The roof has a protective function, therefore all its parts must be appropriate. The arrangement of the roof ends with a filing of overhangs, which guarantees that there is no risk of moisture entering the under-roof space. For this purpose, you can use different materials, and do the work yourself.
Overhangs can be located both in the eaves of the roof, and on the side of the pediment. This primarily depends on the shape of the roof.
The eaves overhang is formed by the rafter system. If desired, it can be made such that it can replace the canopy over the porch or small veranda. The frontal overhang is formed by a roof grid, so it is usually not very wide.
Eaves and gable overhangs perform a protective function
Regardless of the type of overhangs, including their cladding, they perform the following functions:
In the absence of filing, the overhangs are not able to fully fulfill their duties, for example, moisture can penetrate into the under-roof layers, rendering the insulation unusable, and the wind tearing off the roofing material.
There are two techniques for the execution of overhang sheathing: on the rafters and the box. The choice depends solely on your architectural preferences.
Performed in the event that the roof has a slight angle of inclination. The sheathing should have a flat plane, but the rafters do not always allow this to be achieved. Therefore, you can use small boards that need to be fixed directly to the rafters.
It is very difficult to achieve a flat surface of the rafters.
Boards should be chosen so long that it matches the gap between the walls of the cottage and the edge of the cornice. To ensure a flat plane, it is recommended to first mount the extreme boards, stretch the twine between them, and lay all other parts relative to this level.
Used for steep roofs.
Edged boards are suitable for the box. It is better to take material about 4 cm thick. They need to be fastened between the wall of the building and the ends of the rafter legs. In this case, one edge of the box is fixed on the rafter leg, and to fasten the second, you need to use a board adjacent to the wall of the house.
Binding on the box is easy to perform
There is another option for arranging a box for filing an overhang. Instead of a board, you can take a bar that is attached to the wall with dowels.
After the installation of the box, its sheathing is carried out.
Wood, PVC lining, siding, metal soffits or metal profiles can be used as material for filing. If desired, you can pick up raw materials to match the color of the roofing material, which significantly increases the aesthetic appeal. You can do the installation yourself.
For filing the overhang, you can use only moisture-resistant wood species:
This material is affordable, environmentally friendly, but during operation it can deform under the influence of precipitation.
Wood filing may deform over time
For filing overhangs, you can use boards with a thickness of 17-22 mm, while paying attention to the moisture content of the material. It should not be overdried, as it may crack already at the installation stage. After purchasing lumber, it is better to store it outdoors. In addition, it is recommended to treat the boards with antiseptic agents to minimize the risk of fire and rot.
The process of filing overhangs with a board is quite simple:
Long boards are placed along the eaves, and short boards across
Fasteners are placed in increments of 1 m
There must be a ventilation gap between the boards
It is necessary to treat the wooden filing of the overhangs with antiseptic agents every 3-5 years to extend the service life.
For filing overhangs, both wooden and plastic lining can be used. In the case of using wooden lining, you should not save on material, in particular, it is not recommended to choose thin lining (optimal thickness 2 cm), waterlogged or dry.
It is possible to carry out filing of overhangs with clapboard in the following sequence:
For filing overhangs, you can use both wooden and plastic lining
It is necessary to lay the hemming material sequentially.
Siding is the same lining, but with higher strength characteristics. There are several types of material that can be used equally for overhangs:
Installation of siding is carried out on a box.
The process itself is performed in the following sequence:
Siding is a type of lining
There must be ventilation gaps in the hem.
It is made of galvanized steel, which is covered with polymer material. It is characterized by increased resistance to mechanical damage, temperature extremes, and wind loads. In addition, it is possible to select the material in the color of the roof.
The sequence of actions for filing the eaves with a profiled sheet is as follows:
You can fix the profiled sheet with self-tapping screws
For overhangs filing, you can use the same material as for the roof
They can be considered the most popular filing material for roofing professionals. Soffits are panels with ventilation holes. Also, during the manufacture, special UV stabilizers are used to protect the material from the negative effects of sunlight. Buyers are offered several options for spotlights:
Copper spotlights are reliable but expensive
Aluminum spotlights in white and brown
Galvanized spotlights are very heavy
Vinyl spotlights are lightweight yet durable
The installation process of spotlights takes place in several stages:
There are several options for the design of the outer corners of the cornices.
