The cycle of nutrients and the mechanical composition of the soil


Read the previous part. ← Soil structure: five basic layers

How does the soil live and why is it degrading. Part 2

You can quickly build a house, a bathhouse, a playground, a household block, but it is impossible to make a garden, lawn, flower garden, greenhouse plants or vegetable garden grow quickly.

For this need good soil, and it will take a long and hard work to cook it, domesticate it and curb its degradation.

The secrets of soil preparation for each plot, greenhouse, vegetable, garden plot, lawn or flower garden are their own, they differ significantly from each other. We will consider the processes of domestication or degradation separately for each zone in the coming articles.



Vegetable garden

There is no need to make beds for each vegetable, they do not need any beds, they do not require a border and fencing. This grower needs walkways.

Vegetables do not tolerate soil compaction in and around the garden bed, therefore, special paths do not need to be done, only temporary passes are needed, for example, in the form of paving slabs, which are rarely laid, boards, under which the soil itself will loosen with the help of earthworms. Curbs, fencing and other devices that are arranged as design elements can be made in the areas of the flower garden, lawn, since environmentally friendly food products are not grown there.

The theoretical basis for working on a vegetable plot is the cycle of nutrients in nature, which is embodied by compiling a balance of nutrients. With a negative balance, the loss of nutrients from the soil predominates, which leads to a decrease in fertility and soil degradation.

The expenditure part of the balance includes soil losses of nutrients in the process of plant nutrition, plus leaching of nutrients by rains, plus volatilization of elements into the atmosphere in a gaseous form, plus absorption of elements by animals and soil microorganisms in the process of their vital activity, plus unwanted fixation of elements by chemically clay minerals and one and a half oxides. The sum of all losses is usually 60-70% and more of all reserves of nutrients in the soil for the season. If you do not return these losses to the soil, then it will lose its strength within 2-3 years.

The incoming part of the balance of elements usually consists of root and stubble residues of plants after harvesting, dead microorganisms, insects and other inhabitants of the soil, as well as elements coming from the atmosphere in a gaseous form and in the form of a solution with atmospheric precipitation. The amount of elements in the income part of the balance is small, about 30-40% of the amount of losses.

The balance turns out to be negative, the non-return of elements is 30-40%, as a result of this, the soil loses its fertility and degrades. Biological processes are dying out, yields are falling sharply, as a result, summer cottages cannot please the gardener, and often the soil is thrown, overgrown with weeds, swamped, the podzolic horizon grows, the arable layer disappears.

It is possible to revive such soil, but this will require twice as much time, effort and financial resources. Therefore, it is necessary to maintain a positive balance of nutrients in the vegetable plot, for this it will be necessary to apply annually organic and mineral fertilizers in such volumes that allow for a positive balance of nutrients.

To do this, you need to annually introduce 5-8 kg of manure, 100 g of nitrophoska, 200 g of dolomite flour and 0.2 g of boric, copper, molybdenum, cobalt micronutrient fertilizers for each square meter of the vegetable plot. Only on fertilized soils, with a positive balance of nutrients, it is possible to obtain environmentally friendly vegetable products.



Nutrition balance

Nutrient balances are compiled for each element separately. The first and most important is the balance of organic matter in the soil. Content humic substances in our soils it is low and approximately equal to 2%. Organic matter comes to the soil as a result of the death of plants growing on it in the fall, but this is not enough to maintain a positive balance. In this case, the humus content will drop to 1% and below.

The physical properties of the soil will deteriorate sharply, the soil will be more difficult to cultivate, it will lose its structure, it will crumble poorly during cultivation, and it will become blocky. Come to the rescue organic fertilizers... They need to be applied at 5-8 kg / m2to maintain a positive humus balance.

The leading role of organic matter in agriculture and plant growing will increase even more in connection with the intensification of degradation processes in the soil cover, which are a consequence of the primitive management of dacha farming. But organic matter is not alone in determining soil fertility. For him, indicators are also important content of mineral nutrients... And balances are calculated for them too. And without making mineral fertilizers these balances turn out to be negative. Thus, for cultural vegetable growing, the combined application of organic and mineral fertilizers is a necessary and decisive condition.

