries. The brush is formed quite large, up to 1 kg. Due to the loose fit of the fruits to each other, voids are formed inside the bunch. Fruiting in this variety is regular and abundant.

    Victoria Romanian berries can be white, pink and yellow

If we consider the Victoria grapes as a whole, then this variety is unpretentious to the climatic features of the cultivation region. It can be cultivated even in Siberia or the middle zone. The variety has an attractive appearance and harmonious taste. When the harvest is fully ripe, the berries acquire a nutmeg hue. The skin has a moderate density, the pulp is juicy and moderately elastic. The branches on the bush are quite powerful and elastic, which excludes breaking off under the weight of the crop.

Saplings of the variety in question almost always root successfully. Ripening of fruits begins quite early and can be 115–120 days from the moment the buds open. The berry can be white, pink, or reddish purple. Its dimensions are about 25 mm long and 21 mm wide. The average weight of the berries is about 5-6 g, and the shape is close to egg-shaped.

Video: features of Victoria grapes

Characteristics of the Victoria grape variety

Victoria, without exaggeration, refers to the neat and attractive grape varieties. The bush is endowed with a well-developed rhizome, but has an average size and growth rate, that is, the shoots develop slowly. The average yield per bush is about 50 kg. Victoria's bunches are of medium size, cylindrical in shape, characterized by a low density of berries. The weight of the brush reaches 500–700 g, but it happens even more.

Large clusters can be collected from plants that have been bearing fruit for more than one year. Despite the uniform ripening of the bunches, you should not rush to collect them. A longer stay of the brush on the bush contributes to the acquisition of better taste. Since the flowers of the Victoria variety are female, pollination from other varieties with bisexual flowers is necessary to obtain a harvest. In addition, the variety has a tendency to peas, since the fruits can be small in size.

Victoria grapes are capable of producing bountiful harvests on those plants that have been bearing fruit for more than one year.

Features of planting and cultivation of Victoria grape varieties

The future harvest directly depends on the quality of the planting material. This suggests that close attention should be paid to the choice of seedlings.

How to choose a seedling

A good quality seedling should be brown and about 20 cm long. There should be fresh and green wood under the bark, which is easy to recognize by picking out the skin of the cutting with your fingernail. You should also pay attention to the roots: they should not have growths and thickenings. A developed root system will contribute to better plant survival in a new place. It is quite easy to check the condition of the roots. To do this, it is enough to pinch off a part of the root process with a pruner. If the cut is white and moist, then the seedling has a good root system. If the roots have a black or brown structure, then the planting material is considered unsuitable for planting. It is also worth examining the buds on the handle: when pressing on the eyes, they should not fall off or peel off.

A high-quality grape seedling must have a well-developed root system, which will contribute to a good engraftment and development of the plant.

Grape planting time

Victoria grapes, like any other horticultural crop, can be planted in spring or fall. However, some growers are of the opinion that autumn planting is more preferable. This is due to the fact that during the spring procedure, some seedlings take root worse and enter fruiting much later. For autumn planting, the end of October is considered the best time.

Planting grapes Victoria

Since Victoria belongs to heat-loving plants, it is better to choose places protected from drafts, with good lighting and fertile land for planting this variety. The planting site is prepared a few days before the intended planting of the seedling, and preferably a month. A hole is dug under the plant with the following dimensions: 0.8 m wide and 1 m deep. A drainage layer of rubble 5 cm thick is laid at the bottom of the pit, after which fertile soil 10 cm thick is poured over. 2 buckets of humus are poured over the soil and again a fertile layer. Humus is rotted manure, that is, it has been lying under the open sky for several years. Garden soil can be used as fertile soil. After filling the pit with components, all layers are mixed.

Having dug a hole under the seedling, filling it and mixing all the components, plant the plant

When the planting site is prepared, they dig a hole according to the size of the root system of the seedling and lower the planting material into it, filling it with soil and lightly tamping it. The seedling is deepened to the level of the root collar. Since grapes propagate by cuttings, the plant does not have a root collar. Therefore, it is believed that it is conventionally located above the roots. After planting, the seedling is watered with 2-3 buckets of water. To eliminate the inclination of the plant, a wooden peg can be dug into the ground, to which the seedling is tied. At the end of the work, the soil is mulched, for example, with straw or sawdust, which will ensure a better supply of oxygen to the roots of the plant. The distance between the seedlings should be 1.5–3 m.

Since grapes, as such, do not have a root collar, it is believed that it is conditionally located above the roots.

Victoria Grape Care

Caring for Victoria grapes after planting consists in carrying out such agrotechnical procedures as loosening, watering, pruning, feeding. Particular attention should be paid to care in the first 3-4 years after planting, since the culture is still developing during this time. Regular loosening of the soil and removal of weeds near the bush will provide not only better breathing, but also the supply of more nutrients to the roots.

