Myrtle (myrtle tree)


The genus myrtle (Myrtus) is a member of the Myrtle family and unites approximately 20 to 40 species. In the wild, myrtle can be found on almost all continents, namely: in the USA in Florida, in Europe off the Mediterranean coast, in West Africa and in North America. This genus is represented by low evergreen trees or shrubs. Solid opposite leaf plates leathery to the touch. The flowers grow from the axils of the leaves, they are collected in short racemose inflorescences, they can be part of the bundles or grow alone. Such a plant is very popular among flower growers, and it is also used in medicine and perfumery - essential oil is extracted from stems and foliage. If you take care of myrtle correctly, it will grow for a very long time at home. It is also interesting that the culture has a phytoncidal effect.

Brief description of cultivation

  1. Bloom... In the first half of the summer period.
  2. Illumination... The light should be bright but diffused.
  3. Temperature regime... In the spring-summer period - from 18 to 20 degrees, and in winter the room should not be warmer than 10 degrees, but it is better if it is about 5 degrees.
  4. Watering... From spring to autumn, the plant must be watered abundantly immediately after the top layer of the soil mixture in the container dries out. During cold wintering, watering should be very scanty and rare, but the earthen coma should not be allowed to completely dry out.
  5. Air humidity... Throughout the growing season, systematically moisten the bush from a sprayer with lukewarm water. It is not necessary to spray it in winter.
  6. Fertilizer... In the spring-summer period, myrtle is regularly fed once every 7 days, for this they use a complex mineral fertilizer. There is no need to feed him in winter.
  7. Dormant period... Observed in winter. If the bush is in the northern part of the room, then the duration of the dormant period will be about 3 months, and when placed in the southern part of the apartment, its duration will be about 6 weeks.
  8. Pruning... Formative pruning is carried out every year at the beginning of the growing season.
  9. Transfer... Young bushes need to be replanted every year, while adult specimens - 1 time in 2 or 3 years.
  10. Soil mixture... Sand, peat, clay, sod and humus soil in a ratio of 1: 2: 2: 2: 2. And for planting, you can use a substrate consisting of sand, peat, humus and sod soil, while all components are taken in equal proportions.
  11. Reproduction... By cuttings and seed method.
  12. Harmful insects... Whiteflies, mealybugs, scale insects, thrips and spider mites.
  13. Diseases... Problems in growing myrtle can arise when irrigation rules are violated or due to excessively dry air.
  14. Properties... Myrtle is considered a medicinal plant that can rival antibiotics in its effectiveness.

Caring for myrtle at home

Illumination

Due to the fact that myrtle needs a large amount of bright light, which must be necessarily diffused, it is recommended to grow it on the western or eastern windowsill. If it grows on a north-facing window, then its flowering will be more scarce. And if it is placed on the southern windowsill, then in the warm season the bush will have to be shaded from direct sunlight. In the summer, the flower can be moved outside, while he needs to choose a place that will be protected from the midday burning rays of the sun. Myrtle is taught to bright light gradually.

Temperature regime

During the spring-summer period, the bush must be kept in a cool place (from 18 to 20 degrees), because the culture reacts negatively to heat. In winter, the myrtle is placed in a cold place (no higher than 10 degrees), while the plant feels best at this time at a temperature of about 5 degrees. In the event that during the winter the bush is warm (above 10 degrees), all its leaves may fall off. The room where the flower stands must be systematically ventilated.

Watering

For irrigation, use extremely soft water, and it must also be well settled (at least 24 hours). In spring, summer and autumn, the culture needs abundant watering, which is carried out as soon as the top layer of the substrate dries out. During cold wintering, watering should be reduced, but make sure that the lump of earth in the pot does not dry out in any case. Also, make sure that no liquid stagnates in the soil mixture. In the event that the earthen lump is still dry, the container along with the bush is immersed in a container with water.

Air humidity

The culture needs increased air humidity, in this regard, in the spring, summer and autumn, the bush is systematically moistened from a spray bottle, using well-settled and soft water for this. During cold wintering, it is not necessary to moisten it

Fertilizer

In the spring-autumn period, the myrtle must be fed regularly; for this, fertilizer for indoor plants is used. The regularity of feeding should be 1 time in 7 days.

