Sweet peppers have firmly entered the list of garden crops grown in our homestead plots. It is very rich in vitamins, minerals, contains sugars and proteins, essential and fatty oils, oxalic, malic, citric acids. Just one pepper fruit contains the daily requirement of vitamin P.
Pepper is one of the oldest cultivated vegetable crops, its homeland is Mexico and Guatemala, tropical regions of America. But, despite its southern origin, it has taken root well in our latitudes and has become one of the main vegetable crops grown in our household plots.
Sweet pepper is a perennial plant, but in our climate it is bred as an annual vegetable crop. This plant is self-pollinating, producing fruits in the form of multi-seeded false berries of various sizes and colors (red, orange, yellow, even brown). Pepper is very rich in vitamins, minerals, contains sugars and proteins, essential and fatty oils, oxalic, malic, citric acids.
Only one fruit contains the daily requirement of vitamin R. In terms of vitamin C, pepper is a real champion, and the largest amount of it is contained in well-ripened fruits of the autumn harvest. By the way, sweet pepper ketchup contains 16 times more vitamin C than tomato ketchup.
Dried sweet pepper (paprika) powder is rich not only in vitamin C, but also in vitamin P, which is necessary for hematopoiesis, and it also contains a small amount of carotene. In such a combination, these three natural substances are much more useful and better absorbed by the body than taking them separately in the form of synthetic preparations. They help to improve metabolism, prevent obesity, strengthen the nervous and cardiovascular systems.
The growing season for pepper is quite extended, so in our climatic conditions it is necessary grow it seedlings and mainly in greenhouses. It requires a lot of sun and heat and cannot stand darkening. The optimum air temperature for the growth and development of plants and fruits is within + 18 ... + 25 ° C. When the temperature drops to + 15 ° C, the pepper stops growing, and as a result, the time of flowering and harvesting is delayed. In cool and damp summers, the amount of nutrients in the fruits is reduced. And at the same time, pepper seedlings can withstand temperatures down to + 5 ° C, and adult fruiting plants can even survive frosts down to -2 ° C.
The agrotechnology of growing pepper is somewhat similar to the agrotechnology of tomatoes. Depending on the specific conditions of each region, sweet pepper seeds for seedlings are sown from the end of February. For example, for the middle lane, the best results are obtained by sowing seeds closer to mid-March, when there is enough daylight.
It is imperative to take into account the fact that the optimal age for pepper seedlings at the time of planting in the ground is 60-65 days. It is advisable that there were no frosts by this time. By simple calculations, the following is obtained: if the planting of pepper in the greenhouse is planned at the end of May, then we subtract 65 days from this period, we get the time for sowing seeds - mid-March. Older seedlings already tolerate transplanting into the ground worse, they get sick longer, they can shed their buds, therefore, the time for obtaining the first fruits is postponed.
Before sowing, the seeds should be etched in a solution of potassium permanganate, a growth stimulant, or at least held in warm water for several hours to accelerate germination. You can wrap them in a damp cloth, seal them in a cup, and put them in a very warm place for a few days. As soon as the seeds begin to hatch, they are sown into the soil.
Sowing is carried out most often using the carpet method. However, every gardener is faced with such a problem as a significant slowdown in the growth of pepper seedlings after picking into individual pots: it significantly slows down growth, sometimes stopping it for 1-2 weeks. This is due to the fact that the roots of sweet pepper are very sensitive to the slightest mechanical stress. To avoid things like this, try grow peppers without picking.
For sowing seeds, it is better to use light peat soil sold in stores, mixing it with garden soil in about a 1: 1 ratio. Plastic bags of sour cream or mayonnaise are filled with this soil, slightly cutting off the bottom corner to drain excess water during irrigation.
After that, the bags must be folded in half along the length, such narrow "cups" are obtained. Fill them with soil and put them in a box or box close to each other. After spilling the soil with warm water with the addition of potassium permanganate, put 1-2 seeds in bags and sprinkle it with 1 cm layer of earth on top. Carefully cover the box with a film, place it in a warm place (25 ... 27 ° C) for seed germination.
