← Read part 1. Sowing seeds and growing seedlings of cucumbers
1. You can not overfeed cucumbers with nitrogen fertilizers. They will "fatten", bloom only with male flowers.
2. The taste of a cucumber depends on the conditions in which it grows. If the plant is bad: there is little sun, moisture, or too hot and humid, then the development of greenery is delayed. At this time, bitterness begins to accumulate in it.
Therefore, if bitter cucumbers have gone, you need to find out what is holding back their growth. If the weather is cold, cover the bed with plastic wrap. Never water your cucumbers with cold water. This alone can cause unwanted taste. Bitter cucumbers, if they still work out, should not be thrown away. When salted or pickled, the bitterness disappears.
3. If the cucumbers look like a question mark or a pear, this is a signal that they are missing something. For example, if you notice that the fruits are like balls, and sharply narrow towards the opposite end, then they do not have enough nitrogen. Feed them mullein (1 part to 8 parts water). You can, of course, and a solution of urea (no more than a matchbox for 10 liters of water). And if the cucumbers look like a pear, then you need to feed them with potassium (potassium sulfate). It is also good for potash starvation to sprinkle wood ash on the beds (in fact, this is useful for cucumbers for many reasons).
4. If the cucumbers went with constrictions, ugly, twisted, it means that the temperature in the greenhouse is too high (above 33 ° C), and the humidity is low (below 55%). Therefore, you need to monitor the watering of the cucumbers and the ventilation of the greenhouse.
In principle, there are no special tricks in this matter. However, let me remind you, just in case, of some features:
- The shoots are tied vertically to the supports located in the upper part of the greenhouse and should be distributed in such a way that the top of any shoot is always as illuminated as possible; the lack of light reaching the top of the plant is one of the reasons for the sterility of the pollen of future flowers. As a result, these flowers will not give cucumbers.
- When the lashes reach the upper part of the support for further growth, they are directed vertically downward, and in no case along the horizontally located support of the greenhouse; if you direct the whip horizontally, then with its leaves it will cover the entire light space from above. This will lead to a sharp decrease in the illumination of plants, and as a result, to a decrease in yield.
Cucumber plant it is imperative to form, pinch the shoots, tk. the rapid growth of the stems will only weaken the plant, and instead of fruits there will be only yellowed ovaries. The first rule for the formation of cucumber hybrids is to remove the ovaries and lateral lashes from the first four leaves. They do this due to the fact that otherwise the first zelentsy take all the food on themselves and thereby take away precious summer time. As a result, a week or two passes, and there is not even a trace of a powerful vegetative mass. Its presence is one of the main conditions for the future formation of the crop. In the future, you should pinch each side lash over the second or third sheet. This option of pinching the side strings will lead to the formation of a crop not only on the main trunk, but also on each remaining section of any side string.
In cucumber plants, the most optimal cut is, of course, all yellowed leaves, as well as those leaves that are located below the fruiting zone. In this case, the leaves should be cut not until the first greenery, but a little less, leaving 2-3 leaves before it. The leaves in the fruiting part of the whip do not bring absolutely any benefit, at the same time absorbing their share of nutrients and creating unnecessary shade. In addition, they prevent the resumption of fruiting in this part of the lash. Removal of leaves below the fruiting zone leads to its renewal in this part of the lash due to the appearance of new lateral shoots. Using this technique, you will forget about what the phrase known among gardeners means: "the cucumbers have moved away." With this technology, modern hybrids can intensively bear fruit until the end of September, until night frosts lead to the death of plants.
All the hybrids mentioned above are referred to as the intensive type hybrids. This means that they require fractional application of increased doses of fertilizers and at the same time please us with a huge harvest. Fractional fertilization takes place through a series of continuous fertilizing.
The first three weeks after planting are usually sufficient for plants introduced into the soil in advance. fertilizers... And only then you should start regular feeding, and at the same time do not be lazy. A delay with just one of them can lead to the fact that the cucumbers on a certain tier simply do not tie up.
I recommend feeding once a week. At the same time, it is impossible to give a certain standard scheme, since cucumbers are extremely sensitive to the lack of any nutrient, and soils, as you know, are different for everyone. It is most reasonable to alternate top dressing with a complex fertilizer like Kemira with top dressing with mullein and parallel sprinkling of the entire soil with ash and top dressing with potassium sulfate, because the need for potassium in thermophilic plants increases significantly under unfavorable conditions.