In the life of society, soil is the property of the nation and the source of all wealth on earth. Soils intended for agricultural use MUST (!!!) be protected by law, they must be protected and their fertility increased. However, in the modern world, the opposite is happening. The concept of soil disappears and is replaced by the concept of a land plot, huge areas are withdrawn from agricultural use, measures to increase fertility are replaced by "CARE OF ECOLOGY". Growing high yields of plants and improving the quality of products is considered optional, there is an unfair passion for "biological, organic, ecological or other fashionable" farming.

All the countries of Western Europe, as a result of intensive agriculture, the use of high doses of organic and mineral fertilizers (doses 5-8 times higher than ours) have reached the level of complete self-sufficiency of the countries with their food. They have not tried and are not trying now to upset the balance of nutrients, the law of scientific agriculture.

The mechanical composition of the soil and types of soils

A few words about the mechanical composition of the soil. Balance is also needed here. Soils differ greatly from each other in texture, i.e. in composition and particle size. Knowledge of the mechanical composition of the soil to a certain extent makes it possible to characterize the properties of the soil and its fertility.

According to the particle diameter (in mm), the following fractions are distinguished: stones - more than 3, gravel - 3-1, sand - 1-0.05, dust - 0.05-0.001, silt - 0.001-0.00001 and colloidal particles - less 0.0001 mm. If large stones and gravel predominate in the soil, then this soil is poorly cultivated, highly compacted, little fertile, it contains many toxic compounds, from such soil in summer there are strong losses of water and nitrogen in the process of unwanted denitrification of nitrogen.

The more silty and colloidal fractions in the soil, the more fertile it is, since in these fractions, due to the absorption of the colloidal fraction, the main nutrients necessary for plants are accumulated. Along with the marked names of the particles, other generalized designations are also adopted. Particles larger than 0.01 mm are called physical sand, and particles smaller than 0.01 mm are called clayey. By the content of clay particles soils are subdivided into clay (containing up to 80% clay), loamy (30-40%), sandy loam (10-20%) and sandy (5-10% clay).

The best soils are loamy and sandy loam. Loamy soils, due to clay particles, have a large absorption surface and a high absorption capacity, that is, the ability to retain a lot of moisture and nutrients introduced with fertilizers. Clay soils are prone to waterlogging, and with an excess of moisture, the air regime is disturbed, and anaerobic processes will prevail in the soil, in which mineral substances are converted into forms inaccessible to the plant, and sometimes into toxic forms. The crop yield in these cases is of poor quality. Sandy soils, due to leaching, lose a lot of nutrients and need to be domesticated.

To improve the mechanical composition of the soil, such techniques are used as sanding (application of 80-100 kg / m2 sand), clay (100-150 kg / m2 clay), sowing green manure crops, the introduction of organic fertilizers, which significantly loosen the soil.

Directly on the vegetable plot, the mechanical composition of the soil is determined as follows. If a cord can be rolled up from wet soil and wrapped in a ring, then such soil is considered clayey; and if it is possible to roll the cord, but it breaks when rolled into a ring, then the soil is called loamy; if the cord cannot be rolled up, but it is easy to roll the ball, then the soil is sandy loam; if the ball cannot be rolled, as it crumbles, the soil is sandy.

Cycle of batteries

The mechanical composition of the soil significantly affects its fertility. Most often, the amount of nutrients decreases from heavy to light soils in texture. On light soils, nutrients are washed out faster with precipitation. But in sandy soils, the water-air regime is better (more oxygen), therefore, aerobic processes prevail in them, providing plants with available nutrients.

However, sandy soils are less absorbent, organic and mineral substances in them are quickly mineralized and easily washed out with precipitation, so the soils are depleted faster, and plants on them often starve and develop poorly. Caring for such soils is very different from clay soils. Fertilizers are applied to them in smaller doses, but more often, so that the total amount of applied fertilizers is sufficient for optimal growth and development of plants.