Soffits are inserted into the strips of the guide profile
Installation of spotlights is possible only at an air temperature higher than -15.
The filing of overhangs is a mandatory stage in the arrangement of the roof. It protects the under-roof space from the negative effects of precipitation and wind. The filing process itself is quite simple, and even a novice master can do it.
After completing the work on the roofing of the house, it is necessary to perform a number of auxiliary, but no less important actions. One of them can be considered the filing of the cornice. This work is necessary to perform, due to which the roof takes on its final, or rather, finished look. The filing provides additional protection of the under-roof space from environmental influences, and also performs decorative functions, and therefore it is important not only to do the job, but to do it well. It can be added that if you have some basic skills and a set of tools, it is quite feasible to hem the eaves with your own hands.
Soffits perform two main functions - protective and ventilation, so the materials for their manufacture must be moisture resistant and durable. In order to ensure sufficient ventilation, the soffits are supplied with special holes, which are manufactured at the factory. It is not forbidden to use as a filing and materials that were not originally intended for these purposes - boards, plywood, galvanized sheet. In this case, the labor intensity of the process will increase significantly, and the appearance will suffer, therefore, industrial soffits are preferable.
By the type of materials, spotlights are as follows:
Overhang, hemmed with soffits of factory production
Factory made soffits are equipped with special fasteners. During installation, they are connected "in the lock", and for their attachment to the guides, 4 - 6 self-tapping screws are required per piece. Materials such as sheet metal or lining are attached using ordinary roofing screws, so the filing does not look very neat.
Building a roof is a complex process. It consists of the creation of a rafter structure, insulation measures, the installation of the roofing material itself, the installation of a drain and, of course, the filing of the roof eaves is performed. The roof not only protects the interior from rain and snow, it is the final component of the entire building. It gives the entire structure a finished look, and therefore must be flawless in all aspects.
Roof overhangs do not need to be sewn up. However, if there are thin rafters in the structure or the bottom of the covering is visible, which does not look entirely neat, then it will be better to hide the space between the overhang and the wall using soffits. Another plus of the use of spotlights is protection against the appearance of birds and their nests in the structure of the house.
Soffits are attached in two ways. You can fix their elements directly to the rafter legs or fix them horizontally, that is, perpendicular to the wall of the building.
What about ventilation?
Eaves overhangs are those places through which air flows for further ventilation of the roof. That is why soffits must be made in such a way that a normal air flow is ensured. For this, ventilation holes should be left in the soffits. For this purpose, special panels are used that have perforations, ventilation slats or round grilles. If there are gaps that are not covered by panels or planks, then they must be closed with a net without fail. This is done to keep out insects or rodents.
The total area of the air inlets in the eaves should be equal to 1/400 - 1/600 of the roof area that is ventilated. Ventilation holes located in the upper part of the roof should occupy exactly the same area. The total area of these openings should be 1/200 - 1/300 of the roof area of the building.
Soffits are a way of covering the eaves of the roof, in which everything will look aesthetically pleasing. Decorating the eaves overhangs is not some kind of "obligation", but if you choose the right spotlights, they can become a beautiful architectural element and give the house a complete look. There are several options for the design of eaves overhangs using spotlights.
Types of materials for spotlights
1. PVC panels. This is by far the most common material used for spotlights.PVC panels fit very well into the overall look and become an element of the cladding system when the house itself is finished with vinyl siding. In appearance, PVC panels are similar to wood planks. In stores, you will find a fairly good assortment of colors, which has several dozen colors. Such a choice will greatly simplify the task of matching the required soffit color to other facade details.
PVC panels have a long service life and are very lightweight. Taking care of them will not be a big problem. It is enough to wash them once every couple of years and use a special antistatic agent.