In general, it is worth noting that feeding cucumber plants with weak solutions of nitrogen fertilizers, unlike the general majority of other vegetable crops, can be carried out until the end of the growing season. The only thing to remember: this should be done only if you detect signs of nitrogen starvation on the plants themselves (otherwise, nitrates may accumulate in the fruits).
It is worth noting one very important point. Highly productive cucumber hybrids are very finicky in terms of nutrition (much more finicky than the same tomatoes). And if, due to your own absence at the right time in the garden, or simply due to ignorance, you cannot recognize what your pets lack and take action quickly, then the next wave of ovaries will not pollinate, and the cucumbers themselves will begin to mope. Therefore, it is much safer to switch from the previously adopted option of fractional feeding to feeding through fertilizers with long-term exposure (in Russia, such fertilizers include APIONs).
They will not have any "headaches" about what is missing again, and there is no need to carry out additional fertilizing - it is enough to put an APION-30 sachet under each future cucumber bush to a depth of 10-12 cm when planting. All that remains is to water regularly. Or, you can significantly save on the purchase of fertilizers if you place APIONs not under each bush, but between them (after all, the root system of cucumbers is very large, and the roots will reach for food without problems), for example, in the middle between four bushes, only then will you need APION- 100.
In recent decades, cucumbers have developed a host of additional diseases that gardeners had not even heard of 50 years ago. I will try to list the difficulties associated with the main diseases, which you need to know in advance, so that when you come to your garden one weekend, you will not see the almost dead plants that a week ago delighted you with their wonderful foliage. So, the following cucumber problems should be kept in mind.
1. Cucumbers are highly susceptible to root rot... For prophylactic purposes, to combat this disease, plants are watered with a solution of trichodermine (you can simply add it to the soil, but then there will be a very large consumption of the drug). However, the harvest will become simply "golden" if you continue to water the cucumbers with this preparation until the end of the growing season. Therefore, you should take some precautions. Firstly, water should not be allowed to enter the root collar and near it: watering should be carried out at some distance from the root collar. Secondly, the area of the root collar should be periodically sprinkled with crushed coal, especially in cold and humid weather (here it is better to overdo it than to pull out then the dead plants, which suddenly withered instantly).
2. In hot weather, cucumber plants are attacked spider mite... It is quite simple to determine that this pest has visited you: small punctures are visible on the affected leaves, and the leaves themselves become, as it were, parchment. The most effective and safest way to combat it is Fitoverm. Usually one spraying is enough and the cucumbers will come to life again. In case of severe damage, it should be sprayed twice. It is necessary to spray not only the upper part of the leaf and stems, but also very carefully the lower part, because the vast majority of pest individuals are located precisely on the lower side of the leaf. Attention! Before spraying, leaves with a very strong degree of damage must be removed and burned. This is done in order to slightly reduce the number of the pest. Do not be afraid of this drug: it decomposes extremely quickly, and after two days you can harvest the fruits.
3. Almost in any summer (naturally, it is stronger in cool and rainy) plants are affected by powdery mildew or downy mildew. Olive spotting is also possible. Against all these diseases, it is imperative to carry out preventive spraying 1 time in 10-14 days with the drug "Immunocytofit" (1 tablet per 2 liters of water). This will save you from the early appearance of diseases and increase the defenses of plants. I advise you to start treating with this drug from about mid-July with an interval of two weeks, and even earlier in a cold rainy summer. The drug is absolutely harmless to humans, so greens can be collected on the day of processing (although I prefer to play it safe once again and start collecting only the next day).
The unpredictability of the weather often ruins the young vegetable plants that we grow with such care. Moreover, it is often not the aboveground part that freezes, but simply the roots are very cooled, which in cucumbers are even more sensitive to low temperatures.
And for this, negative temperatures are not needed at all - with the same success, cucumbers can die with the usual temperature decrease to 3 ... 6 ° С. The reason is that at low temperatures the roots of plants do not freeze, but lose their ability to function normally. Therefore, on the one hand, it turns out that it is better not too early to sow cucumbers, but on the other hand, our fruiting period is already too limited. And, besides, in June, the body, which suffered from a deficiency of vitamins during the long winter and spring, will not harm the fresh cucumbers at all.
Therefore, you have to plant them earlier. And this automatically means that there will be constant anxiety about how cucumbers will cope with this or that cold night, and the need for a whole range of preventive measures. In addition, there are agrotechnical methods of increasing the cold resistance of cucumber recognized in practice. Here is some of them.