Organic fertilizers on light soils mineralize faster than on heavy ones, so they need to be applied more often in spring. In addition, the effect of organic fertilizers on light soils is short-lived, only 2-3 years, while on clay soils - up to 6-8 years. Therefore, sandy soils require more frequent application of organic fertilizers.

Optimal agrochemical properties of the soil are created by good processing, in which the oxygen content in the soil air increases, and the negative effect of increased CO concentrations2 in the soil on plants does not appear.

Gardeners ask: is it possible to maintain a cycle and a positive balance by applying only organic (for example, in organic farming) or some mineral fertilizers? No, you can't, they should be used together, because they complement each other.

Organic fertilizers are used to replenish the reserves of soil organic matter, humus and supply energy to the soil biota. When solving the issue: what and how to contribute? - first of all, you need to apply organic fertilizers. The humus formed from organic fertilizers helps to preserve nutrients in the soil, it absorbs and retains elements from mineral fertilizers.

But, on the other hand, manure has its drawbacks: it is an inferior fertilizer, because it is animal waste. The animals have already taken the necessary elements, it is low in phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and trace elements. Therefore, they need to be given with mineral fertilizers and thereby correct the deficiencies of manure and replenish reserves in the soil, because not enough mineral food is introduced with the manure.

It is to maintain the cycle of nutrients that organic and mineral fertilizers must be used together.

Read the next part. Soil degradation →

Gennady Vasyaev, assistant professor,
ch. specialist of the North-West Regional Scientific Center of the Russian Agricultural Academy

Olga Vasyaeva, amateur gardener


The carbon cycle

ASDNR rescue and other urgent work

AOKhV emergency hazardous chemicals

ASF rescue team

BZ life safety

BZ life safety

BO bacteriological (biological) weapons

BS bacterial agents

BSMP brigade of specialized medical care

BTXV combat toxic chemicals

VSMK All-Russian Service of Disaster Medicine

GPZ citizens in stock

DDS Duty Dispatch Service

AI ionizing radiation

Emergency Situations Committee and Fire Safety Commission

MPI medical and prophylactic institution

MSGD Civil Defense Medical Service

MSIZ medical personal protective equipment

MES health care

Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Russian Federation Ministry of the Russian Federation for Civil Defense,

emergencies and disaster relief

NASF contingency rescue teams

NMS GO head of the medical service of GO

OBZ focus of bacteriological infection

OIV executive authorities

OIV executive authorities

OKP center of combined lesion

WMD weapons of mass destruction

OND non-lethal weapon

ONKh object of the national economy

OPM first aid squad

OCP focus of chemical damage

PVP first medical aid

MPC maximum permissible concentration

PMP first aid

PPE intermediate evacuation point

PRU anti-radiation shelter

PSO search and rescue squad

PSS search and rescue service

PEC admission evacuation committee

PEP receiving evacuation point

RV radioactive substances

RSChS Unified State Emergency Prevention and Response System

REW dispersal and evacuation of the population

PPE personal protective equipment

SOP sanitary-washing point

SSP modern means of destruction

Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance

BOT prefabricated evacuation point

FVU filtering unit

Federal executive authorities federal executive bodies

TsGSEN Center for State Sanitary and Epidemiological Surveillance

TsUKS Crisis Management Center

EC evacuation commission

Section 1. Basic concepts of ecological chemistry.

Environmental chemistryIs a science that studies the processes that determine the composition, structure and chemical properties of the environment, adequate to the biological value of the habitat. The tasks that environmental chemistry solves include the compilation of equations of chemical reactions that determine the thermodynamic possibilities of the course of this process, the establishment of the kinetic conditions of the reaction, the presence of competing processes and other characteristics.

Concept biosphereas a habitat of living organisms or a sphere was formulated by the Austrian scientist E. Suess in 1878. Later, Academician V.I. Vernadsky defined the biosphere as a planetary environment in which living matter is distributed. The biosphere is not only the outer shell of the Earth, enveloped in life, but also the structures organized by it. Living matter is capable of profoundly changing the original nature of the planet; life adapts its habitat.