After planting, it is imperative to check the condition of the crops daily so that the soil does not dry out. Seedlings appear after a few days. The box should be immediately transferred to a bright, warm place, but the film should not be removed yet. When the seedlings are evened out, you can open the edge of the film so that excess condensation does not accumulate, and later it must be completely removed. For watering seedlings, only warm settled water is used.
Pepper tolerates a lack of moisture very painfully, but does not tolerate flooding of the root system either. Therefore, you need to ensure that the soil is always moderately moist. The growing seedlings are fed with a solution every ten days mineral fertilizers or peat oxidate. The air temperature is desirable at least 23 ° C during the day and 16 ... 18 ° C at night.
When the peppers grow up and the roots fill the entire space, then carefully unfold the bags and add them inside the fertile soil. Of course, you can use separate plastic cups instead of pepper bags. But they are small and over time will become cramped for the root system, which will slow down the growth of seedlings, and then transplanting into larger containers will be required. If you use larger glasses, then the small seedlings will sour excess soil that has not been mastered by the roots.
When using bags, everything turns out to be simpler: with the growth of roots, you can easily increase the volume of "dishes" without unnecessary injuries for babies. Another option is to use plastic containers instead of packages (for example, cake boxes), in which, using cardboard strips, you can make separate sections for each plant, where you can sow pepper seeds individually. Just do not forget to make holes in the bottom with an awl for the drain of excess water.
With such a non-planting method of growing seedlings, our capricious peppers grow evenly and non-stop, do not undergo any stress until they are planted in a greenhouse. But even then, their roots will not suffer, because the peppers are easy to get out of the bags and, along with a lump of soil, transfer to the prepared holes. This growing technique produces a strong, stocky seedling with a well-developed root system and buds. Try this method - you won't regret it.
Peppers are planted at a distance of 40-50 cm from each other or in rows: 25 cm between plants and 60 cm - between rows. It has been noticed that with such a relatively close planting, peppers grow and bear fruit better. When planting seedlings in the ground, make sure that the root collar of the plants remains at the same level, otherwise the plants will stop growing for a while - it has been tested by many years of practice.
Pepper loves moisture very much; with prolonged drought without watering, the yield is significantly reduced. After all, the root system of sweet pepper lies shallow and overheats under the scorching sun. In hot temperatures below + 30 ° C, the pepper can stagnate and stop growing. This is typical for many plants, as they save moisture and nutrients. Therefore, it is important to keep the soil moist, and mulching will provide additional benefits in the form of retaining moisture and protecting the roots from overheating.
In addition to watering and fertilizing, the main care for pepper is reduced to weeding and loosening the soil, and this is within the power of even novice gardeners. Despite belonging to the nightshade family, which are very susceptible to late blight, pepper this attack bypasses. Apparently, this explains its high popularity among gardeners, considering also its unique nutritional value for the body.
I wish everyone a great harvest!
At first, there will be enough light coming through the window space. As development progresses, it may be necessary to illuminate with fluorescent lamps or cold glow devices. Later, the seedlings can be moved to the greenhouse.
Do not forget that this is a southern culture that loves warmth. Therefore, you need to take care that there are no drafts, cold winds, frost effects. Any deviation from the norm can lead to the death of the plant.
In the greenhouse, the pepper gradually adapts to new conditions. The hardened seedlings acquire a rich dark green color, and the stem of the seedlings becomes thicker. In fine weather, you can move the bell pepper to open ground.
After sowing the planting material, the development of the culture is regularly monitored. Water the young seedlings as needed. After sowing, the seeds appear in 8-10 days. The culture is moisture-loving, therefore it does not tolerate dryness of the soil substrate.
The cups of seeds will have to be covered from above. If condensation often forms on the film, the coating is removed for a short time so as not to destroy the sprouts with excess moisture. You can turn the end of the plastic wrap a little so that the air mass flows to the roots of the sprouts. After about a week, the film can be completely removed.
This article will tell you about the treatment of black leg in pepper seedlings.
