All trees, including the apple tree, need timely and correct watering for normal development and fruiting. Do you think that this agronomic method is the simplest and not worth special attention? After all, all it needs is water and a hose. But not everything is as simple as it seems at first glance. Read this article and you will know how, how much and when to water the apple trees.
Many hobby gardeners mistakenly believe that a small amount of water is sufficient for irrigation if done frequently. But this is not at all the case - such watering will not do your tree any good and will be a waste of time.
Watering young apple trees that are not yet bearing fruit should be done up to 3 times in one season, ending in early August. In this case, on average, you need to pour from 2 to 3.5 buckets of water per tree.
It is necessary to water it correctly so that the water falls precisely on the root collar of the seedling and so penetrates into the root system. An apple tree that has not reached the age of 3 should be watered only in the holes. Furrows are used to irrigate a mature tree. More often 4 furrows are enough - 3 of them are made under the crown, and one outside it, retreating about 30 cm.The depth of the furrows usually does not exceed 20 cm.
Furrow irrigation scheme for apple trees
Autumn is the time for active root growth. And if it is dry autumn, then pre-winter watering, called moisture charging, is also possible. Moreover, it must be carried out during or immediately after leaf fall (keep in mind that for each variety, the leaf falls at one time). It is believed that if the tree is well watered in the fall, then the winter with its frosts will not cause any special damage to the apple tree. If possible, pour 2 buckets of water under each tree every day for a week.
Do not water the apple tree in late autumn - this will lead to repeated growth of shoots, and the approaching winter will not allow the tree to prepare for frost and it will die.
If the apple tree in your area is adult, it should receive from 3 to 5 full waterings per season. The number directly depends on the climate zone in which you live. If the region is hot and dry, then more moisture is needed. Conversely, if you live in areas with high humidity, do not overuse irrigation.
When in doubt about whether to water or not, do a simple test. Dig a shallow hole and take a handful of earth, remember it in your hand, if the earth began to crumble, then do not hesitate, the soil needs water. This method has one drawback, it is not suitable for those who have sandy loam soil on the site.
In winter, the plants are not watered. In the spring, water the first time before the apple tree begins to bloom (mid-May). You can repeat the procedure as soon as the extra ovary falls off (mid-June). The third - two weeks before the ripening of summer varieties (end of July). As soon as autumn comes and there are 20 days left before harvesting, water the soil around the perimeter of the crown. During these periods, 1 sq. meter should use 4 to 6 buckets of water.
In the fall, do not water, as frequent rains already saturate the soil with moisture. In late autumn, one water-charging irrigation is carried out, preparing the garden for winter.
It is worth noting that in regions where winter is not characterized by severe frosts, and the climate is warm enough, spring water-charging irrigation can also be used. It is carried out in early spring, if the winter was dry, without snow and the soil did not accumulate enough moisture.
With proper watering of vigorous apple trees, the soil at a depth of half a meter should be saturated with moisture. Trying to keep it in the ground as long as possible, two days after watering, be sure to loosen the soil and mulch with humus, sand or sawdust. In this case, the layer thickness should be up to 5 cm.
If dwarf and semi-dwarf varieties grow in your summer cottage, they should be watered often, but not abundantly, because their root system runs close to the surface of the earth.
In addition to simple proven options for watering with buckets or a garden hose, others are used:
On the slopes, additional barrels and bowls are used to retain natural moisture. To do this, make holes along the diameter of the crown, leveling and equipping them with rollers on the sides. As a result, moisture can immediately get into the area of the soil, which is maximally saturated with roots.
After reading the watering rules, you can grow a healthy and fruitful apple orchard.
This video will show you when and how to water your apple trees.
A fruiting apple orchard is the pride of any gardener. Caring for him is not easy, but very joyful work. It is especially nice to see when delicious beautiful apples ripen. The key to a high harvest is good care of the apple tree in spring.
In anticipation of a large harvest of decent quality from an orchard, it is important to think over all the stages of planting and caring for young or already bearing trees. The mandatory complex of care procedures includes feeding the apple tree in spring, which is carried out according to a certain technology in compliance with a number of rules.
For the basic rules for growing almonds on the site, see the source.
Novice gardeners will have to choose the right fertilizers and carry out work on their introduction, having received a good harvest as a reward. Spring feeding is important, it is necessary for laying the future harvest and ensures the normal growth and development of trees, with the formation of the required number of ovaries.