For a long time, the ecological development was harmonious, but over the past decades, the volumes of pollutants emitted into the atmosphere, water and soil have increased manifold. As you know, photochemical processes take place in the atmosphere, with the help of which pollutants are processed and the disturbed balance is restored. But an increase in anthropogenic load is capable of disrupting the natural processes of restoring the balance in the atmosphere.These and other reasons served as the need to create a new branch of chemistry dealing with the negative consequences of environmental pollution.

Ecosystemsas a set of communities interacting with chemical and physical factors that create the environment, they are generally classified into natural (meadow, forest, lake, desert, steppe, and so on) and artificial (city, aquarium, greenhouse, spaceship, and others). Structural classification:

a) terrestrial (steppe, tundra, etc.)

b) freshwater (river, lake, etc.)

c) sea (ocean, strait, etc.) and others.

Classification of ecosystems by energy sources:

a) natural, sun-driven and not subsidized (forests, oceans, etc.)

b) natural, driven by the sun and subsidized by other natural sources (continental waters, some rain forests, etc.)

c) driven by the sun and subsidized by humans (agroecosystem, aquarium, etc.)

d) driven by fuel (city, suburb, etc.), are dependent on the first three systems.

Environment - these are natural bodies and phenomena with which living organisms are in direct or indirect relations.



Environmental factors -these are environmental conditions that can have a direct or indirect effect on living organisms. Environmental factors are classified according to different criteria, one of which is distinguished:

a) abiotic (factors of inanimate nature): light, temperature, moisture, pressure, etc. - these are climatic factors, density, moisture capacity, mechanical composition, etc. - these are soil factors, relief, slope height, etc. - orographic and so on

b) biotic (factors of living nature): phytogenic - plant organisms, zoogenic - animal organisms, microbiogenic - bacteria, viruses, etc. anthropogenic - human activity.

Another classification is based on the fact that the adaptive reactions of organisms to environmental factors are determined by the degree of constancy of these factors:

a) primary factors (temperature, light, etc.), depending on the periodicity of the Earth's rotation

b) secondary (moisture, precipitation, intraspecific interactions, etc.), depending on the primary

c) non-periodic factors (interaction between species, anthropogenic impact, etc.) do not have periodicity.

The impact of the chemical component of the abiotic factor on living organisms is expressed in the existence of upper and lower boundaries of the amplitude of its oscillations. The wider the limits of the factor, the higher the stability (tolerance) of a given organism. For example, an element whose concentration is at a minimum is a limiting factor in plant development. This is the so-called minimum law J. Liebig (1840), applicable for stationary states.

Environmental factors can affect living organisms in different ways. impact,depending on the type of exposure, there are:

1) stimuli that cause adaptive changes in physiological and biochemical functions (for example, sweating increases with an increase in temperature)

2) constraints that determine the impossibility of existence in these conditions (for example, lack of moisture)

3) modifiers that cause morphological and anatomical changes in organisms (for example, in dusty cities, the color of the wings of certain species of butterflies changes)

4) signals indicating changes in other environmental factors.

The nature of the impact factors on the body obeys a number of patterns:

- The law of the optimum - the positive or negative influence of a factor on the body depends on the strength of its influence.

- Ambiguity of the effect of the factor on different functions.

- Interaction of factors (for example, heat is more easily tolerated in dry air).

- The impact of the chemical component of the abiotic factor on living organisms (for example, water and its composition).

- Influence of pH on the survival of aquatic organisms.

- Aerobic and anaerobic organisms (aerobic organisms exist only in the presence of oxygen, anaerobic organisms can live without free oxygen).

- Dependence on the concentration of minerals in the environment, as well as a number of other regularities.

Chemical eco-regulatorsthrough which living organisms influence the environment through the mutually intersecting action of various molecules. The classification of types of the body's chemical action on the environment was compiled by M. Barbier in 1978, some examples are given below:

a) substances participating in interspecies (allelochemical) interactions - antidotes, deterrent and warning substances, etc.

b) substances participating in intraspecific interactions - pheromones, autotoxins, etc.