When peppers are grown without a pick, the plantings need to be watered regularly. Water is taken at a settled and room temperature. It is not necessary for the culture to allow both drying out of the soil and strong moisture. Choose a comfortable and convenient watering scheme for the plant.
There are few plants that do not require lighting to grow. Peppers without access to sunlight slow down in growth. In order to avoid poor growth of seedlings, when growing, it is necessary to provide 12-14 hours of light. As a rule, seeds are sown in February, when there is little light, therefore additional lighting is used.
Fluorescent lamps or phytolamps can be used as auxiliary lighting.
In most cases, growers use growth stimulants when growing seedlings. Preparations help plants to transfer the process of transplanting into open ground without much stress, strengthen the root system. Plants grow stronger and get sick less.
It is advisable to feed the grown sprouts every 1-2 weeks. You can use organic matter in the form of a diluted ash solution (10 liters of water, ash - 2 glasses). Nettle infusion with EM preparations has a good effect on plant growth and immunity. Until the pepper has bloomed, apply herbal liquids, and then feed with ash and mineral complexes.
In order for the seeds to germinate faster, you need to maintain a consistently high temperature. It should be within 25-270C. In colder climates, the planting material may not germinate. Until the seeds hatch, the soil is not watered, as condensation forms in the container under the film.
The first shoots can be expected in 8-10 days. After that, the temperature for seedlings should be reduced to 170C.
For germination of pepper seeds, a stable, high temperature is required, equal to - 23-27 degrees. If it is below 20 degrees, the seeds will not germinate. Watering is not required before seedlings emerge, as condensation forms inside the container under the shelter. Sprouts appear in 7-14 days.
After the emergence of seedlings, the seedlings are exposed to the south side (windowsill, heated balcony), the temperature drops to 17 degrees.
You need to water the seedlings every 3 days or when the earthen coma dries. This can be determined by tapping on it with your finger.
Watering is carried out with warm, settled water until the soil is completely moistened. Overflow, as well as lack of moisture, is unacceptable! When the seedlings are pulled out, watering is reduced and the room temperature is lowered.
Plant roots need oxygen. After watering, the soil should be loosened with a clove, skewer or a match, slightly destroying the crust on the surface of the soil.
At the stage of cotyledon opening, the plants must be fed. As a potassium supplement necessary for pepper, you can use mineral fertilizers or infusion of ash and nettle, banana peel.
At the stage of three true leaves, fertilizing is performed with complex fertilizers, consisting of:
10 grams of potassium sulfate, 10 grams of urea and 30 grams of parts of superphosphate per 5 liters of warm water.
You can also use organic fertilizing: infusion of chicken manure (1 part of droppings to 20 parts of water) or mullein solution (1 part of humus to 10 parts of water).
The seedlings are fertilized at the root without touching the leaves! 10 plants require a liter of solution. In the next watering, settled water is used, this will protect the plants from burns and an excess of fertilizing.
The next feeding is carried out at the stage of 5-6 true leaves. The concentration of the solution and the consumption are doubled.
If the ground is covered with a dry white coating (soil acidity), it is powdered with ash.
In the phase of 5 true leaves, the seedlings (if necessary) are dived into more spacious containers.
Before diving, the soil in containers with seedlings is spilled with water.
A drainage layer and a soil mixture are poured into prepared containers of a larger size. Planting holes should be equal to the volume of the root ball diameter of the plant. With the help of a spatula, the plants, one by one, together with an earthen clod, are removed from the previous container and transferred to the prepared holes.
To make the transplanting of seedlings less painless, the walls and bottom of the container during sowing can be covered with a large plastic bag, and drainage and soil can be poured on top of it. When transplanting, the package is removed from the container and unfolds on a plane. In this case, the roots of the seedlings are less damaged, they simply move away from each other.
The roots are covered with earth and watered with warm water. It is impossible to fill up the growth point when deepening. For better adaptation, the seedlings are sprayed with Epin. This will help the plants quickly recover and grow.
In the future, the seedlings grow in these containers until they are transferred to a larger pot or disembarked in open ground, a greenhouse.