Grapes love moist soil, so you should not forget about watering, but waterlogging should also not be allowed. It is recommended to combine watering with fertilization. Top dressing contributes to the good development of the plant and an increase in the future yield. The nutrients are added in the following sequence:

  1. The first feeding is carried out in the spring when the temperature is set at + 16˚С. As fertilizers, you can use superphosphate (20 g), potassium salt (5 g) and ammonium nitrate (10 g), which are diluted in a bucket of water and watered at the root at the rate of 10 liters per one bush.
  2. The second feeding is carried out with potassium and phosphorus in a ratio of 1: 2 during the formation of the ovary. About 30 g of the mixture is consumed per bucket of water.
  3. With active ripening of berries, nutrients are added, consisting of potassium sulfate (25 g) and superphosphate (50 g), which are also dissolved in a bucket of water. The finished solution is poured over the plant at the root.

Video: feeding grapes with organic fertilizers

An important procedure is also pruning, which is carried out every autumn, removing all unnecessary things that have grown over the summer. The formation of the vine improves the development of the bush, contributes to the timely ripening of the crop. In addition, the branches are tied up. This procedure is necessary to prevent the branches from breaking off under the weight of the bunches, which become heavier as they ripen. Despite the fact that Victoria grapes are frost-resistant varieties, it is still recommended to warm them for the winter. As materials, you can use cloth, spruce branches, or just dry soil.

Features of the cultivation of Victoria

The Victoria grape is a fast growing variety. Literally 2-3 years after planting, you can get the first harvest. Due to the fact that the variety is endowed with a tendency to crack berries, watering should be carried out correctly. When the crop begins to ripen, which usually happens in August, artificial watering is completely stopped, but only if it rains periodically. If the weather is dry, then moderate watering is still required. Otherwise, after precipitation, there will be a sharp jump in moisture in the soil, which will lead to cracking of the skin on the berries. If the summer is rainy, it is recommended to install a canopy over the vineyard. Thus, it will be possible to control soil moisture.

Grapes love moist soil, but excess moisture should be avoided

In addition to the main dressings, which are applied during the growing season, Victoria can be fertilized with microelements in a chelated form on the leaf, i.e. foliar method, for example, Reakom. This increases the plant's resistance to diseases, improves the taste of the fruit. Chelated fertilizers are the most digestible form of nutrients and are used primarily for micronutrient supplementation. To obtain a beautiful and full-bodied bunch, experienced growers resort to this technique: with the help of a paint brush, comb out the bunch at the beginning of the berry growth. This procedure allows you to remove underdeveloped, as well as weak and damaged ovaries. At first, a thinned bunch does not look very attractive, but as the fruit grows, it acquires a beautiful appearance.

The Victoria grape variety is prone to decay and damage to bunches by wasps. This suggests the need to remove the lower brushes, since you will not get a crop from them, but only contribute to the development of diseases and create insect bait. To protect the shrub from wasps, it is recommended to plant spicy herbs nearby, cover the bunches with gauze or mesh bags. During the ripening of the berries, you need to inspect the bunches and remove those on which there are cracked fruits.

To protect grapes from wasps and birds, use a special mesh in the form of bags

Victoria Disease

When considering the Victoria grape variety, it is worth mentioning the diseases to which the plant can be exposed, as well as the preventive measures. Among the most common diseases are:

  • Powdery mildew. It manifests itself in the form of dark dots on the leaves and spots on the shoots.
  • Gray rot. The berries become wrinkled, a white bloom appears on them. For prevention purposes, the culture is sprayed with an iodine-based solution.
  • White rot. A fungal disease that occurs as a result of exposure to sunlight or hail. It appears as white mold on foliage and berries.
  • Chlorosis. The appearance of the disease is indicated by pale leaves, which acquire a dull yellowish tint. The problem is caused by a disruption in the process of photosynthesis. For treatment, iron-containing drugs are used.
  • Black spot. Leaves fade, black dots appear. The fruit also darkens and the taste deteriorates. Treatment consists in removing the affected parts of the plant.

One of the diseases that can affect Victoria is leaf chlorosis.

To prevent the onset and development of diseases, Victoria grapes are recommended to be treated with special preparations during the ripening period. These include ferrous sulfate, Bordeaux liquid, Ridomil (contact and systemic fungicide), Tsineb (has a systemic and contact effect on pathogens). Treatment with systemic fungicides is carried out in the spring before bud break, after the formation of berries and in the autumn after harvest. Contact fungicides are used in case of prolonged rains, as well as after heavy fog and rain, i.e. at high humidity.

Gardeners reviews

Despite the existing disadvantages, the Victoria grape is a fairly popular table variety among both beginners and experienced winegrowers. In order not to give up this variety, you have to resort to different methods of protecting and caring for the plant. The main inconvenience is associated with the need to plant a pollinator.

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