1. Presowing hardening of seeds. Seeds (non-germinated) in a damp cloth are placed in a refrigerator for 2 days and kept at a temperature of 0 ° C, after which they are immediately sown. The matter should be kept moist all the time. The event is quite dangerous (if the seeds hatch, they will inevitably die; they will also die at a lower temperature), although if all the requirements are met, it gives good results.
2. Cultivation of cucumber on steam beds allows planting in unheated greenhouses even from the end of April (subject to additional shelters and films) or from the beginning of May. In this case, two weeks before planting seedlings or sowing seeds, fill in the greenhouse the entire surface with a biofuel layer of at least 30 cm (as a rule, this is fresh non-frozen manure, straw, sawdust, house debris and leaves with lime), which is then covered with a soil layer in 15 cm with the addition of complex mineral fertilizers. After that, the ridges are spilled with hot water. It should be noted that cucumber plants, in which the root system is in normal temperature conditions due to heated biofuel, can tolerate air temperature drops to +1 ... + 5 ° С for 1-2 days.
3. Mulching cucumber ridges with transparent plastic wrap. For this, an old, worn-out film is useful. The growth rate of cucumbers in this case increases significantly, because they are very sensitive to soil temperature.
4. In the case of sowing seeds, covering areas of soil with crops also with an additional film, which, of course, is removed when seedlings appear.
5. Formation inside the greenhouse of additional greenhouses with arcs, which are initially covered with a film, because under the film, the temperature is slightly higher, and then when the air temperature rises - with a thick covering material. The air gap formed in this case between the glass of the greenhouse and the film of the inner greenhouse will work according to the principle of a thermos, and inside the greenhouse, i.e. in the immediate vicinity of cucumbers, it will be much warmer. An even better result is obtained if you sow seeds not in a greenhouse, but in a heated greenhouse, in which, along with mulching, arcs are installed inside - the fact is that a small space of a greenhouse with biofuel heats up faster and better than a rather large air space of a greenhouse.
6. Grafting of a cucumber on a cold-resistant stock - pumpkin. The most rational is the "injection in a shot". Sowing of the stock should be carried out 4-5 days later than the scion (but this is in my case, because the seeds of my pumpkin sprout steadily on the second or third day). Usually, experts recommend planting a stock (i.e. pumpkin) 2-3 days later.
Apparently, the planting time should be chosen individually, based on the germination rate of a specific pumpkin and specific watermelons and melons. It is better to take a stock with one real leaf. For better fusion of components, it is preferable to maintain a temperature of 25 ... 30 ° C at this time. To get a good vaccine, you need to practice first.
7. Increase cold resistance by soaking seeds and spraying plants with Epin stimulants and microelements, and the use of humic preparations.
Read part 3. Prolongation of fruiting cucumbers, harvesting
Svetlana Shlyakhtina, Yekaterinburg
Since potassium permanganate is a potassium salt of manganese acid, it is an excellent plant fertilizer. When using a solution of this pharmaceutical preparation, potassium and manganese will be supplied to the cucumbers.
By the appearance of cucumbers, you can easily understand which element the plant lacks. If the cucumber plantings receive an insufficient amount of potassium, then the leaves acquire a dark green color and deform, and a yellow stripe appears along the edge. The ovaries fall. If an element is missing during fruiting, then the vegetables acquire an irregular shape.
With a lack of potassium for the plant, cucumbers become very susceptible to diseases and pests. They do not respond well to temperature changes. With a sufficient amount of elements, beautiful, juicy crispy vegetables grow.
Manganese solution is used as an excellent organic fertilizer, which, with regular use (watering), stabilizes the growth of cucumber lashes.
Top dressing with potassium permanganate for cucumbers has a number of advantages:
Feeding can be combined with disease prevention. To do this, brilliant green, hydrogen peroxide or boric acid are added to a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Potassium permanganate is taken in small quantities. Concentrated formulations can burn plants.
For fertilization, take 3 g of the substance and dilute in a bucket (10 l) of water. Water each bush near the root at a distance of 6-7 cm from the stem. After fertilizing (when the earth dries up), the soil is loosened. For each square, about 5 liters of the prepared product are consumed. No more than 5 dressings are carried out with an interval of 20 days.