To simplify the process of growing seedlings and reduce the space for its placement, a simple method, which has recently become increasingly popular with our gardeners and gardeners, will help. It's about sowing seeds for seedlings in snails.
Saving materials and space. Imagine - one bundle of a snail can grow almost 80 seedlings! Seedlings grown in a snail are easily dived, practically without disturbing the root system and a minimum of stress for the plants themselves.
The disadvantages include the possible waterlogging of the seeds and with a lack of light, the seedlings can stretch out.
As more and more gardeners switch to this method of sowing, the variety of materials from which you can make a "snail" increases. Polyethylene, cloth, toilet paper and other materials are used.
I most often use a laminate underlay, which is sold in all hardware stores in the form of a roll, the length of which is 50 m and the width is 1 m - the roll is light and inexpensive - its cost is slightly more than 100 rubles. This amount of material will last for a long time.
This material is durable and can be used for more than one year - after use, you just need to wash and dry the substrates.
The plus is that the roots of the seedlings growing in the substrate do not grow into this material and during transplantation they can be easily separated from the walls.
In this way, you can grow almost all vegetables and flowers - they grow well in such conditions.
You need to cut the desired strips for the snail - this is easy to do with a sharp knife or scissors.
The height of the snail varies from 10 to 15 cm - depending on the culture that will grow in it. For example, for peppers, eggplants and tomatoes, the optimal height will be from 14 to 16 cm.For plants that are planned to dive in the future, you can make low substrates - 10-12 cm.We make snails of the same height for planting small seeds (petunias, lobelias, strawberries).
It is convenient to immediately cut the snails of different sizes. We sow only one species or variety of plants in a single snail, because the seeds of different crops and varieties have different germination times, the volume of roots and shoots is also different.
Let's try to make a combined snail from a liner with toilet paper.
Cut off a strip from the substrate of the required size. On its inner side we put 2-3 layers of paper below the top of the backing by 0.5 cm, the bottom of the paper should extend beyond the edge by 1-2 cm for moisture to flow from the pallet.
Preparing seeds for planting
Before sowing, it is advisable to soak the seeds in a solution of a disinfectant and a stimulant. This will allow old and damaged seeds to be rejected, disinfected and at the same time stimulated. Seeds prepared in this way usually germinate more amicably and quickly, and the sprouts are less sick.
We place the seeds on paper, departing from the upper edge of the snail 0.5–1 cm. The distance between the seeds for growing without picking should be 3–4 cm. If in the future we dive the seedlings, then you can lay out the seeds more often.
Then we spray the surface of the snail with decomposed seeds with a solution of Epin, Energen or HB-101. Then we put a strip of toilet paper on the seeds, spray it again and gently twist the snail, trying not to tighten it. Then we fix the snail in any way - with a clerical elastic band or tie it with a thick thread. It is imperative to put a plastic bag on the snail - in this way we create the effect of a greenhouse and preserve moisture. We place all this structure in a pallet (jar, wide glass), into which we pour a small amount of water with any growth stimulant. It remains to wait for the emergence of sprouts.
As soon as the loops appear, carefully take the snail out of the pallet, put it on the table and unfold it. Pour a layer of fertile and loose soil 2-3 cm thick on top of the seeds and evenly distribute it, slightly compacting it with the palm of your hand. We spray the soil with Epin's solution and again twist the snail, fix it and place it in the pallet. Spray again.
You can do this - the soil is poured immediately when sowing seeds into the snail, so that later not to do this.
Place the pallets with snails in a bright and warm place. When the first sprouts appear, we rearrange the snails to a lighter place, preferably under special lamps, remove the bag from the snail. When the seedlings grow a little, it is necessary to cull the weak ones - we remove them.
Caring for seedlings in snails is not difficult. While the seedlings are small, water them from above from the sprayer, also add water to the pan if the soil dries out. This must be monitored carefully, because the layer of earth in snails is small and dries out quickly. It is more convenient to water from the pallet.
Do you grow seedlings in a snail? Share your reviews and tips with other gardeners in the comments.