Section 2. Anthropogenic circulation of substances. Resource cycle.

Human activity actively influences the processes of circulation of all chemical elements not only locally, but also at the level of the biosphere. The processes of anthropogenic transformation of matter are carried out within the framework of global biogeochemical cycles, which a person cannot change globally, but can upset the balance in a certain territory or at certain stages.

A person extracts resources, processes, produces energy and objects from them, thus, resources are involved in the resource cycle. Resource cycle Is a set of transformations and movements of a certain substance or their groups at all stages of its use by a person. This cycle is not closed, since the used substances are not returned to the places of their seizure.

At each stage of the cycle, losses are inevitable, by-products are formed, damage to the environment is caused, that is, natural resources pollute the environment. For example, in the production of fertilizers, the mass of waste is many times greater than the mass of the fertilizers themselves. A large amount of production waste is generated during metal smelting. The resulting waste enters the atmosphere, water bodies, soil.

Living organisms form the so-called biogenic elements - C, N, H, O, P, S. In addition, the presence of many other elements is necessary, some of which are metals. Such elements by mass fraction in the body are divided into macro (K, Ca, Mg, Na) and micro (Fe, B, Zn, Cu, Mn, Mo, Co, Cl and others). (A more complete classification of nutrients is presented in the appendix).

The main source of nutrients on land is the soil formed during the destruction of parent rocks. Plants extract elements from the soil and accumulate them, further along the food chains they enter animal organisms. The mineralization of dead organisms returns elements to the soil, some of them are transferred to the atmosphere and water bodies. Leaching degrades soil colloids, and deforestation in the soil rapidly decreases the supply of minerals. The cycle of mineral cations is accompanied by cycles of nitrogen and carbon.

The cycle of chemical elements (or substances) from an inorganic environment through plant and animal organisms back to an inorganic environment using solar energy or the energy of chemical reactions is calledbiogeochemical cycle.

The main cycles include biogeochemical cycles of carbon, water, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, biogenic cations. Consider the cycle of such essential elements as carbon and nitrogen.

The carbon cycle

The biotic carbon cycle is part of a large cycle in connection with the vital activity of organisms. Carbon dioxide (CO2), located in the atmosphere (23.5 10 11 tons) or in a dissolved state in water, serves as a raw material for plant photosynthesis and the conversion of carbon into organic matter. In the process of photosynthesis, carbohydrates are formed, which are food for animals and land plants.

During respiration of organisms, CO2 returns to the atmosphere. Some of the carbon accumulates in the form of dead organics and turns into a fossil state. When death occurs, saprophages and bioreducents of two types decompose and mineralize corpses, forming food chains, at the end of which carbon often enters the cycle in the form of carbon dioxide ("soil respiration"). Saprophagous animals and saprophic microorganisms inhabiting the soil convert the residues accumulated in it into a new formation of organic matter, a more or less powerful layer of brown or black mass - humus.

Due to lack of air or high acidity, the chain can be incomplete or short, in which case organic residues accumulate in the form of peat. In some bogs, the peat layer reaches a thickness of 20 m or more. Here the natural (biological) circulation stops. Deposits of coal or peat are a product of the processes of photosynthesis of plants of past geological periods.

Most of the carbon of the biosphere is accumulated in the carbonate sediments of the ocean floor (limestones and corals): 1.3 · 10 16 tons, crystalline rocks - 1.0 · 10 16 tons, in coal and oil - 3.4 · 10 15 tons. this carbon takes part in the slow geological cycle. Life on Earth and the gas balance of the atmosphere are supported by the amount of carbon contained in plant (5 · 10 11 t) and animal (5 · 10 9 t) tissues. However, at present, a person is intensively closing the cycle of substances, including carbon.