Dormant period

If myrtle grows on the northern windowsill, then the duration of the dormant period will be 3 months. If it is grown on a southern window, then the dormant period will be shorter, more precisely, about 6 weeks.

Pruning

The culture needs regular pruning. If the bush is not cut at all, then its shape will be pyramidal, when trimming the side shoots, a tree is formed, and if you trim the upper shoots, then the myrtle will have the shape of a bush. Experts do not recommend, very often to cut off the lateral shoots, the fact is that the trunk of the plant is rather weak, and with frequent pinching, the flowering becomes more scarce. When grown indoors, the culture is very fast growing; in just 2 years, a thick and spectacular plant can form from a small bush.

Myrtle transplant

Young plants are transplanted systematically every year. And adult specimens are transplanted less often, or rather, once every 2-3 years. During transplanting, do not cover the base of the trunk with soil mixture. Several different substrates can be used for planting and transplanting:

  • sand, humus, clay and sod soil are taken in a ratio of 1: 2: 2: 2;
  • connect sand, sod, humus and peat soil, which are taken in equal shares;
  • simple greenhouse land.

MIRT: transplanting, grafting, leaving.

In order to avoid stagnation of liquid in the root system of the plant, make a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot.

Virulence

In sensitive individuals, myrtle foliage can cause nausea and headache.

Reproduction methods

Growing from seeds

Fill the container with soil mixture, on its surface it is necessary to evenly distribute the seeds, which are sprinkled with a thin layer of the same substrate. For sowing, a soil mixture consisting of sand and peat or peat and vermiculite is used. Sowing seeds is carried out in a soil mixture, which is pre-watered, and then spilled with a solution of a fungicidal preparation. The crops are covered with glass (film) from above, they are systematically ventilated, if necessary, watered and kept in a cool place (about 19 degrees). The first shoots should appear after 7-15 days. And when they have the first pair of true leaf plates, they should be cut into separate pots, which are filled with a substrate consisting of peat, sod and humus soil, as well as sand (1: 1: 1: 1). After a pick, the growth of seedlings may stop for a while, but then everything will return to normal. When the root system of the plants becomes cramped in the pots, they are transplanted by transferring them into larger containers, after which they are provided with the same care as adult plants. The first flowering will begin only at the age of five.

Propagation of myrtle by cuttings

Cuttings can be carried out twice a year: in January and in July. For this, semi-lignified cuttings are harvested, the length of which can vary from 50 to 80 mm, more than half of the leaf plates must be cut off, while those that remain are shortened, this will reduce the evaporation of moisture. For better rooting, it is recommended to treat the cut site with an agent that stimulates root growth. For rooting, cuttings are planted in boxes or bowls, which are filled with an earth mixture consisting of leafy soil and coarse sand. The container with cuttings is covered with glass (film), they are removed to a shaded place and they are provided with regular watering and airing. For better rooting, the air temperature is maintained at 18 to 20 degrees. In cuttings, the roots grow after 20-30 days, then they are planted in separate pots, reaching 70 mm in diameter, which are filled with a substrate consisting of peat, turf and humus soil, and also sand (1: 1: 1: 1). To stimulate flowering, myrtle will need abundant watering and a pinch. After the root system of the grown plant becomes very cramped in the pot, it must be transferred to another container, which should be slightly larger than the previous one. The first flowering of a bush that has grown from a cutting is observed after 3 or 4 years.

The easiest and most reliable way to reproduce MIRTA.

Possible problems

Myrtle leaves turn yellow, fall off and curl... If the myrtle lacks light, then its shoots become elongated, and the foliage grows faded and small. If the lighting is too bright, then the leaf plates will lose their shine, turn yellow and curl. The foliage can fly around if the plant is in a room that is too warm and poorly lit.

Myrtle leaves fall... If the earthen lump in the pot dries up completely, then all the foliage can fly from the bush. In this case, cut the stems in half, regularly wet the bush with a sprayer, and increase the watering rate. After about half a month, new foliage will begin to grow.

Harmful insects

If the bush is constantly warm, then mealybugs, thrips, whiteflies, spider mites and scale insects can settle on it.

How is myrtle useful?

Myrtle destroys bacteria and microbes; even tuberculosis and diphtheria bacilli cannot escape from it. This culture makes the air cleaner, and it also destroys streptococcus and staphylococcus. It is used during the treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections.