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Sweet pepper is firmly included in the list of garden crops grown in our homestead plots. It is very rich in vitamins, minerals, contains sugars and proteins, essential and fatty oils, oxalic, malic, citric acids. Just one pepper fruit contains the daily requirement of vitamin P. In terms of vitamin C, pepper is a real champion, and the largest amount of it is contained in well-ripened fruits. By the way, sweet pepper ketchup contains 16 times more vitamin C than tomato ketchup.
Despite belonging to the nightshade family, which are very susceptible to late blight, pepper bypasses this attack. Caring for him during the growing season is very simple, even for novice vegetable growers. Apparently, this explains its high popularity among gardeners, considering also its unique nutritional value for the body.
However, every gardener is faced with such a problem as a significant slowdown in the growth of pepper seedlings after picking into individual pots. This is due to the fact that the roots of sweet pepper are very sensitive to the slightest mechanical stress. To avoid such moments, try the option of growing peppers without a pick.
Sowing seeds is carried out from late February to mid-March. The seeds can be pre-soaked in a solution of potassium permanganate or a growth stimulant, you can simply hold them for several hours in warm water. For planting seeds, it is better to use light peat soil, sold in stores, mixing it with garden soil about 1: 1.
Plastic bags of sour cream or mayonnaise are filled with this soil, slightly cutting off the bottom corner to drain excess water during irrigation. After that, the bags must be folded in half along the length, such narrow "cups" are obtained. Fill them with soil and put them in a box or box close to each other. After spilling the soil with warm water with the addition of potassium permanganate, put 1-2 seeds in bags and sprinkle them with 1 cm layer of earth on top. Carefully cover the box with a film, place it in a warm place (25-27 degrees) for seeds to germinate.
It is imperative to check the condition of the crops daily so that the soil does not dry out. Usually shoots appear in about 5-10 days. The box must be immediately transferred to a bright, warm place, but the film must not be removed immediately. When the seedlings are leveled, you can open the edge of the film so that excess condensation does not accumulate, later it is completely removed.
For watering seedlings, only warm settled water is used. Pepper tolerates a lack of moisture very painfully, but does not tolerate flooding of the root system either. Therefore, you need to ensure that the soil is always moderately moist. The growing seedlings are fed once every 10 days with a solution of mineral fertilizers or peat oxidate. The air temperature is desirable at least 23 degrees during the day and 16-18 at night.
When the peppers grow up and the roots fill the entire space, carefully unfold the bags and add fertile soil. Of course, you can use separate plastic cups instead of bags for growing peppers. But they are small and over time will become cramped for the root system, which will slow down the growth of seedlings. And if you use larger glasses, then the small seedlings will sour excess soil that has not been mastered by the roots. When using bags, it turns out easier: with the growth of roots, the volume of "dishes" easily increases without unnecessary injuries for babies.
With this method of cultivation, our whims grow evenly and non-stop and do not undergo any stress until they are planted in a greenhouse. But even then, their roots will not suffer, because the peppers are easy to get out of the bags and, along with a lump of soil, transfer to the prepared holes. This growing technique produces a strong, stocky seedling with a well-developed root system and buds. Try this method - you won't regret it.
During and after the pick, the seedlings experience significant stress. To reduce stress and promote quick adaptation and acceptance, it is necessary to provide young plants with proper and regular care:
The procedure itself is not complicated and does not require superfluous efforts from the gardener. But with this it is still necessary to be guided by the basic rules and requirements when performing the event.
The soil for pepper seedlings must be prepared the same as for tomato: moderately fertile, loose air and moisture permeable. The optimum acidity of the soil is neutral or slightly acidic.
Pepper seeds must be sown deeper than tomato seeds, so the sowing container must be taken deeper. The container should be approximately 10-12 cm high.
The root system of the pepper is compact, but nevertheless, it should not be planted in too small containers. The glass should be 0.5 liters in size, or even better 1 liter. In a small volume, the roots twist into a ball and after transplanting into place they stop growing for a long time. You can also sow peppers in wooden boxes.