Solar energy stored in fossil fuels is actively released when the fuel is burned, and carbon dioxide is released into the atmosphere. The release of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere as a result of the combustion of energy carriers leads to global disruptions in the biosphere - disruption of the heat balance. It is assumed that by the middle of the 21st century, the content of CO2 in the atmosphere will double. CO accumulation2 in the atmosphere around the world is now associated with the so-called "greenhouse effect" (this is also facilitated by the accumulation of CH4, СFCl2, N2ABOUT). Carbon dioxide does not absorb the visible and near UV regions of solar radiation, and on the other hand, the infrared radiation of the Earth is absorbed by CO2 in the atmosphere, is not allowed into space. About half of all "anthropogenic" CO is retained in the atmosphere.2, the rest is absorbed by the World Ocean. Ecosystems (terrestrial) are believed to assimilate about 12% CO2, the total time of its transfer is 8 years.

The retention of heat near the surface of the Earth is a very important process for maintaining life on Earth. But the prospects for a rapid rise in temperature are very dangerous, as they will lead to an increase in the level of the World Ocean. Many climatologists consider the prolonged heat of 1988 in the Northern Hemisphere as a consequence of the "greenhouse effect".

Date Added: 2014-11-13 Views: 17 Copyright Infringement


The degree of acidity of different types of soils

For the normal development of plants, the reaction of the soil solution is of great importance. According to the level of acidity, soils are divided into:

  • Strongly acidic. These include swamps and low-lying peatlands,
  • Sour. Most often these are soils under coniferous crops, clay-sod and peat bogs,
  • Weakly acidic. Sod and heather lands,
  • Neutral. The main soils for growing garden crops: sod, humus, deciduous, all types of chernozems and others.
  • Alkaline and strongly alkaline. These include calcareous soils with a high content of calcium and its compounds.

In addition to the above gradation, there are also saline soils.

The vast majority of plants grow and develop well, form a full-fledged crop on neutral soils. On slightly alkaline and slightly acidic soils, garden crops can be grown, but the oppression of plants requiring neutral acidity will be noticeable.


How soil is distinguished by its mechanical composition

The mechanical composition of the soil
The conditions for the growth of vegetables are strongly influenced by the mechanical composition of the soil. The physical properties of the soil, its fertility and quality are constantly changing.
Sandy soils are light and easily podzolized. They consist of many sandy particles with a small amount of clay admixture. In such soils, water seeps quickly. Sandy soils contain few nutrients, quickly heat up and cool down. Their advantage is easy handling. Plants on such soils do not have enough water and nutrients, which are quickly washed out.
Loamy soils are able to accumulate water and nutrients. Depending on the content of the sand, they are loose, fat and heavy.
Clay soils are heavy and dense in structure. They are damp and waterproof. In them, the roots hardly find their way and penetrate shallowly. With drought, the soil becomes hard. Clay soil is fertile, but it is necessary to constantly monitor its structure, especially the introduction of sand (40 kg / m2).
Swampy soils. Upper boggy soils are moist and acidic. They are improved by adding compost, lime and organic fertilizers. Lowland bog soils contain calcium, they are less acidic.
Land mixtures. Seedlings and potted plants are grown in specially formulated nutrient mixtures. An artificially created soil mixture must contain a sufficient amount of nutrients in an easily digestible form, it must be good for air and water, and also have a certain acidity. For most flowering plants, a weakly acidic or neutral reaction of the soil mixture is optimal. For their preparation, the following components are used, taken in various ratios.
The mechanical composition of the soil can be determined organoleptically.

Scale for determining the mechanical composition of the soil

Soil type
Raw
when rolling
when squeezed
Loose sands
The ball cannot be rolled up; when rubbed, no clay particles remain on the palm

Coherent sands
The same, but dusty clay particles remain on the palm

Sandy loam
The cord cannot be rolled up, the ball can be
Ball with light pressure - crumbles
Loam
A long cord cannot be rolled up: it breaks and crumbles
The ball turns into a cake with cracks at the edges
Clays
A long thin cord is formed
The same, but no cracks at the edges


How to quickly improve the soil on the site

After you have figured out what type of soil prevails on your site, it's time to get to work to improve it. A rare summer resident can boast of the ideal condition of the soil. But if you want to get good yields, then you need to start with the soil.