A solution of potassium permanganate is very useful for cucumbers in the greenhouse and in the open field. It is easy to use such a drug due to its cheapness and availability, but you need to do it very carefully. If you do not follow the instructions and prepare a concentrated solution, then you can easily burn the plant, and not strengthen it.
Fertilize cucumbers with organic fertilizers in combination with mineral fertilizers. Plants need nutrients such as nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. They are the basis of the nutrient mixture for good growth and fruiting of cucumbers. With the right combination of these components and adherence to the fertilizing calendar, the result in terms of the yield of cucumbers will be maximum.
Nitrogen is essential for cucumbers at any stage of growth - from seedling to fruiting. When the cucumbers bloom and the first ovaries appear, they need phosphorus. And during active fruiting, in addition to nitrogen fertilizers, apply potash fertilizers.
Pity, there is not a single gardener who would not grow cucumbers and tomatoes on his plot. Did you underfeed them or overfeed them - you can no longer see even pimpled sweet cucumbers and round, shining ripe juicy sides of tomatoes. And since most of the Tagil gardeners have already planted seedlings of cucumbers and tomatoes for permanent residence - in hotbeds, greenhouses, then it's time to talk about feeding home-grown vegetables, says our permanent consultant, specialist of the city garden center "Friday" Vasily GRISHKOV.
Types and forms
For the entire summer season, it is enough for cucumber bushes to carry out three or four dressings. Tomatoes in this regard are more demanding, they need to be fed at least once every two to three weeks.
As a rule, we use fertilizing with mineral and organic fertilizers. According to the method of introduction, they can be root and foliar. Each summer resident himself will choose the type and form of feeding or their alternation, but some general approaches must be taken into account by everyone.
Root dressing is suitable for warm summers. Then the root system of cucumbers is well developed and feeding goes "with a bang". They are advised to be carried out after rain or heavy watering. The best time is evening or on a cloudy, cool day.
Foliar dressing will be useful when the summer is cold and the weather is cloudy. Roots in cold weather will not cope with the assimilation of food. But spraying the leaves will be just what you need. It is very important that the nutrient solution is sprayed in small droplets and evenly. The longer it stays on the leaves, the more necessary substances the plant will have time to assimilate.
The first top dressing is 15 days after planting. The second is at the beginning of flowering. The third is during mass fruiting. The fourth is also during the fruiting period. Its purpose is to extend the fruiting period of cucumber lashes and make it more abundant.
By the way, there is an opinion: if cucumbers grow beautifully and bear fruit, then you should not overdo it with feeding, you can limit yourself to just one or two.
Experienced summer residents offer many great options. Based on the already tested recipe, you can choose the most successful "selection" for your soil, weather conditions and wallet.
First feeding (organic): fresh chicken (or quail) droppings at a concentration of 1:15. Use freshly prepared. Slurry at a concentration of 1: 8, cow or horse manure - 1: 6, infusion of green grass - 1: 5.
Mineral fertilizers: one tablespoon of urea plus 60 grams of superphosphate per 10 liters of water.
Second feeding (organic): infusion of green grass at a concentration of 1: 5.
Mineral fertilizers: 20 grams of potassium nitrate + 30 grams of ammonium nitrate + 40 grams of superphosphate.
Foliar dressing: 35 grams of superphosphate per 10 liters of water. One teaspoon of boric acid plus 10-12 crystals of potassium permanganate per liter of water. Or two grams of boric acid plus 100 grams of sugar per liter of hot water (spray to attract pollinating insects).
Third feeding (organic): green fertilizer at a concentration of 1: 5.
Mineral fertilizers: 25-30 grams of potassium nitrate per 10 liters of water 50 grams of urea per 10 liters of water a glass of ash per 10 liters of water.
Foliar dressing: 10-12 grams of urea per 10 liters of water.
Fourth feeding (organic): two-day infusion of rotten hay.
Mineral fertilizers: 28-30 grams of baking soda for 10 liters of water, a glass of ash for 10 liters of water.
Foliar dressing: 15 grams of urea per 10 liters of water.
Ash feeding is considered a very effective remedy at any stage of cucumber growth. It is believed that it can be applied every 7-10 days all the time until fruiting ends.
... and for tomatoes
During the flowering and fruiting period, you need to feed the tomatoes with a solution prepared for 10 liters of water: 15 grams of ammonium nitrate, 50-60 grams of superphosphate, 30-40 grams of potassium chloride. This amount of nutrient mixture is calculated for approximately ten plants.