The need for spring feeding: conditions for obtaining a good harvest
Experienced gardeners know that it is in the spring that they will have to make every effort when caring for apple plantations. In addition to preventive pruning and crown formation, prepared feeding of the apple tree is carried out in the spring, which gives several effects necessary to obtain a good harvest:
• enrichment of the soil with nutrients and minerals of soil depleted during the winter period, it is especially important to carry out the first top dressing for clay soils and loams, light soils do not need fertilization
• strengthening the immunity of trees, due to the active absorption of minerals and organics, tree trunks are strengthened together with the root system, intensive growth and formation of green foliage is observed
• the growth of the crown and the growth of green mass, thanks to the greenery in the trees, the course of vegetation processes and photosynthesis is stimulated, which is necessary for the processing of nutrients and the formation of fruits
• regulation of the development of trees, due to the metered application of fertilizers of a certain type, you can strengthen the root systems of young trees, activate or slow down their growth in the garden.
When it is better to use drip irrigation of potatoes, you can find out from the article below.
Correct feeding of the apple tree in spring is the key to getting a good harvest by feeding the trees growing in the garden. Nutrients and trace elements absorbed by the root system from the soil are distributed among the growing shoots and contribute to the growth of green mass, which is necessary to activate the process of photosynthesis.
First feeding: features of the implementation and choice of fertilizers
The first feeding of the apple tree in the spring in the season is carried out during the active growing season of plants that have woken up from hibernation. The soil depleted after winter is enriched with nutrients and essential trace elements that ensure the formation of flowers, ovaries and fruits, the procedure has its own characteristics:
• mineral additives should not be applied close to the tree trunk, a high concentration of fertilizers in solutions contributes to the appearance of burns on the roots and the gradual wilting of the tree
• humus is added to the soil on the territory of the trunk circle, for effective absorption by the root system, it is better to use humus in the form of a solution with ordinary water
• dry mineral fertilizers are recommended to be used before the rain, if it is not possible to adjust with the weather, they dissolve in the water used for morning or evening watering of trees.
What are fungicides for plants and when they are used, read the article.
The second feeding of the apple tree in the spring is carried out already during the flowering period of trees, and for this it is better to use ready-made mixtures. Universal fertilizers should include all trace elements useful for fruit trees; in this case, superphosphate in combination with potassium sulfate and urea is considered an excellent option.
Especially important in the summer, in Julymaintain a uniform regime glaze the entire surface of the soil by the apple and pear, while not allowing it to dry out. Frequent watering with a small amount of water is also not justified, since this moistens only the upper part of the soil. This leads to even stronger evaporation and, as a result, the death of those roots that lack moisture.
How much to water and when it all depends on the degree of soil moisture under the trees. To determine the useful supply of water in the ground, it is necessary to take a lump of earth from a depth of about 20 or 40 cm, if it crumbles when squeezed in the palm of your hand, then watering is necessary. Its approximate rate is 4–8 buckets per square meter.
The fruit tree is the centerpiece of any garden. BUT columnar beauty apple tree will become not only a fruitful tree, but also an ornamental crop. Similar to a cypress tree, it will certainly decorate your garden and bring a large harvest of juicy apples. ...
Watering columnar apple trees
Columnar apple trees require abundant glazeespecially in the first years after planting. Approximate schedule - 2 times a week. Several methods can be used: watering holes and grooves, irrigation and sprinkling.
For each apple tree, use at least 1-2 buckets of water, after it has been absorbed, mulch the soil.
Special watering in dry times is necessary before flowering, after flowering, during the filling of early apples.
The last watering of apple trees must be done in early September, since later watering can provoke further growth of the tree. which is undesirable before winter.
After each glaze soil around columnar apple trees be sure to loosen. This will allow the earth to be filled with oxygen and retain moisture for longer. If you planted seedlings on slopes, it is better not to loosen, as you can damage the root system. In this case, it is better to plant grass in the trunk circle and mow it periodically. After loosening, add dry peat or sawdust to the trunk circle. This will retain moisture at the roots for longer.
Top dressing of columnar apple trees
Given the superficial location of the roots columnar apple trees make feedingbetter in solid form on the soil surface with shallow embedding in the upper 1-3 cm layer and subsequent irrigation without jet pressure. During the growing season, three additional dressings are carried out.
On fertile soils, during the first top dressing, you can limit yourself to the introduction of nitroammofoska randomly at the beginning of leaf blooming at a dose of 50-60 g / tree. In the first year, top dressing is applied a month after planting the seedling. The second feeding is repeated after 3-4 weeks and the third after another 3-4 weeks. Instead of nitroammophoska, you can use a urea solution for feeding. Dissolve 2-3 tablespoons of fertilizer in 10 liters of water and apply at the root at the rate of 2-3 liters / tree, followed by watering and mulching. By the end of July, feeding is finished.