The clay soil on the site brings a lot of trouble. But do not rush to get rid of the desired dacha. Use proven methods to improve the soil!

Method 1

A universal remedy is the introduction of organic matter. It is she who "reloads" the state of the soil and saturates it with beneficial bacteria. For 1 square meter of beds, 2 buckets of rotted manure or 1 bucket of sawdust are enough.

In order not to deprive plants of nitrogen, which will be consumed by bacteria, be sure to soak the sawdust in urea (50 g per bucket). You can also use humus, compost, wood chips, shredded bark, etc.

It is better not to dig up clay soil, but to loosen it. After such a procedure, air exchange is restored, the soil absorbs water well, and the weed sprouts die.

Method 2

It is also worth liming the clay soil. It is better to do this every 3-4 years in the fall, after the end of summer cottage work. For 1 square meter, from 250 to 600 g or more of ground limestone is required, depending on the acidity of the soil.

Method 3

Do-it-yourself drainage of the site gives a good effect; trenches are dug on clay soil for this. This method is necessary if the soil is oversaturated with moisture and cannot dry out in any way.


If the land is completely depleted, you can remove the soil layer on the site and fill it with fresh black soil. After that, fertilize the soil annually before planting, maintain the nutrient balance and monitor the acidity.

Apply enough fertilizer to improve sandy soil. For 1 square meter - 7 kg of manure or compost, you can also add peat.Siderates give an excellent effect - plant oats, rye, clover on the beds, and then mow and seal to a depth of 5-7 cm. Clay powder will also help to restore the soil: 2 buckets per 1 sq. M.

The appearance of earthworms in the soil will be a good sign. This means that you did everything right!


How to improve the soil

As an ameliorant (improver) of acidic soils, lime is mainly used, which is introduced in the fall before digging (plowing).

The purpose of liming is to change the reaction in the arable layer to slightly acidic (pH or close to neutral (pH which are optimal for the growth and development of most crops. This improves the structure, water-air regime. Therefore, the nutrients contained in the humus and introduced with fertilizers.

When determining the dose of lime required to neutralize acidity, take into account the pH value and the mechanical composition of the soil (table).

Lime materials must be well crushed to ensure good contact with the soil and optimum acid neutralization response. Lime is evenly scattered over the site, after which it is dug deeply. The dose of lime for sandy and sandy loam soil is 10 m 2, the validity period is two years.

Large doses should not be applied, this can adversely affect the plants. The dose of lime required for clay and loamy soils can reach and even 14.5 kg and act

You can not get carried away with high doses of lime, because the soil can be made alkaline and thus converted into an accessible form of molybdenum, which in high doses is harmful to plants.

In addition to lime, you can add other materials that are close to it in quality and properties.

Limestone, or lime flour (grinding of hard limestones), contains up to 88% lime (calcium carbonate). It is used on all soils for various crops. The action is slow.

Dolomitized limestone (grinding of dolomite and dolomitized limestones) contains an active ingredient. In addition to calcium carbonate, it contains magnesium carbonate. Recommended for use on sandy and sandy loam soils poor in magnesium. Its application is effective in areas designated for potatoes and legumes. Compared to limestone, it acts more slowly.

Dolomite flour (extracted from natural loose deposits) contains up to 56% of calcium carbonate and up to 42% of magnesium carbonate. Acts somewhat slower than limestone. The application is the same as for dolomitized limestone.

Chalk (grinding dense chalk) contains calcium carbonate. Works faster than limestone.

Marl (soft limestone material from natural deposits) contains at least 50% calcium carbonate, sometimes with an admixture of magnesium. Acts slowly. Effective on light soils.

Burnt quicklime. It is obtained by burning solid limestones. Before adding lump lime is quenched with water and fluff lime is obtained. Ground burnt lime is applied directly to the soil.