On sale you can find profiled panels, which consist of 1, 2, 3 strips, each with a width of 10 to 12 cm and a thickness of one millimeter. The surface of the planks can be smooth or perforated, there are also combined options. From these panels, you cut parts to the required length, and do not forget to make them a few millimeters shorter than the distance that is actually between the profiles. This is necessary so that the soffits can change their dimensions without any problems in the event of temperature changes.
Wooden planks are attached to the wind board or the wall of the facade. Finishing profiles are already attached to them, and between them - soffit panels. Depending on the recommendations of the manufacturer of the soffit panels, the profiles are fixed with a step distance of 30 to 50 cm.
2. Honeycomb PVC panels. These are PVC profiles with a thickness of about 8-10 mm. In appearance, they resemble rather boards or wooden panels. If you compare them with siding panels, they will turn out to be more solid and rigid. And at the same time, due to their internal structure in the form of honeycombs (cells), they are not very heavy. Panels of various widths are on sale, ranging from 10 to 30 cm. But the thickness of the panels is always the same and does not depend on the width. Many professionals like wide panels. It's simple - they are easier and faster to mount than narrower ones. The most common way of joining PVC honeycomb panels is on the groove-comb principle.
Caring for such panels is no different from caring for the previous type of panels. The installation process is also not much different, except that the honeycomb panels are fixed much more often - every 30 cm.
You can buy honeycomb panels in companies that specialize in the production of PVC facade elements.
3. Wooden board. The oldest way to protect eaves is to use natural wood planks. The production of hemming boards is carried out by those enterprises that produce joinery. For sheathing overhangs, pine, spruce, and larch wood is most often used. The thickness of the board can be from 20 to 25 mm, but the width and length are arbitrary, although it would be better if the length of the board does not exceed six meters. The ends of the board can be different - straight, profiled, for a cut or for a groove-comb.
Boards with straight ends are assembled end-to-end and there is no need to make ventilation holes in them - anyway, there will be gaps between the boards. But if the boards are overlapped or their ends are perforated, then let's not forget about the need to leave ventilation slots in this case, and then close them with nets.
Each hem board must be attached at the beginning and end. If they are very long, then the distance between the fasteners should not exceed 0.8 - 1 m.
Wood is a natural material and therefore requires protective measures. The wood of the boards must be dry and treated with special means of protection against mold, rotting, moisture. Before proceeding with the installation of wooden boards, they should be varnished or painted. It is better to use, of course, products with a water-repellent property. And yet, these measures are not able to prevent the process of natural destruction of wood. Because of this, such procedures must be repeated every five years.
4. Panels made of wood-polymer composite. This spotlight material is not as widespread as the rest. The material is made from hardwood and coniferous wood fibers, which are taken in a certain proportion. The wood pulp is dried and mixed with various resins. The mixture is then heated and passed through a press. Even in production, the front side of the manufactured panels is coated with acrylic paint, which provides them with additional protection.
Panels made of wood-polymer composite come out dense and, therefore, they can withstand the effects of moisture and sudden temperature changes on them. When processed, composite panels exhibit the properties of wood.
They produce such panels with a width of 115 mm and 155 mm. They are connected according to the groove-comb principle. The panels are fastened to profiles or beams, which are located at a distance of up to 80 cm. On the cuts, it will be better to paint the ends using acrylic paint. This will extend the service life of the spotlights.
5. Galvanized steel. This material is also used for filing eaves overhangs. For this purpose, flat sheets of steel intended for roofing are used. Galvanized steel can be of its natural color, or it can be additionally coated with a polymer coating of various colors. The basis of this coating is polyester.
For the construction of soffits, profiled or trapezoidal steel sheet is also used. In order for such sheets not to look very massive and heavy, the height of their waves should not exceed 2 cm. It will be better if you entrust the work of installing soffits made of galvanized steel to a roofer. For cutting and bending sheets, he has special tools (hacksaw for metal, vibration scissors). Places of steel cuts must first be covered with a primer, and only then painted. This will protect the steel from corrosion and the appearance of rust spots in the future.