Myrtle.Features of caring for the myrtle tree

Types of myrtle with photos and names

Common myrtle

In home floriculture, common myrtle (Myrtus communis) is most often grown with a short branched trunk covered with peeling red-brown bark scales. The leaves are green, oval-lanceolate, glossy, leathery, with a pleasant aroma. The flowers are white or pale pink with protruding stamens, the fruits are red-black berries. Blooms from June to August. Popular cultivars: "Tarentina" - a compact bush with smaller berries than the original form, but there are much more of them than common myrtle; the variegated variety has a creamy white pattern on green leaves.

Lush myrtle

Lush myrtle (Myrtus apiculata) is also interesting - a bush or tree with peeling brown bark, under which the trunk is creamy white. Leaves are dark green, elliptical, matte. White single flowers bloom in July-August, black-red fruits are edible.

Myrtle hakven

A tree with shiny green leaves with a wrinkled edge. This species is the most resistant of myrtle.

Myrtle Ralph

An erect shrub with pinkish flowers and edible red berries. It has a variegated variety with a white-cream border around the edge of the leaves.

Myrtle. Caring for myrtle at home.


Myrtle: home care

Myrtle, a plant that is awe-inspiring for budding growers, and who believe that owning and caring for myrtle at home requires a lot of effort and experience. This is both true and false. Without knowledge of the rules of care and the nuances of maintenance, it is impossible to grow a beautiful plant and this applies to almost all indoor plants, and not only to myrtle. But one should not be afraid either. Myrtle tree, the plant is not so difficult to care for.

In any case, it is no more difficult to maintain than the same jasmine, oleander or stephanotis, and much easier than azalea or arrowroot.

A little about the plant

Myrtle is an evergreen plant that has been known for a long time and is fanned by various legends. He is credited with various magical and healing properties. If the first can still be questioned, the second is beyond doubt and has quite real confirmation. Myrtle contains an essential oil that is highly valued in both traditional and official medicine. Decoctions and potions from the leaves of this plant have a beneficial effect on digestion and are used to treat gastrointestinal diseases. And also such a tincture is a wonderful energetic, giving strength and vigor. But it is not at all necessary to pick off the myrtle leaves. It is enough to put the plant indoors, and it will immediately begin to have a beneficial effect. After all, myrtle has excellent phytoncidal properties. This flower will serve as a good protection against various kinds of bacteria and viruses. It is believed that myrtle is able to purify the air, even from such dangerous "creatures" as tubercle bacilli, and it can easily cope with the influenza virus and acute respiratory infections.

Myrtle did not pass by their attention and culinary experts. The leaves of this plant, although not as widely used in cooking as the leaves of laurel noble, are quite serious competition for them.

Myrtle has other, more romantic names as well. The most famous of them is the “Bride's Tree”. In many countries of Western Europe (and not only), flowers and branches of myrtle are necessarily part of a wedding bouquet, and the myrtle tree itself is presented to brides for a wedding, as a symbol of love and eternal fidelity. Remember the great movie "The Straw Hat"? There, the bride's father for two episodes does not let go of the myrtle tree in a pot, trying to say a fiery speech about this. And as if continuing the wedding theme, myrtle received a second name - "The Tree of Family Happiness", which maintains peace and harmony in the family.

Since ancient times, a wreath and a twig of myrtle have been a symbol of silence, rest, pleasure and an invariable attribute of Venus and her faithful three graces.

This is such a wonderful plant. Let's move on to the main thing.


A little about the plant

Myrtle and its varieties are native to the Mediterranean, in addition, this plant is often found in Africa and the Azov Islands. In nature, this tree can grow up to 2 meters in height, but there is also a myrtle that grows exclusively at home. In a pot, this flower grows predominantly in width, and grows no more than a meter.
It has a lush and neat crown, which is created thanks to branched twigs.

This plant has neat, dark green oval leaves. They are located opposite each other, and have a pleasant glossy sheen. Reaching the age of five, the myrtle blooms for the first time.

Flowers can be of several shades: white, pinkish or delicate cream color. Many stamens create an amazing visual effect, as if making the plant more delicate and weightless.

This decorative tree is highly prized by designers. It fits perfectly into any interior, and photos of the plant are often found in various interior magazines.Myrtle looks equally good in any room of an apartment, in addition, it often decorates the interiors of various office premises, shops and all kinds of salons.