Weakened plants, in addition, it is good to feed with an aqueous solution of bird droppings (1:10), mullein (1: 5), slurry (1: 4).
During flowering, fruit formation in tomatoes can be improved. Since tomatoes are self-pollinating plants, you need to shake the flowering brushes periodically. This should be done daily, preferably in the middle of the day. At the very beginning of fruiting, it is good to sprinkle the soil with ash at the rate of three to four tablespoons per square meter. Then the soil must be loosened and watered well. This will be another top dressing that stimulates fruit set.
At the very beginning of August, you need to pinch the tops of the fruiting shoots. This will speed up the formation and ripening of the fruit. Usually the pinching is carried out between the third and fourth hands.
What is missing?
If the cucumbers start to taste bitter, then they lack moisture or they were affected by sudden changes in night and day temperatures. It is necessary to provide abundant watering with warm, settled water, not only at the root, but also over the entire area of the garden.
If the shape of the cucumbers resembles a light bulb (narrowing in the area of the stalk) or a hook, then there is not enough potassium. It is necessary to add ash spraying and watering to the diet - 1 liter each at the root. You can also spray with a prescription potassium phosphate solution: 1 teaspoon per liter of water.
If the cucumbers are narrowed at the tip but thickened at the stem, this indicates a lack of nitrogen. Thinned cucumber lashes, leaves that have become smaller than usual, light, even whitish (and not bright green) cucumbers also speak about nitrogen starvation. Here organic matter will come to the rescue: it is recommended to water with a solution of a mullein 1:10, a liter at the root.
If you find it difficult to determine which element your cucumbers lack, it is best to feed them with complex fertilizers with microelements. And a complex - it is a complex: the necessary element will find its client itself.
Hello dear friends!
The introduction of nutrients into the soil during the period of plant development is an important agricultural technique for increasing yields. Planting cucumbers consume a fairly large amount of minerals (macro- and microelements) from the soil. There are many generations of vegetable growers tested in practice folk recipes for feeding cucumbers in the beds.
Using improvised tools and kitchen waste, you can prepare high-quality nutritional compositions for fertilizing garden crops, in particular, cucumbers. You should start fertilizing plantings literally from the first days of plant development and continue all summer, until the end of fruiting.
A high-quality bountiful harvest of cucumbers can only be obtained with regular plant feeding. Bread sourdough is an excellent source of plant nutrients. To prepare the fertilizer, you need brown bread rusks. Fill a standard (8-10 l) bucket 2/3 with breadcrumbs or dried bread crusts, fill them with water so that its level exceeds the raw material, put a lid or plate inside the container, which is smaller in diameter than the bucket, and put oppression on top.
This is necessary so that the bread does not float to the surface and does not sour. Place the container with the prepared fertilizer in a warm place for at least 7 days. The finished starter culture is diluted with cool water (about 3 liters) and used for watering the bushes at the root. Experienced gardeners recommend carrying out a similar feeding every 7-9 days, starting from the moment of flowering and ending with abundant fruiting.
Feeding with yeast infusion acts on plants in a similar way to bread leaven. A pack of baker's fresh yeast (100 g) is dissolved in a standard bucket of water and allowed to ferment in a warm place for 28-36 hours. The resulting composition is watered cucumber beds at the rate of 1.5 liters for each plant, at the root. Yeast infusion is used as an auxiliary dressing every 10-12 days.
It is advisable to process cucumber beds with infusion if the leaves of the plants turn yellow en masse - this is one of the signs of insufficient nutrition or the onset of infectious diseases. A glass of onion husks is poured into 8 liters of water, put on fire, brought to a boil, covered with a lid and allowed to brew for 3-4 hours. The filtered infusion is poured over the cucumbers at the root. The same composition is used for irrigating plants, which is a high-quality foliar feeding and disease prevention.
Slow plant growth, slow development of the leaf apparatus, a small amount of color on the bushes are signs of a deficiency of nutrients in the soil. It is advisable to apply ash at all stages of the cucumber growing season. An ash solution is used for irrigation. Sifted ash (1 glass) is diluted in a bucket of water. Cucumbers are watered with this substrate at the root, until the end of fruiting, every 7-10 days. For soil disinfection and pest control, it is useful to dust the soil with sifted ash obtained from plant waste (plant tops, hay, straw, tree, branches, sawdust, fallen leaves, etc.) around each plant.
Take on these simple folk recipes for feeding cucumbers and enjoy a good harvest of wonderful vegetables! See you!