Slaked lime. It is extinguished with water or by covering with moist soil. Strong and fast acting lime fertilizer. Its application is effective on heavy soils. Not recommended for use on sandy and sandy loam, poor in organic matter soils.

Lime tuff extracted from natural deposits, contains at least calcium carbonate. Acts in much the same way as limestone.

Drywall (lake lime) contains at least 60% calcium carbonate. Acts faster than calcareous tuff.

In addition to these basic lime materials, various industrial wastes containing calcium carbonate, calcium and magnesium oxide are widely used: defecation mud (waste from beet sugar factories), shale ash, cement dust, peat ash, various slags, carbide lime, etc.

Before adding industrial waste to the soil, you need to check it for the presence of heavy metals, carcinogens, radionuclides and other toxicants.

Recommended doses of lime (kg) for soil depending on the pH of the salt extract
Soil composition salt extract pH *
below 4.0 4,1 — 4,5 4,6 — 5,1 5,2 — 5,5
Sandy 4,5 3,0 — 4,0 1,5 — 2,5 1.0 — 1,5
Sandy loam 7,0 3,5 — 5,5 2,0 — 3,0 1.5 — 2.0
Light loamy 8,0 4,5 — 6,5 3.0 — 4,0 2,5 — 3.0
Medium loamy 9.0 5,5 — 8,0 4.0 — 5.0 3.5 — 4,0
Heavy loamy 10,5 6,5 — 9,5 5,0 — 6,0 4.5 — 5,0
Clayey 14,5 7,0 — 10.5 5,5 — 6,5 5,0 — 5,5

* When determining the pH in a water extract, the dose of lime application should be increased by 10m 2


On areas located on slopes or flooded in spring by melt water, the soil does not need to be dug up in the fall.

After all, streams of spring water can either partially wash out, or almost completely carry away the loose fertile layer from the site. Better to let the garden remain untouched than to lose precious land.

In autumn, areas without slopes are dug up and organic fertilizers and superphosphate are applied, which dissolves very slowly. Lumps of soil, even large ones, do not break. This will help get rid of some of the pests that will freeze over the winter.

ON A NOTE

The annual intensive tillage of the plots degrades the soil.

Gardeners call this land plowed.

It contains little humus, nutrients, and is often overconsolidated (in a dry state, it is difficult to dig with a shovel).

Such soil needs increased doses of organic matter: composts - up to 500 kg per one hundred square meters, various types of manure - up to 200 kg per one hundred square meters, plant residues - up to 100 kg per one hundred square meters.


  • Gaseous nitrogen is used for well development. With its help, the water level in the wells is reduced. This method is very promising, it is characterized by reliability, as well as the simplicity of control and regulation of the process in a wide range of pressures and flow rates. With the help of gaseous nitrogen, deep wells are emptied quickly, a quick and sharp, or slow and smooth decrease in pressure in the well. Nitrogen provides drainage of the formation and replenishment of compressed gas, which is necessary for the flow of liquid.
  • Nitrogen is used to create an inert environment in various containers during unloading and loading operations. Nitrogen is also used to extinguish fires, during testing and pipeline purging.
  • Pure nitrogen is used for the synthesis of ammonia, in the production of nitrogen-type fertilizers, as well as in the processing of associated gases and the conversion of methane.
  • Nitrogen is used to reduce deposits in oil refineries, to process high octane components to increase the productivity of oil cracking plants.
  • Nitrogen possesses inert properties, due to which it is possible to displace oxygen and prevent the oxidation reaction. Combustion is essentially a rapid oxidation, due to the presence of oxygen in the atmosphere and a source of combustion, which can be a spark, an electric arc, or simply a chemical reaction with a large amount of heat generated. By using nitrogen, this situation can be avoided. If the concentration of nitrogen in the environment is 90%, then the ignition will not occur.
  • Both stationary nitrogen plants and mobile nitrogen generating plants can effectively prevent fires. With their help, the seat of fire can also be successfully extinguished.

Watch the video: Webinar: Soil Health, Soil Respiration and Nutrient Cycling


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