6. Aluminum panels. Such panels are made of aluminum. Then they are coated with various kinds of protective films (polyamide, anodized, polyester, polyvinylidene fluoride). Soffits, which are mounted from such material, show themselves to be very resistant to the effects of atmospheric phenomena.
The surface of aluminum panels can be smooth or perforated. The panel is only 1.6 mm thick. Their width is 10, 15, 20, 30 cm, but the length has more options, but does not exceed six meters.
It is possible to purchase aluminum panels for soffits mainly in those companies that are engaged in the production of facade panels and suspended ceilings from aluminum.
Aluminum panels are fastened to mounting profiled rails made of galvanized steel. The distance between the fasteners should be no more than 100 cm. The panels are fastened along their entire length with a lock. For aluminum panels it is possible in the future to purchase additional corner profiles for finishing, external and internal corners.
When it comes to it, it means edged board or lining. What exactly to choose from depends on the size of the overhang and the steepness of the slopes.
The board option is less attractive. Firstly, the load on the rafter system increases. Secondly, the workpieces fit tightly, therefore, it is much more difficult to organize high-quality natural air circulation than when using lining. And another question - how to install ventilation grilles if the thickness of the cut products is significant (for example, "ten" or 15)?
Wood, along with its advantages, has many disadvantages. It absorbs moisture and therefore deforms. Including curls. This means that gaps will appear after a certain time. As a result, under the roof it will no longer be as warm and dry as immediately after the completion of the construction of the house. And if to this we add the likelihood of destruction of wood blanks by wood-boring insects, the need for regular updating of the appearance, then the advisability of such a filing raises some doubts.
As a continuation of the previous point. Choosing wooden samples for filing a roof, you need to be prepared for the fact that from time to time you will have to deal not only with their surface treatment with special / compositions and varnishes, but also with repairs. That is, by regular replacement of a rotted (destroyed) edged board or lining.
On sale there are other products (slab, sheet) made of wood - chipboard, OSV, FC, FSF and the like. All of them are classified according to many characteristics, and certain types are positioned by manufacturers as "particularly moisture resistant". No matter how high-quality such products are, we must not forget about some things. First, it will be mounted outside the building, “on the street”. Second, all samples are based on wood in one form or another (sawdust, fibers, shavings).
Therefore, everything that is indicated above fully applies to these materials. The third is the apparent savings, given the low cost of such products. Consider local conditions. How long such a filing will last, how often it will have to be serviced (repaired), how much time and money it will take - all these issues require careful analysis.
On a note! If this option is chosen for the design of overhangs, then you should correctly determine the scheme and installation technology. Such a factor as maintainability should not be neglected.
As a rule, they mean PVC and aluminum siding (all types of siding are described here). Wood does not count, as it has already been mentioned. There is a lot about the advantages of such samples of information - installation speed, maintainability, and so on. It is much more interesting what their disadvantages are if they are used as a filing of cornices.
The appearance of the overhangs is a matter of taste. What is the practical aspect of this design option?
Such sheets are more convenient to install, since their dimensions significantly exceed the dimensions of siding panels. All profiled products are based on rolled steel. The choice of options for the shape and parameters of the wave is significant, but for the outer coating it is small - either cheap "galvanizing", or sheets with a polymer protective layer.
The latter look much more beautiful, especially since the variety of colors allows you to choose the material for the cornices to match the walls and / or roof. One of the advantages of this design option for overhangs is the specificity of the installation of sheets - gaps are formed between them, which in most cases are sufficient for effective ventilation under the roof. Perhaps, the difficulty will arise only when working with samples that have a polymer coating - the work requires special care, since the protective layer is easily damaged.
As a first approximation - the same siding. But there is still a difference, since soffits are products specially designed for filing cornices. Their peculiarity is that, firstly, the panels differ in greater thickness (hence, strength). Secondly, even during the manufacturing process, perforations are applied to the soffits, so you don't have to do anything to organize ventilation - these holes are quite enough for the natural flow of air masses.