On depleted soils, the first top dressing is usually performed with humus. 2-3 buckets of mature humus or compost are introduced around the crown perimeter, watered and mulched. The second feeding is carried out during flowering with phosphorus-potassium fats, using 80 g of superphosphate and 50 g of sulphate or potassium chloride under 1 tree. They can be replaced with 250-300 g of urea or 0.5 buckets of slurry. The third top dressing is divided into 2 applications. In mid-July, urea or ammonium nitrate (30 g / tree in the form of a solution) is again introduced and after 2 weeks a phosphorus-potassium mixture (25 g of potassium and 40-50 g of superphosphate) or complex fertilizer according to the recommendations.
Remember! After each fertilization, watering and mulching are required.
In addition to the recommended doses of fertilizers, 1-2 glasses of ash can be scattered around the crown perimeter. Having a small root system, apple trees respond very well to foliar dressing with solutions of trace elements, decoctions of herbs, sodium humate, and biological products. By the end of July, all feeding is finished.
The given schemes top dressing of columnar apple treesdo not reflect all methods, but are recommendations for novice gardeners. In each case, the doses, timing and types of fertilizers will be different.
But when feeding, you need to follow the rule:
Pruning columnar apple trees
It is important during the growth and setting of fruits to periodically remove the ovaries to obtain large and juicy apples. On trees of the second year, 10 buds are left, and on older trees, twice as many apples should ripen. In summer, when the ovaries appear, re-thinning is carried out. Only half of all ovaries need to be left. When the ovaries grow even more and become the size of a cherry, only 2 of them are left in each inflorescence. When they reach the size of a walnut, only one ovary remains in each inflorescence.
Pruning a columnar apple tree is carried out in the spring before the start of sap flow. At this time, all lateral shoots are removed, only 2 growth buds remain. Sanitary pruning is also carried out, during which all damaged branches and shoots are removed. In the second year, of the two shoots that have grown from the cut off, they leave the vertical one.And the branchy is shortened again, leaving 2 buds. In the third year, the shoot that bore fruit must be cut, and the rest are cut in the same way as the first. When pruning, it is important not to cut the growth point, otherwise the tree will begin to branch strongly.
More details on the rules for pruning columnar apple trees can be found in the article Pruning columnar apple trees in spring … →
Disease and pest control
Although many varieties of columnar apple are resistant to pests and diseases, sometimes you have to save your tree. When such pests as aphids, ticks, moths, scale insects, moths and others appear, you must immediately take action. Various insecticides are used to control pests. You can also carry out preventive spring treatment of trees.
When signs of fungal diseases appear on apple trees, it is important not to hesitate with spraying. In this case, fungicides or a special preparation Fitosporin are used, which can be used as a prophylactic agent.
More details on prevention and protection methods can be found in the heading "Diseases and pests of the garden and vegetable garden" … →
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Due to the extreme cold inherent in Siberia, not all varieties are able to grow and bear fruit, so you need to choose which apple tree is best to plant.
There are several really worthy varieties: these trees withstand low temperatures, give a high yield and are not inferior in taste to crops growing in other regions of Russia with a temperate climate.
In order for the trees in the garden to be well-groomed, they always need to pay a lot of attention. It is important to inspect trunks, leaves, ovaries in order to notice any problem in time at the very beginning of its occurrence and eliminate it in time.
For example, June is the time for the ovaries to fall off. They are not always damaged by pathogens or pests, but all carrion must be collected and destroyed. The technique is simple, but very important for plant protection.
As a rule, at the beginning of June there is a peak of flight of the codling moth butterflies. To protect trees from it, they need to be treated with an insecticide every 8-12 days. Pheromone traps, which are now on sale for personal subsidiary plots (LPH), will help to determine whether mass flight has begun. The threshold of harmfulness is considered to be catching more than 5-10 butterflies in one trap during a week.
The weather in early June is usually favorable for the use of insecticides of biological origin: the drugs Lepidocid and Bitoxibacillin. After 7-10 days after treatment, it is repeated. To increase the duration of action of biological preparations, it is recommended to add Liposam bioadhesive to the tank mixture.
Treatments with a preparation of biological origin in combination with a bioadhesive do not harm the ecology of the garden and, in addition to direct impact on harmful objects, have a positive effect on the soil (due to the action of Liposam). When it gets into the ground, this drug absorbs excess salts and improves its structure, decomposing by soil microorganisms to products - sources of additional plant nutrition, within 30-40 days.
In the second half of June, it is good to use trapping belts, which can reduce the number of moth caterpillars. Of course, provided that the traps are checked regularly.