Exotic wood is prized not only for its attractive appearance, it has many beneficial properties. For example, a tincture can be prepared from the leaves of myrtle, which is often used for cosmetic purposes. It is suitable for moisturizing and cleansing the face.

And the essential oils contained in the foliage of the plant help to purify the air and help in creating a favorable microclimate in the room. Moreover, many argue that such a plant in a room can increase a person's performance, which is why myrtle can often be found in office premises.


Pot transplant

The plant is considered quite capricious, intolerant of stress, travel, temperature extremes. To prevent the tree from dying when the living conditions change, it is necessary to follow four rules for caring for myrtle:

  1. Do not replant immediately after purchase. It is necessary to wait for the plant to adapt. A quick transplant often causes the leaves to fall off and the myrtle to die
  2. Increase humidity. If the tree looks weak, the leaves are sluggish, some stems are bare, you can cover it with a transparent plastic bag, creating a greenhouse effect. The package is removed daily for a short period of time. In greenhouse conditions, myrtle lasts up to 1 month.
  3. Keep in partial shade. For the period of adaptation, the myrtle is placed in partial shade, protected from direct sunlight.
  4. Avoid drafts. Even a healthy adult bush reacts negatively to drafts; in the case of a newly acquired young plant, this is unacceptable.

Important! It is best not to touch the myrtle for two weeks after purchase. The indications for transplanting are a small vessel, an unimportant tree condition or poor soil composition. In other cases, it is better to postpone the transplant until the spring.

What is needed for landing

Until the age of three, myrtle is transplanted annually, each time slightly increasing the volume of the flower container. Adults only need one transplant every 3-4 years.

Features:

  1. The soil should be loose, light, moderately nutritious. A versatile flower potting soil mix with chopped peat and coarse sand will do.
  2. The size of the pot is chosen slightly larger than the root system, the shape is similar to the previous container in terms of the ratio of width and height. Check that drain holes are visible on the bottom
  3. As a drainage, it is necessary to prepare small pebbles, brick or ceramic chips.

Optimal location

In the post-transplant period, the myrtle should be placed in a relatively shady and cool place. However, when the plant has already adapted, it can be moved to a permanent location, the choice of which should be approached taking into account the following recommendations:

  1. The myrtle tree loves well-lit surfaces, but does not tolerate heat well, so it is desirable that diffused sunlight falls on it.
  2. The plant does not like a sharp change in habitat, it must be moved gradually.
  3. The southwestern and southeastern sides of a house or apartment are optimal places for a tree to live, since in the north the plant rest period is lengthened, its growth is inhibited, flowering may not occur.

Landing procedure

The step-by-step procedure for planting myrtle includes the following steps:

  1. Prepare everything you need: soil, pot, drainage, after sterilizing them
  2. Achieve drying of the soil. The plant should be slightly dehydrated before transplanting. So it can be pulled out of the previous container without any problems.
  3. Create a drainage layer in a new pot, it should be a third of the volume, fill half the pot with soil
  4. Cleansing an earthen coma with roots. It is convenient to gently straighten the roots with a wooden stick. Cleansing is carried out only on the edges

  1. Root processing. If there are dry or rotten roots, they are removed by treating the sections with coal dust and "Kornevin"
  2. Gently place the bush in the middle of the pot with soil, sprinkle the roots, gently pressing with your fingers.

Important! The trunk should not be covered with soil - this can lead to rotting.

For early adaptation to the new pot, the tree is immediately watered and sprayed. Then it remains in partial shade for about a week with regular spraying. Irrigation with a solution of a weak growth stimulator "Epin" will be useful. When new shoots appear, the myrtle is moved to a permanent habitat.


How to prune myrtle correctly

An indoor myrtle tree needs regular pruning.

In the first weeks of spring or after the plant has faded, it is necessary to carry out the formation of the crown. You can make a beautiful haircut to the myrtle, or simply trim off excess branches. In any case, the shrub will look graceful and beautiful. If the myrtle is not cut, its crown will take on a pyramidal shape.

Experienced flower growers know well what myrtle is and how to care for it. This fragrant plant can be grown at home: in an apartment or in a summer cottage.


Watch the video: How to Grow Muskogee Crapemyrtle


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