Thirdly, additives are introduced into the original polymer mass, which increase the resistance of the panels to UV rays. This means that the soffits sewn onto the cornices will not fade, at least as quickly as PVC siding.
Another plus - the kit includes everything you need for installation (strips, fasteners). The use of spotlights will greatly simplify the work and save time that would have to be spent on searching and purchasing various additional elements.
The fastening features of each type of product are different. It is logical to give only examples of the most common schemes for filing roof eaves.
The author believes that the information is more than comprehensive. The decision is yours, dear reader. The main thing is to choose the best option in accordance with local conditions.
Today, in the process of erecting low-rise buildings, three main approaches are used to the issue of the correct design of the gable of a house. Perhaps the main difference lies in the method of erecting and tying the gable vertical walls to the rafters and the roof frame.
For compact one-story buildings, as a rule, pediment elements are produced simultaneously with rafter assemblies according to a single template, which serves as a guarantee of the highest design accuracy. In this case, the installation of a gable roof is carried out, starting with the installation of gables, ridge beams, and only at the next stage rafter pairs and struts are exposed. Due to this, it is much easier to assemble the pediment of the building.
For large buildings, differing in the significant dimensions of the roof slopes, the filing of the gables is performed after the rafters, lathing and all the structural parts of the frame are installed. The more complex the roof structure, the later the gable elements are constructed.
For small one-story houses, gable elements are performed simultaneously with rafter assemblies
Brick buildings can be erected according to the combined scheme. If the plane of the pediment is planned to be closed with aerated concrete or brickwork, it is built until the rafter system is organized.
Note! The pre-designed gables, although they greatly facilitate the process of erecting the rafter frame in the event of a strong wind, suggest a rather careful adjustment of the dimensions so that gaps do not form between the masonry and the overhangs due to the mismatch in the dimensions of the beams.
Perhaps the simplest method for assembling the pediment is to organize the frame structure of the lathing from wooden planks or beams, laying insulation, a waterproofing layer, and also filing the pediment with plastic siding or clapboard. It is worth noting that the process of laying insulation on the gable of a building is in many ways similar to the procedure for insulating a roof.
In addition to such common siding, other finishes are also popular. The most modern solutions include:
The term "plastic" often refers to panels made of polyvinyl chloride that are specifically designed for outdoor use. Unlike products used indoors, the presented material is able to withstand significant temperature fluctuations and exposure to ultraviolet radiation well.
In the process of making gables from corrugated board, thin metal sheets with grooves and ridges are used. They are covered with a layer of zinc or a polymer that protects the material from moisture and other destructive factors.
Note! The metal profile is an excellent option for arranging the facades of buildings. But if, in the case of roof finishing, the profiled sheets look really worthy, then this cannot be said about the pediments.
Modern options for plating the pediment include: plastic, profiled sheet, block house and lining
As for the block house finishing, plastic lamellas and metal profiled sheets can be replaced with natural wood. In particular, a wooden pediment will look great on buildings erected from rounded logs, beams or made in accordance with frame technology.
It should be borne in mind that wood does not tolerate moisture and direct ultraviolet rays. In this regard, you will have to take care of protecting such a finish. In this case, you will need to purchase varnish, paint, water-repellent impregnations or other similar substances.
In addition, the options presented, in comparison with siding gables, are characterized by a much shorter service life. This is due to the need for constant renewal of paint or varnish, which reduces the service life of the material. Thus, finishing with a block house can be given preference in the event that it is required by the chosen option for decorating the facade of the building.
When deciding on the use of siding, the question inevitably arises of how to sew up the pediment using this technology. So, the guide to the organization of finishing involves the following steps:
Before sheathing the pediment with siding, it is necessary to install the frame and insulate the structure
The final stage of the siding of the pediment is the cladding of the frame. To do this, you have to install the first strip in the guides that are formed by the fittings, and then fix it to the profile through special holes.
The beautiful pediment is the hallmark of any home. Guided by the basic rules and recommendations for its self-production, as well as inspired by photographs of ready-made solutions, you can give the structure originality and a truly unique appearance.